Developing Nations
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Edison D. Macusi ◽  
Stefenie Katrin V. Siblos ◽  
Martha Elena Betancourt ◽  
Erna S. Macusi ◽  
Michael N. Calderon ◽  

COVID-19 was declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization in 2020 with countries putting up several measures to mitigate and flatten the curve of hospitalizations and death from travel bans to home confinements and local lockdowns. This pandemic created health and economic crises, leading to increased incidence of poverty and food crisis especially on both agriculture and the fisheries in many developing nations including the Philippines. The specific objectives of this study were to assess the impact of COVID-19 restrictions on the catch per unit effort (CPUE) of small-scale fishers and to determine what factors could influence the volume of their catch during this time of pandemic. Moreover, this also investigated the impact of COVID-19 restrictions to fishers and their families. To do that we surveyed N = 200 small-scale fishers around the Davao gulf using semi-structured questionnaire and inquired on the impact of the COVID-19 to their fishing operation, catch, fishing costs, and their families. The collected socioeconomic variables, including emotional responses to the pandemic were then related to the CPUE and the volume of catch. The results show that fishers were highly affected by the pandemic due to the lockdown policy imposed in the fishing villages during the earlier phases of restrictions by the government. Fishers were affected in terms of the volume of their catch, also fishing costs, and emotionally as they were also frustrated due to the impacts of the hard lockdown. The restricted fishing access was found to have important and major set-back on the fishing operations of fishers and the same was experienced also by the middlemen given the low fish price and reduced mobility of the fish traders. COVID-19 also impacted the fishers, and their families through lack of mobility, food inadequacy, travel restrictions and their children’s education.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (2) ◽  
pp. 68
Mohammad Ariful Islam ◽  
Syed Masrur Tehzib

COVID-19 has become an ongoing issue in the present business world. The topic raises confusion and debate over many resolved issues. Not only the developing but also developed countries faced the heat-shock of this micro-infectious agent. But the power to regain and cope with the uncertainty has not been the same everywhere. To some extent, the developed nations have been able to tackle the bad days with their enriched resources, manpower and efficient system whereas this has become a total collapse for the developing and underdeveloped nations. Inefficiency and lack of social security have made life unbearable for the general people in these areas. What is the condition of the vaccination program? Whereas it is costly for the developed nations, it has simply become a dream for the developing nations. No one knows when the world will get a hundred per cent population with vaccination. In this paper we will cover these issues also we will take a look at the ravages of the pandemic in both worlds, as well as identifying the amalgamation of reasons behind the terrible second-wave in India and other developing nations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-9
Jens Malthe Molyneux ◽  
Henrik Soren Matheson ◽  

The insurance plays an essential role in economic development by alleviating business risks occasioned by abrupt and disastrous incidents in established and developing nations. Thus, the research assessed the financial role of insurance on economic development in Denmark. The research adopted the descriptive research design. The target population was 200 insurance companies. The research study sampled 100 participants that were chosen from the target population of 200. The sampling technique that was considered the most appropriate was stratified. Questionnaires were utilized to gather the data. The study results showed that insurance is significant in impacting the economic development in Denmark. Insurance activity improves families and organizations' financial stability and helps with competitiveness and the growth of trade and business. Insurance companies help businesses mitigate risk and protect their employees, thus spurring economic development. In addition, insurance companies help finance economic development projects. The study recommended that more emphasis should be developed by all the stakeholders in Denmark, including the government, to ensure the insurance companies are sustainable. The regulatory authorities should establish policies to make it attractive for its residents to patronize the insurance business. This would certainly translate to enhanced insurance investment and more outcomes to the development of the economy because insurance investment has a positive link with GDP. Insurance policies must be made mandatory for people and enterprises to motivate and shield financiers and ensure sustained economic growth. Keywords: Insurance, Economic Development, Denmark

