greenhouse gases
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2022 ◽  
David Finlay

The human caused rise in atmospheric greenhouse gases has been seen as the driver of both climate change and ocean acidification. However recent peer reviewed papers show that, while GHG emissions are part of the problem, the primary driver of both climate change and ocean acidification is human caused ecological degradation. Curbing greenhouse gas emissions, to date, has been an abject failure but addressing ecological degradation within the remaining time frame is safe and achievable.

2022 ◽  
Qing-Bin Lu

Abstract Time-series observations of global lower stratospheric temperature (GLST), global land surface air temperature (LSAT), global mean surface temperature (GMST), sea ice extent (SIE) and snow cover extent (SCE), together with observations reported in Paper I, combined with theoretical calculations of GLSTs and GMSTs, have provided strong evidence that ozone depletion and global climate changes are dominantly caused by human-made halogen-containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and greenhouse gases (GHGs) respectively. Both GLST and SCE have become constant since the mid-1990s and GMST/LSAT has reached a peak since the mid-2000s, while regional continued warmings at the Arctic coasts (particularly Russia and Alaska) in winter and spring and at some areas of Antarctica are observed and can be well explained by a sea-ice-loss warming amplification mechanism. The calculated GMSTs by the parameter-free warming theory of halogenated GHGs show an excellent agreement with the observed GMSTs after the natural El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) and volcanic effects are removed. These results provide a convincing mechanism of global climate change and will make profound changes in our understanding of atmospheric processes. This study also emphasizes the critical importance of continued international efforts in phasing out all anthropogenic halogenated ODSs and GHGs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 49-58
Grazielle Cristina de Araujo ◽  
Jair Antonio Cruz Siqueira ◽  
Loreci Zanardini ◽  
João Felipe Peixoto Marques ◽  
Rafaela Lazzarin ◽  

There was a significant increase in the concern with climate issues, among them highlighted as the derivation of greenhouse gases from the burning fossil fuels, leading several research centers and researchers to seek new sources of less polluting energy, independent of the burn-based matrix of fuels. In this context, the present work has as main presenter a literature review, perspective and comparisons regarding the use of hydrogen as a clean energy source, presenting three main ways of obtaining it: a) through electrolysis using renewable sources; b) biohydrogen production, based on the photosynthesis of plants and algae; c) production through biodigesters.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 295-317
Qiansi Tu ◽  
Frank Hase ◽  
Matthias Schneider ◽  
Omaira García ◽  
Thomas Blumenstock ◽  

Abstract. The objective of this study is to derive methane (CH4) emissions from three landfills, which are found to be the most significant CH4 sources in the metropolitan area of Madrid in Spain. We derive CH4 emissions from the CH4 enhancements observed by spaceborne and ground-based instruments. We apply satellite-based measurements from the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) together with measurements from the ground-based COllaborative Carbon Column Observing Network (COCCON) instruments. In 2018, a 2-week field campaign for measuring the atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases was performed in Madrid in the framework of Monitoring of the Greenhouse Gases Concentrations in Madrid (MEGEI-MAD) project. Five COCCON instruments were deployed at different locations around the Madrid city center, enabling the observation of total column-averaged CH4 mixing ratios (XCH4). Considering the prevalent wind regimes, we calculate the wind-assigned XCH4 anomalies for two opposite wind directions. Pronounced bipolar plumes are found when applying the method to NO2, which implies that our method of wind-assigned anomaly is suitable to estimate enhancements of trace gases at the urban level from satellite-based measurements. For quantifying the CH4 emissions, the wind-assigned plume method is applied to the TROPOMI XCH4 and to the lower tropospheric CH4 / dry-air column ratio (TXCH4) of the combined TROPOMI+IASI product. As CH4 emission strength we estimate 7.4 × 1025 ± 6.4 × 1024 molec. s−1 from the TROPOMI XCH4 data and 7.1 × 1025 ± 1.0 × 1025 molec. s−1 from the TROPOMI+IASI merged TXCH4 data. We use COCCON observations to estimate the local source strength as an independent method. COCCON observations indicate a weaker CH4 emission strength of 3.7 × 1025 molec. s−1 from a local source (the Valdemingómez waste plant) based on observations from a single day. This strength is lower than the one derived from the satellite observations, and it is a plausible result. This is because the analysis of the satellite data refers to a larger area, covering further emission sources in the study region, whereas the signal observed by COCCON is generated by a nearby local source. All emission rates estimated from the different observations are significantly larger than the emission rates provided via the official Spanish Register of Emissions and Pollutant Sources.

