Greenhouse Gases
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2021 ◽  
Vol 53 ◽  
pp. 101704
Itzel Y. López-Pacheco ◽  
Laura Isabel Rodas-Zuluaga ◽  
Susana Fuentes-Tristan ◽  
Carlos Castillo-Zacarías ◽  
Juan Eduardo Sosa-Hernández ◽  

2021 ◽  
Zhiyuan Zheng ◽  
Wenjie Dong ◽  
Dongdong Yan ◽  
Yan Guo ◽  
Zhigang Wei ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (18) ◽  
pp. 13797-13809
Tao Tang ◽  
Drew Shindell ◽  
Yuqiang Zhang ◽  
Apostolos Voulgarakis ◽  
Jean-Francois Lamarque ◽  

Abstract. For the radiative impact of individual climate forcings, most previous studies focused on the global mean values at the top of the atmosphere (TOA), and less attention has been paid to surface processes, especially for black carbon (BC) aerosols. In this study, the surface radiative responses to five different forcing agents were analyzed by using idealized model simulations. Our analyses reveal that for greenhouse gases, solar irradiance, and scattering aerosols, the surface temperature changes are mainly dictated by the changes of surface radiative heating, but for BC, surface energy redistribution between different components plays a more crucial role. Globally, when a unit BC forcing is imposed at TOA, the net shortwave radiation at the surface decreases by -5.87±0.67 W m−2 (W m−2)−1 (averaged over global land without Antarctica), which is partially offset by increased downward longwave radiation (2.32±0.38 W m−2 (W m−2)−1 from the warmer atmosphere, causing a net decrease in the incoming downward surface radiation of -3.56±0.60 W m−2 (W m−2)−1. Despite a reduction in the downward radiation energy, the surface air temperature still increases by 0.25±0.08 K because of less efficient energy dissipation, manifested by reduced surface sensible (-2.88±0.43 W m−2 (W m−2)−1) and latent heat flux (-1.54±0.27 W m−2 (W m−2)−1), as well as a decrease in Bowen ratio (-0.20±0.07 (W m−2)−1). Such reductions of turbulent fluxes can be largely explained by enhanced air stability (0.07±0.02 K (W m−2)−1), measured as the difference of the potential temperature between 925 hPa and surface, and reduced surface wind speed (-0.05±0.01 m s−1 (W m−2)−1). The enhanced stability is due to the faster atmospheric warming relative to the surface, whereas the reduced wind speed can be partially explained by enhanced stability and reduced Equator-to-pole atmospheric temperature gradient. These rapid adjustments under BC forcing occur in the lower atmosphere and propagate downward to influence the surface energy redistribution and thus surface temperature response, which is not observed under greenhouse gases or scattering aerosols. Our study provides new insights into the impact of absorbing aerosols on surface energy balance and surface temperature response.

Ying CHEN ◽  

China is one of the parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and has been actively promoting the multilateral global climate governance process. China has advanced its eco-civilization construction and the agenda for combating climate change in a coordinated manner, and delivered positive results. By studying and interpreting the guiding principles of President Xi Jinping’s important speeches at the Leaders Summit on Climate and the video summit between China, France and Germany, this paper goes over the basic thinking of China’s participation in international climate governance and the Chinese approach to tackling global climate change, and sums up China’s achievements in the fields such as transition to green and low-carbon development, energy structure adjustment, greenhouse gases control, the construction of national carbon market, as well as its contribution to tackling global climate change.

2021 ◽  
pp. 002190962110439
Eromose E. Ebhuoma

As a result of South Africa recording its first COVID-19 index case in March 2020, the country imposed one of the strictest lockdowns globally. The lockdown unearthed vital lessons that climate practitioners both in South Africa – the largest emitter of greenhouse gases on the African continent – and globally can draw from to facilitate the achievement of the thirteenth Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 13). Drawing on secondary data analysis of media reports regarding South Africa’s strategy to tackle the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, with particular emphasis on the hard lockdown, three themes emerged. These were rephrased to align appropriately with the discourse on climate change (CC). These include changing the distant framing narrative of CC, prioritizing green growth and utilizing credible messengers. Each theme is discussed critically in terms of how it will aid climate policy developers and practitioners in facilitating the attainment of SDG 13.

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (3) ◽  
pp. 37-41
Mariusz Kastek ◽  
Krzysztof Firmanty ◽  
Benjamin Saute ◽  
Philippe Gagnon ◽  
Martin Lariviere-Bastien ◽  

Detection, identification, and quantification of greenhouse gases is essential to ensure compliance with regulatory guidelines and mitigate damage associated with anthropogenic climate change. Passive infrared hyperspectral imaging technology is among the solutions that can detect, identify and quantify multiple greenhouse gases simultaneously. The Telops Hyper-Cam Airborne Platform is an established system for aerial thermal infrared hyperspectral measurements for gas survey applications. In support of the Hypercam, is developing a suite of hyperspectral imaging data processing algorithms that allow for gas detection, identification, and quantification in real-time. In the Fall of 2020, the Hyper-Cam-LW Airborne platform was flown above a validated SF6 gas release system to collect hyperspectral data for gas quantification analysis. This measurement campaign was performed to document performance of the Hyper-Cam gas quantification capabilities against known quantities of released gas.