Prof. (Dr.) S. M. Safdar Ashraf ◽  

Background: The environmental pollution is a growing world problem specifically in developed & developing countries. In these areas G.I.T disorders & diarrheal diseases have replaced by airborne environmental disorders.Methods: Literatures was reviewed on the subject to find out the knowledge regarding Environmental threats of air pollution & its effects on the health of human body. Data and details have been located, selected, extracted and synthesized from different national & international Journals, websites, Proceedings, books, google scholar etc.Result & Conclusion: Changes are taking place in air regularly. Different pollutants are being created from different sources. Indoor air pollution is common among underdeveloped & developing nations. To improve health situation different professional, have to play their roles. Effects of air pollution are sometimes general in nature otherwise may be immediate or delayed. Leading causes of death is cardiovascular diseases like IHD are now being declared as airborne. Emergent airborne diseases are more than 30 like COVID 19 only result in 43.6 lakhs death so far. Toxic & hazardous chemicals are present in air in the form of allergens, neurotoxin, mutagen, carcinogen etc. Air pollutants are carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, Benzene, Ozone, Lead, sulphates, SPM etc. Meteorological effects on health are also related with air including season, atmospheric pressure, heat, cold etc. Indoor air pollutants have also specific health effects.

2022 ◽  
Rajesh Verma ◽  
Rajarshi Chakraborty ◽  
Keerthiraj DB ◽  
Kingzang Wangda ◽  
Veerendra Verma ◽  

Abstract Background Rhino-Orbital-Cerebral Mucormycosis (ROCM) is an important infectious disease encountered in huge number in this recent post-covid 19 era. An alteration in defence immune system during covid-19 illness, in the presence of uncontrolled hyperglycaemia has led to the new epidemic of ROCM especially in developing nations like India. Method This case series of thirteen patients illustrates the various clinical presentation, laboratorical parameters, imaging features and outcome of patients of ROCM admitted in a tertiary care hospital in Northern India. Result In our case series, a total of 13 newly diagnosed cases of Rhino-Orbital-Cerebral Mucormycosis were studied. History of covid-19 illness was observed in 7 cases (53.8%), use of steroid during Covid-19 illness was seen in 5 cases (38.5%), oxygen therapy was given in 4 cases (30.8%). Co-morbid state in the form of diabetes mellitus was present in 12 cases (92.3%) with mean duration 16.69 months with an important finding of 6 cases (46.2%) having new-onset diabetes; hypertension in present in 3 cases (23.1%). Magnetic resonance imaging of paranasal sinuses showed involvement of multiple sinuses in all the 13 cases(100%), including maxillary and ethmoidal sinuses, with frontal in 12 cases (92.3%), sphenoidal in 11 cases (84.6%), symmetric in 9 cases (69.2%), mastoiditis in 4 cases (30.8%), maxillary space involvement in 4 cases (30.8%), palatal involvement in 1 case (7.7%). Multi-speciality approach treatment was given in the liposomal amphotericin B therapy in all the patients along with thorough endo-nasal debridement done in all cases, transcutaneous retrobulbar amphotericin B in 6 cases (46.2%) with exenteration done in 7 patients (53.9%). At 3 months of follow-up, there was substantial clinical improvement in all the cases. Conclusion There should be definite emphasis on high suspicion of mucor clinically for early diagnosis and aggressive management at initial state of diagnosis for better outcome. The need for sustained proper glycemic control during covid 19 era along with judicious use of steroid and public awareness for early symptoms and manifestations of mucor can curb the magnitude of such potentially opportunistic epidemic to a substantial rate. The longer the infection remains undetected, the greater the devastation ROCM can impose, of which blindness is an important hazard.