2022 ◽  
Xiaohui Lin ◽  
Ruqi Yang ◽  
Wen Zhang ◽  
Ning Zeng ◽  
Yu Zhao ◽  

Abstract Background: Air pollution in China has raised great concerns due to its adverse effects on air quality, human health, and climate. Emissions of air pollutants (APs) are inherently linked with CO2 emissions through fossil-energy consumption. Knowledge of the characteristics of APs and CO2 emissions and their relationships is fundamentally important in the pursuit of co-benefits in addressing air quality and climate issues in China. However, the linkages and interactions between APs and CO2 in China are not well understood.Results: Here, we conducted an ensemble study of six bottom-up inventories to identify the underlying drivers of APs and CO2 emissions growth and to explore their linkages in China. The results showed that, during 1980-2015, the power and industry sectors contributed 61–79% to China’s overall emissions of CO2, NOx, and SO2. In addition, the residential and industrial sectors were large emitters (77–85%) of PM10, PM2.5, CO, BC, and OC. The emissions of CH4, N2O and NH3 were dominated by the agriculture sector (46–82%), while the share of CH4 emissions in the energy sector increased since 2010. During 1980-2015, APs and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions from residential sources generally decreased over time, while the transportation sector increased its impact on recent emissions, particularly for NOx and NMVOC. Since implementation of stringent pollution control measures and accompanying technological improvements in 2013, China has effectively limited pollution emissions (e.g., growth rates of –10% per year for PM and –20% for SO2) and slowed down the increasing trend of carbon emissions from the power and industrial sectors. We also found that areas with high emissions of CO, NOx, NMVOC, and SO2 also emitted large amounts of CO2, which demonstrates the possible common sources of APs and GHGs. Moreover, we found significant correlations between CO2 and APs (e.g., NOx, CO, SO2, and PM) emissions in the top 5% high-emitting grid cells, with more than 60% common/overlapped grid cells during 2010–2015. Conclusions: We found significant homology in spatial and temporal aspects for CO2, and NOx, CO, SO2, and PM emissions in China. We targeted sectorial and spatial APs and GHGs emission hot-spots, which help for management and policy-making of collaborative reductions of them. This comprehensive analysis over 6 datasets improves our understanding of APs and GHGs emissions in China during the period of rapid industrialization from 1980 to 2015. This study helps elucidate the linkages between APs and CO2 from an integrated perspective, and provides insights for future synergistic emissions reduction.

Earth ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 45-71
Dhurba Neupane ◽  
Pramila Adhikari ◽  
Dwarika Bhattarai ◽  
Birendra Rana ◽  
Zeeshan Ahmed ◽  

Climate prediction models suggest that agricultural productivity will be significantly affected in the future. The expected rise in average global temperature due to the higher release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere and increased depletion of water resources with enhanced climate variability will be a serious threat to world food security. Moreover, there is an increase in the frequency and severity of long-lasting drought events over 1/3rd of the global landmass and five times increase in water demand deficits during the 21st century. The top three cereals, wheat (Triticum aestivum), maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa), are the major and staple food crops of most people across the world. To meet the food demand of the ever-increasing population, which is expected to increase by over 9 billion by 2050, there is a dire need to increase cereal production by approximately 70%. However, we have observed a dramatic decrease in area of fertile and arable land to grow these crops. This trend is likely to increase in the future. Therefore, this review article provides an extensive review on recent and future projected area and production, the growth requirements and greenhouse gas emissions and global warming potential of the top three cereal crops, the effects of climate change on their yields, and the morphological, physiological, biochemical, and hormonal responses of plants to drought. We also discuss the potential strategies to tackle the effects of climate change and increase yields. These strategies include integrated conventional and modern molecular techniques and genomic approach, the implementation of agronomic best management (ABM) practices, and growing climate resilient cereal crops, such as millets. Millets are less resource-intensive crops and release a lower amount of greenhouse gases compared to other cereals. Therefore, millets can be the potential next-generation crops for research to explore the climate-resilient traits and use the information for the improvement of major cereals.

2022 ◽  
Marianne Blanchard ◽  
Milan Bouchet-Valat ◽  
Damien Cartron ◽  
Jérôme Greffion ◽  
Julien Gros

We present a survey on the French research community and climate change carried out in 2020. It is one of the largest surveys ever conducted on this issue: it is based on a sample of more than 6,000 respondents representative of the French public sector research community, regardless of their status and discipline. On the one hand, it measures practices that emit large amounts of greenhouse gases, such as air travel, and addresses the differences between disciplines and within them according to different individual characteristics (gender, status, location, etc.). On the other hand, it questions the representations of research actors concerning the climate emergency, and what they are willing to do to reduce their emissions.The survey highlights three results: first, an acute awareness of environmental and climate issues widely shared by members of the scientific community; second, a willingness to implement changes; and third, a clear gap between these attitudes and practices that still emit large amounts of greenhouse gases. This raises the question of the role of research institutions, whose support is required to implement profound reforms in the organization of research activities.

Theodore Gautier Bikoko ◽  
Jean Claude Tchamba ◽  
Valentine Yato Katte ◽  
Divine Kum Deh

To fight against the high cost and the increasing scarcity of cement and at the same time to reduce the CO2 greenhouse gases emission associated with the production of Portland cement, two types of wood ashes as a substitute of cement in the production of concretes were investigated. In this paper, we substituted cement by two types of species of wood ashes namely, avocado and eucalyptus ashes following the proportions ranging from 0% to 30 % on one hand, and on the other hand, we added these two types of species of wood ashes namely, avocado and eucalyptus ashes following the proportions ranging from 0% to 10 % by weight of cement in the concrete samples. After 7, 14 and 28 days of curing, compressive strength tests were conducted on these concrete samples. The findings revealed that using wood ashes as additives/admixtures or as a substitute of cement in the production/manufacturing of concrete decreased the compressive strength of concrete. Hence, it can be said that wood ash has a negative influence on the strength of concrete. At three percent (3%) and ten percent (10%) of addition, the wood ash from eucalyptus specie offers better resistance compared to the wood ash from avocado specie, whereas at five percent (5%) of addition, the wood ash from avocado specie offers better resistance compared to the wood ash from eucalyptus specie. At thirty percent (30%) of substitution, the wood ash from eucalyptus specie offers better resistance compared to the wood ash from avocado specie. The compressive strengths increase with the increase of curing age.

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