Immunoglobulin G
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Andrey I. Egorov ◽  
Shannon M. Griffin ◽  
Miyu Fuzawa ◽  
Jason Kobylanski ◽  
Rachel Grindstaff ◽  

Given the enormous impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, developing tools for population surveillance of infection is of paramount importance. This article describes the development of a multiplex immunoassay on a Luminex platform to measure salivary immunoglobulin G responses to the spike protein, its two subunits and receptor binding domain, and the nucleocapsid protein of SARS-CoV-2.

Cureus ◽  
2021 ◽  
Om Prakash ◽  
Bhavin Solanki ◽  
Jay K Sheth ◽  
Tejas Shah ◽  
Mina Kadam ◽  

Pierre Nsele Mutantu ◽  
Mya Myat Ngwe Tun ◽  
Takeshi Nabeshima ◽  
Fuxun Yu ◽  
Patrick Kakoni Mukadi ◽  

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Real-time RT-PCR is the most commonly used method for COVID-19 diagnosis. However, serological assays are urgently needed as complementary tools to RT-PCR. Hachim et al. 2020 and Burbelo et al. 2020 demonstrated that anti-nucleocapsid(N) SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are higher and appear earlier than the spike antibodies. Additionally, cross-reactive antibodies against N protein are more prevalent than those against spike protein. We developed a less cross-reactive immunoglobulin G (IgG) indirect ELISA by using a truncated recombinant SARS-CoV-2 N protein as assay antigen. A highly conserved region of coronaviruses N protein was deleted and the protein was prepared using an E. coli protein expression system. A total of 177 samples collected from COVID-19 suspected cases and 155 negative control sera collected during the pre-COVID-19 period were applied to evaluate the assay’s performance, with the plaque reduction neutralization test and the commercial SARS-CoV-2 spike protein IgG ELISA as gold standards. The SARS-CoV-2 N truncated protein-based ELISA showed similar sensitivity (91.1% vs. 91.9%) and specificity (93.8% vs. 93.8%) between the PRNT and spike IgG ELISA, as well as also higher specificity compared to the full-length N protein (93.8% vs. 89.9%). Our ELISA can be used for the diagnosis and surveillance of COVID-19.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 2616
Melania Giammarco ◽  
Matteo Chincarini ◽  
Isa Fusaro ◽  
Anna Chiara Manetta ◽  
Alberto Contri ◽  

Brix refractometry has been widely demonstrated to be a useful tool for monitoring colostrum management program and passive immunity transfer (PIT) in Bovines, but its suitability has never been verified in Buffalo. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of a simple and rapid tool such as a digital Brix refractometer to estimate colostrum quality and for evaluating the success of passive transfer of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in Buffalo calves. The optimal cut points levels for Brix Refractometry for distinguishing good- and poor-quality colostrum and for assessing the adequacy of passive immunity transfer in calves were determined. For this aim, 26 first-milking maternal colostrum (MC) were collected from first-calf heifers. Blood samples were obtained from their calves at birth (T0) and 72 hours after (T3). Colostrum and Serum IgG content were determined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), whereas total protein (TP, g/dL) and percentage Brix (%Brix) by means of a digital Brix refractometer. The mean colostrum IgG was 64.9 ± 29.3 mg/mL. The mean serum %Brix at T3 was 9.6 ± 0.9 %. The mean serum IgG content at T3 was 11.1 ± 2.0 mg/mL. Pearson’s correlation coefficient (rp) was determined between Brix and ELISA measurements: colostrum %Brix showed a significant correlation with serum %Brix (rp = 0.82, p < 0.001); serum %Brix was highly correlated with serum TP (STP, g/dL) (rp = 0.98, p < 0.001) and serum IgG (mg/mL) (rp = 0.85, p < 0.001). A cut point of 18% Brix to estimate samples of MC ≥ 50 mg/mL from first-calf heifers was more appropriate for the buffalo. A cut point of 8.4% Brix resulted in the greatest percentage of calf serum samples being correctly classified. Based on our findings, a digital Brix refractometer could be a useful tool to monitor colostrum quality and to estimate PIT in Buffalo calves.

Hepatology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Richard Taubert ◽  
Bastian Engel ◽  
Jana Diestelhorst ◽  
Katharina Luise Hupa‐Breier ◽  
Patrick Behrendt ◽  

Avinash A. Patil ◽  
Mhikee Janella N. Descanzo ◽  
Justin Benedict A. Agcaoili ◽  
Cheng-Kang Chiang ◽  
Chia-Liang Cheng ◽  

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 2563
Joaquin Miguel ◽  
Olga Mitjana ◽  
María Teresa Tejedor ◽  
Antonio Martínez ◽  
María Victoria Falceto

Gilts produce less colostrum with lower immunoglobulin G concentration than multiparous sows do. An extra dose of colostrum (30 mL) from multiparous sows was administered to piglets from gilts to ascertain its effects on performance and health in farm conditions, especially in the smallest piglets (birth weight < 1.100 kg; Q1). The control group (CON) consisted of 200 piglets from 18 gilts (50 smallest piglets) and 201 piglets from 16 gilts (52 smallest piglets) formed the supplemented group (SUP). Colostrum supplementation increased the homogeneity of weight (days 21 and 60) and average daily gain (ADG; days 0–10, 0–21, and 0–60) and a decreased use of antibiotics and mortality by diarrhoea (p < 0.05). SUP piglets showed better immune response (presence of antibodies, p = 0.033) against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (day 21), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS; day 60), and influenza (day 60). In the smallest piglets, colostrum supplementation had important effects on mean weight in the first day of life (p = 0.009) and ADG until day 21 (p < 0.05). The smallest piglets had decreased the use of antibiotic treatment use when supplemented (p < 0.05). Colostrum supplementation can improve piglets´ performance and health, although doing so requires increased time and labour in maternity.

2021 ◽  
pp. 2267-2272
Sebastian Ganz ◽  
Klaus Failing ◽  
Abdulwahed Ahmed Hassan ◽  
Michael Bülte ◽  
Axel Wehrend

Background and Aim: Colostrum pasteurization is an established procedure in dairy farms in developed countries. This practice can improve the health status of the offspring by reducing several pathogens. This study aimed to focus on the pasteurization of bovine first colostrum and its influence on certain important bioactive components. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Holstein-Friesian bull calves, which were randomly divided into two groups and fed with 6 L of untreated (UT, n=10) or 6 L of heat-treated (HT, 63.5°C for 30 min, n=10) colostrum from their own dam within the first 12 h after birth. Blood samples were taken before, 24 h, and 48 h after first colostrum intake to determine the concentrations of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and iron and the activity of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in the serum. Results: The level of IgG was not affected by pasteurization (p=0.19). However, a slower increase in GGT activity (p<0.05) and a lower serum iron concentration (p=0.04) were observed in the HT group. Conclusion: It can be concluded that pasteurization influences the absorption of colostrum components and therefore, the passive transfer of immunity, although the level of IgG was not affected by pasteurization in this study.

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