2022 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
Mohammed Y. Tahir ◽  
Maurice Mars ◽  
Richard E. Scott

eHealth is promoted as a means to strengthen health systems and facilitate universal health coverage. Sub-components (e.g. telehealth, telemedicine, mhealth) are seen as mitigators of healthcare provider shortages and poor rural and remote access. Teleradiology (including mobile teleradiology), widespread in developed nations, is uncommon in developing nations. Decision- and policy-makers require evidence to inform their decisions regarding implementation of mobile teleradiology in Nigeria and other sub-Saharan countries. To gather evidence, Scopus and PubMed were searched using defined search strings (September 2020). Duplicates were removed, and titles and abstracts reviewed using specified selection criteria. Full-text papers of selected resources were retrieved and reviewed against the criteria. Insight from included studies was charted for eight a priori categories of information: needs assessment, implementation, connectivity, evaluation, costing, image display, image capture and concordance. Fifty-seven articles were identified, duplicates removed and titles and abstracts of remaining articles reviewed against study criteria. Twenty-six papers remained. After review of full-texts, ten met the study criteria. These were summarised, and key insights for the eight categories were charted. Few papers have been published on teleradiology in sub-Saharan Africa. Teleradiology, including mobile teleradiology, is feasible in sub-Saharan Africa for routine X-ray support of patients and healthcare providers in rural and remote locations. Former technical issues (image quality, transmission speed, image compression) have been largely obviated through the high-speed, high-resolution digital imaging and network transmission capabilities of contemporary smartphones and mobile networks, where accessible. Comprehensive studies within the region are needed to guide the widespread introduction of mobile teleradiology.

Mahdi Giozafat

Mobile money services give trade benefits such as bill payment, decreased transaction costs and time, expanded savings possibilities, sales, and convenience. Despite the benefits, traders in Uganda are still slow to adopt and use mobile money services. This article reflects on the findings of a study that looked at the barriers that merchants experience while utilizing and implementing mobile money services in Uganda. A self-administered questionnaire was utilized to obtain data from 394 survey respondents. A model for encouraging traders to use mobile money services is offered. The suggested model expands on the Unified Theory of Technology Acceptance and Use. According to regression study, performance expectancy, social factors, and sensitization components all have a substantial impact on the behavioral intention of mobile money service uptake for trade. On the other hand, security and effort expectation had no significant affect on traders' behavioral intention to use mobile money services. Furthermore, the data show that enabling conditions affected the utilization of mobile money services for commercial transactions. The suggested approach is adaptable and generic, and it may be used in other developing nations with comparable circumstances to Uganda.

2022 ◽  
Samuel Ijabo Ogah ◽  
Goshen David Miteu ◽  
Emmanuel Oluwasogo Oyewole ◽  
Josephine Oluseyi Adebayo ◽  
Elohozino Oghale Benneth

This article examines the state of Catfish production in Nigeria and the roles technology has played over the past decades. Heightened demand as a result of increased population puts considerable pressure on production. In response to this pressure aquaculturists ramped up production activities, this demand-driven increase exposes the major gaps as the industry struggles to cope with the absence of fundamental structures like inadequate structured funding, markets, processing and preservation facilities among others. Such gaps exist in all aspects of aquaculture and technology is a viable plug for many of them. The aquaculture of developing nations has certain peculiarities which predispose it to slow development. Many fishermen and aquaculturists in low-income regions are trapped in economic systems that result in relative poverty. Many reasons have been put forward to explain the dynamics behind these consequences with technology playing a major role from the consensus. Rapid advances in hatchery, water quality and molecular technology have been identified as some of the active drivers of Catfish production in Nigeria. The article focuses on the history, progress and prospects of aquaculture technology in Nigeria. It does so by reviewing the technologies already established in Catfish farming and the impact of their roles in balancing fish demand and supply.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
Clare Duncan ◽  
Jurgenne H. Primavera ◽  
Nicholas A. O. Hill ◽  
Dominic C. J. Wodehouse ◽  
Heather J. Koldewey

