In this paper, we describe the synthesis of multilayer nanoparticles as a platform for the diagnosis and treatment of ischemic injuries. The platform is based on magnetite (MNP) and silica (SNP) nanoparticles, while quinacrine is used as an anti-ischemic agent. The synthesis includes the surface modification of nanoparticles with (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPMS), the immobilization of quinacrine, and the formation of a chitosan coating, which is used to fix the fluorophore indocyanine green (ICG) and colloidal quantum dots AgInS2/ZnS (CQDs), which serve as secondary radiation sources. The potential theranostic platform was studied in laboratory animals.
This work describes the development of an injectable nanocomposite system based on a chitosan thermosensitive hydrogel combined with liposomes for regenerative medicine applications. Liposomes with good physicochemical properties are prepared and embedded within the chitosan network. The resulting nanocomposite hydrogel is able to provide a controlled release of the content from liposomes, which are able to interact with cells and be internalized. The cellular uptake is enhanced by the presence of a chitosan coating, and cells incubated with liposomes embedded within thermosensitive hydrogels displayed a higher cell uptake compared to cells incubated with liposomes alone. Furthermore, the gelation temperature of the system resulted to be equal to 32.6 °C; thus, the system can be easily injected in the target site to form a hydrogel at physiological temperature. Given the peculiar performance of the selected systems, the resulting thermosensitive hydrogels are a versatile platform and display potential applications as controlled delivery systems of liposomes for tissue regeneration.
The synergistic effect of dipping in 55 °C for 5 min of hot water (HW) and 1% chitosan coating during the storage of mango at 13 ± 0.5 °C and 85%–90% relative humidity for 28 days was investigated. The combined treatment significantly suppressed the fruit decay percentage compared with both the single treatment and the control. In addition, the specific activities of key plant defense-related enzymes, including peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), markedly increased. The increase occurred in the pulp of the fruits treated with the combined treatment compared to those treated with HW or chitosan alone. While the control fruits showed the lowest values, the combination of pre-storage HW treatment and chitosan coating maintained higher values of flesh hue angle (h°), vitamin C content, membrane stability index (MSI) percentage, as well as lower weight loss compared with the untreated mango fruits. The combined treatment and chitosan treatment alone delayed fruit ripening by keeping fruit firmness, lessening the continuous increase of total soluble solids (TSS), and slowing the decrease in titratable acidity (TA). The results showed that the combined application of HW treatment and chitosan coating can be used as an effective strategy to suppress postharvest decay and improve the quality of mango fruits.
The brain insulin metabolism alteration has been addressed as a pathophysiological factor underlying Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Insulin can be beneficial in AD, but its macro-polypeptide nature negatively influences the chances of reaching the brain. The intranasal (IN) administration of therapeutics in AD suggests improved brain-targeting. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) are promising carriers to deliver the IN-administered insulin to the brain due to the enhancement of the drug permeability, which can even be improved by chitosan-coating. In the present study, uncoated and chitosan-coated insulin-loaded SLNs and PLGA NPs were formulated and characterized. The obtained NPs showed desirable physicochemical properties supporting IN applicability. The in vitro investigations revealed increased mucoadhesion, nasal diffusion, and drug release rate of both insulin-loaded nanocarriers over native insulin with the superiority of chitosan-coated SLNs. Cell-line studies on human nasal epithelial and brain endothelial cells proved the safety IN applicability of nanoparticles. Insulin-loaded nanoparticles showed improved insulin permeability through the nasal mucosa, which was promoted by chitosan-coating. However, native insulin exceeded the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeation compared with nanoparticulate formulations. Encapsulating insulin into chitosan-coated NPs can be beneficial for ensuring structural stability, enhancing nasal absorption, followed by sustained drug release.
The purpose of this work was to study the enhancement effect of chitosan coating on inhibition of deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation by Litsea cubeba essential oil emulsion during malting. Firstly, the primary emulsion suitable for malting process was screened and the improvement effect of chitosan coating on the properties of primary emulsion was studied. On this basis, chitosan-based Litsea cubeba essential oil emulsion was applied to malting processing. The results showed that the primary emulsion of Litsea cubeba essential oil had good antifungal properties and a minimal effect on the germinability of barley compared with other primary emulsions. The addition of chitosan can improve the physical stability and antifungal ability of the emulsion and reduce the effect of the emulsion on barley germination. When 100 g of chitosan-based Litsea cubeba essential oil emulsion (40 mg/g) was applied to the malting process, the germination rate of barley was 87.7% and the DON concentration of finished malt was reduced to 690 μg/kg, which was 20.9% lower than that of the control. Meanwhile, the other indexes of malt produced by secondary emulsion treatment (after adding chitosan) increased significantly compared with those of malt produced by primary emulsion. This study was of great significance for the application of emulsion to inhibit the accumulation of mycotoxin during malting.