2021 ◽  
John Gallagher ◽  
Sophia Johannessen ◽  
Ke Zhang ◽  
Chee Hoe Chuan

Aquatic canopy ecosystems ability to mitigate greenhouse gases (GHG) is currently based on the rate of sedimentary organic carbon accumulation (CA) and the protection of vulnerable stocks from remineralisation. However, remineralisation of allochthonous inputs constrains CA as sequestration, assessments neglect remineralisation over climatic scales, and often fail to account for recalcitrant material. The article clarifies the meaning of stock and sequestration as mitigation services through their net ecosystem production (NEP) and addresses the concerns through a series of hypothetical evolving ecosystems. A diagenetic solution is proposed that accounts for continuous remineralisation of CA and the remineralised fraction of labile allochthonous inputs to estimate the NEP. The solution was applied and tested for a seagrass and mangrove ecosystem. Uncorrected and corrected average CA was greater than the cal. NEP values by a factor of two for the seagrass and 30 for the mangrove. Nevertheless, the NEP values fell within reported ranges i.e., 27.6 g C m-2 yr-1 (mangrove) and 7.2 g C m-2 yr-1 (seagrass). The overestimate was largely maintained after including vulnerable stocks in the total carbon accreditation calculus. However, with the inclusion of CA, the total average carbon mitigation rates converged to 1 124 (seagrass) and 1 783 g C m-2 yr-1 (mangroves), when argued, in some circumstances, as a vulnerable stock concept after hindcasting to their original time of annual deposition. Mitigation concepts and measurements require re-evaluation and will assure that carbon credits are not overvalued, which would otherwise permit GHG emissions above the capacity of the ecosystem.

2021 ◽  
Ingeborg Levin ◽  
Ute Karstens ◽  
Samuel Hammer ◽  
Julian DellaColetta ◽  
Fabian Maier ◽  

Abstract. Correlations of night-time atmospheric methane (CH4) and 222Radon (222Rn) observations in Heidelberg, Germany, were evaluated with the Radon Tracer Method (RTM) to estimate the trend of annual CH4 emissions from 1996–2020 in the catchment area of the station. After an initial 30 % decrease of emissions from 1996 to 2004, no further systematic trend but small inter-annual variations were observed thereafter. This is in accordance with the trend of emissions until 2010 reported by the EDGARv6.0 inventory for the surroundings of Heidelberg. We show that the reliability of total CH4 emission estimates with the RTM critically depends on the accuracy and representativeness of the 222Rn exhalation rate from soils in the catchment area of the site. Simply using 222Rn fluxes as estimated by Karstens et al. (2015) could lead to biases in the estimated greenhouse gases (GHG) fluxes as large as a factor of two. RTM-based GHG flux estimates also depend on the parameters chosen for the night-time correlations of CH4 and 222Rn, such as the night-time period for regressions as well as the R2 cut-off value for the goodness of the fit. Quantitative comparison of total RTM-based top-down with bottom-up emission inventories requires representative high-resolution footprint modelling, particularly in polluted areas where CH4 emissions show large heterogeneity. Even then, RTM-based estimates are likely biased low if point sources play a significant role in the station/observation footprint as their emissions are not captured by the RTM method. Long-term representative 222Rn flux observations in the catchment area of a station are indispensable in order to apply the RTM method for reliable quantitative flux estimations of GHG emissions from atmospheric observations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 05 (1) ◽  
pp. 25-38
Abdul Haleem Al Muhyi ◽  
Faez Aleedani

The effects of climate change differ from one region to another, as its effects are not the same in all regions of the world. The consequences differ from one region to another, according to its geographical location, or according to the ability of the region and its social and environmental systems to adapt to climate change or mitigate its effects. One of the most important factors of climate change is global warming. There are two major sources of global warming: natural and human. The human resource contributes by adding heat and greenhouse gases to the atmosphere because of the global use of fossil fuels, nuclear energy, burning of natural gas, coal, timber, and others. Natural gas flaring is one of the most important challenges facing energy sources and the environment globally and locally. In this study, light was shed on the flaring of natural gas in Basra Governorate and its impact on the environment and climate change. The results showed that burning natural gas in Basra contributes to changing the local climate by adding heat and greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, which led to an increase in the air temperature in the region. In recent years, it has reached (52 degrees Celsius), and it also affects air pollution by increasing concentrations of toxic gases in the atmosphere, and it is one reason for the increase in the number of cancer patients in Basra Governorate. And there was a strong positive correlation between increased gas burning and an increase in cancer cases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Danny Otto ◽  
Terese Thoni ◽  
Felix Wittstock ◽  
Silke Beck

The 2015 Paris Agreement specified that the goal of international climate policy is to strengthen the global response to climate change by restricting the average global warming this century to “well below” 2°C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit it to 1.5°C. In this context, “Negative Emissions Technologies” (NETs)—technologies that remove additional greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the atmosphere—are receiving greater political attention. They are introduced as a backstop method for achieving temperature targets. A focal point in the discussions on NETs are the emission and mitigation pathways assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Drawing on perspectives from Science & Technology Studies (STS) and discourse analysis, the paper explores the emergence of narratives about NETs and reconstructs how the treatment of NETs within IPCC assessments became politicized terrain of configuration for essentially conflicting interests concerning long-term developments in the post-Paris regime. NETs are—critics claim—not the silver bullet solution to finally fix the climate, they are a Trojan horse; serving to delay decarbonization efforts by offering apparent climate solutions that allow GHGs emissions to continue and foster misplaced hope in future GHG removal technologies. In order to explore the emerging controversies, we conduct a literature review to identify NETs narratives in the scientific literature. Based on this, we reevaluate expert interviews to reconstruct narratives emerging from German environmental non-governmental organizations (eNGOs). We find a spectrum of narratives on NETs in the literature review and the eNGO interviews. The most prominent stories within this spectrum frame NETs either as a moral hazard or as a matter of necessity to achieve temperature targets.

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