Opportunities to boost climate change mitigation and adaptation (CCMA) and sustainable conservation financing may lie in enhancing blue carbon sequestration, particularly in developing nations where coastal ecosystems are extensive and international carbon markets offer comparatively attractive payments for environmental stewardship. While blue carbon is receiving increased global attention, few credit-generating projects are operational, due to low credit-buyer incentives with uncertainty in creditable emissions reductions and high project costs. Little empirical guidance exists for practitioners to quantify return-on-investment (ROI) and viability of potential projects, particularly for rehabilitation where multiple implementation options exist with diverse associated costs. We map and model drivers of mangrove natural regeneration (NR) using remote sensing (high-resolution satellite imagery segmentation and time-series modeling), and subsequent carbon sequestration using field- and literature-derived data, across abandoned aquaculture ponds in the Philippines. Using project-specific cost data, we then assess ROI for a hypothetical rehabilitation-focused mangrove blue carbon project at a 9.68 ha abandoned pond over a 10-year timeframe, under varied rehabilitation scenarios [NR vs. assisted natural regeneration (ANR) with planting], potential emissions reduction accreditation methodologies, carbon prices and discount rates. NR was faster in lower-lying ponds with lower tidal exposure (greater pond dike retention). Forecasted carbon sequestration was 3.7- to 5.2-fold and areal “greenbelt” regeneration 2.5- to 3.4-fold greater in our case study under ANR than NR. Variability in modeled sequestration rates drove high uncertainty and credit deductions in NR strategies. ROI with biomass-only accreditation was low and negative under NR and ANR, respectively. ROI was greater under ANR with inclusion of biomass and autochthonous soil carbon; however, neither strategy was highly profitable at current voluntary market carbon prices. ANR was the only scenario that fulfilled coastal protection greenbelt potential, with full mangrove cover within 10 years. Our findings highlight the benefits of ANR and soils inclusion in rehabilitation-oriented blue carbon projects, to maximize carbon sequestration and greenbelt enhancement (thus enhance pricing with potential bundled credits), and minimize forecasting uncertainty and credit-buyers’ perceived risk. An ANR rehabilitation strategy in low-lying, sea-facing abandoned ponds with low biophysical intervention costs may represent large blue carbon CCMA opportunities in regions with high aquaculture abandonment.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 296
Mohammad Masih Sediqi ◽  
Akito Nakadomari ◽  
Alexey Mikhaylov ◽  
Narayanan Krishnan ◽  
Mohammed Elsayed Lotfy ◽  

Like most developing countries, Afghanistan still employs the traditional philosophy of supplying all its load demands whenever they happen. However, to have a reliable and cost-effective system, the new approach proposes to keep the variations of demand at the lowest possible level. The power system infrastructure requires massive capital investment; demand response (DR) is one of the economic options for running the system according to the new scheme. DR has become the intention of many researchers in developed countries. However, very limited works have investigated the employment of appropriate DR programs for developing nations, particularly considering renewable energy sources (RESs). In this paper, as two-stage programming, the effect of the time-of-use demand response (TOU-DR) program on optimal operation of Afghanistan real power system in the presence of RESs and pumped hydropower storage (PHS) system in the day-ahead power market is analyzed. Using the concept of price elasticity, first, an economic model indicating the behaviour of customers involved in TOU-DR program is developed. A genetic algorithm (GA) coded in MATLAB software is used accordingly to schedule energy and reserve so that the total operation cost of the system is minimized. Two simulation cases are considered to verify the effectiveness of the suggested scheme. The first stage programming approach leads case 2 with TOU-DR program to 35 MW (811 MW − 776 MW), $16,235 ($528,825 − $512,590), and 64 MW reductions in the peak load, customer bill and peak to valley distance, respectively compared to case 1 without TOU-DR program. Also, the simulation results for stage 2 show that by employing the TOU-DR program, the system’s total cost can be reduced from $317,880 to $302,750, which indicates a significant reduction in thermal units’ operation cost, import power tariffs and reserve cost.

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