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Beverages ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 6
Author(s):  
Ayman Hijazi ◽  
Italo Pisano ◽  
Paulina Illek ◽  
James J. Leahy

Concerns over the potential adulteration of commercially produced foods give rise to a requirement for a simple and fast analytical method capable of quantifying potential adulterants. This work demonstrates a simple HPLC method tailored to detect major organic acids and furans within ingredients in commercial food products, for example, pomegranate molasses, balsamic vinegar, and apple cider vinegar. The relative importance of this method is in its simplicity and its use of an environmentally friendly aqueous mobile phase under isocratic conditions, providing results in a less than 20 min runtime. The chromatographic separation was achieved using an Acclaim® OA, 5 µm, 120 Å (4.0 × 250 mm) column; a UV-DAD detector set at 210 nm; and a 200 mM Na2SO4 mobile phase with 0.55 mL/L methanosulfonic acid as a pH modifier. The method was then validated by quantifying the concentration of acetic acid, formic acid, citric acid, and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) in pomegranate molasses, balsamic vinegar, and apple cider vinegar commercial products. The concentration of acetic acid and HMF in balsamic vinegar was 80.380 mg/mL (±1.272 mg/mL) and 2.153 mg/mL (±0.021 mg/mL), respectively. The apple cider vinegar was composed only of acetic acid with a concentration of 44.139 mg/mL (±0.053 mg/mL). The concentrations of citric acid and HMF were 123.425 mg/mL (±2.502 mg/mL) and 11.382 mg/mL (±0.582 mg/mL), respectively, in pomegranate molasses. Furthermore, this method is also capable of determining various organic acids and furans in biomass: levulinic acid, formic acid, furfurals, diformylfuran, and gamma-valerolactone.


Beverages ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 5
Author(s):  
Lei Cong ◽  
Phil Bremer ◽  
Eddy Fang ◽  
Linling Li ◽  
Miranda Mirosa

Biocides, in the form of sanitisers and disinfectants, are used extensively to reduce the risk of microbial contamination to beverage products and to ensure the safety of potable water used in processing. To better understand consumers’ perceptions of biocide use and to explore messaging strategies regarding their importance to ensure product safety, eight focus groups were conducted in New Zealand (n = 4) and China (n = 4). Consumers generally did not understand why or how biocides were used. In both countries, their most trustworthy source of information on biocide use was government sources. New Zealand and Chinese participants did not like the word “biocide” mentioned on labels due to its perceived negative connotations. Interestingly, acceptance for the word was higher if the phrase “environmentally friendly” was simultaneously communicated. The findings from this study have provided the beverage industry with guidance on how best to initiate conversations with consumers on the use of biocides.


Beverages ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 4
Author(s):  
Nils Rettberg ◽  
Scott Lafontaine ◽  
Christian Schubert ◽  
Johanna Dennenlöhr ◽  
Laura Knoke ◽  
...  

The sensory, volatile, and physiochemical profiles of nineteen commercial non-alcoholic pilsner-style beers produced by different production techniques were analyzed and compared with a dry-hopped non-alcoholic IPA. NABs made only with either physical dealcoholization or restricted fermentations differed significantly in chemistry and flavor. Generally, NABs produced by restricted fermentations were the most worty, thick, and sweet, whereas NABs that were physically dealcoholized had the lowest taste/aroma intensities and were the sourest, most thin, and least sweet. Interestingly, the method of dealcoholization had a minor impact on the flavor profile. The use of maltose intolerant yeast as well as the implementation of combined treatments, such as blending dealcoholized beer with beer containing alcohol, were the techniques found to produce NABs with more harmonious and multifaceted chemical and flavor profiles. NABs with increased hop aroma volatiles were the most harmonious, particularly highlighted by the NA IPA reference. Even though dry-hopped character might be atypical for pilsner-style beer, dry-hopping appears as a simple application to produce NABs with more harmonious flavor.


Beverages ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 3
Author(s):  
Biel Granell ◽  
Anaïs Izquierdo-Llopart ◽  
Àngels Sahuquillo ◽  
José F. López-Sánchez ◽  
Javier Saurina

Samples from the different processing stages in the elaboration of sparkling wine (cava)—including must, base wine, and sparkling wine—of Pinot Noir and Xarel·lo grape varieties from different vineyard qualities (A, B, C, D) have been analyzed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques to determine their elemental composition. The resulting data has been used to characterize these products according to oenological features and product qualities. For this purpose, box plot diagrams, bar charts, and principal components analysis (PCA) have been used. The study of the behavior of each given species has pointed out the relevance of some elements as markers or descriptors of winemaking processes. Among others, Cu and K are abundant in musts and their concentrations progressively decrease through the cava production process. S levels suddenly increase at the base wine step (and further decay) due to the addition of sulfites as preserving agents. Finally, concentrations of Na, Ca, Fe, and Mg increase from the first fermentation due to the addition of clarifying agents such as bentonite. PCA has been applied to try to extract solid and global conclusions on trends and chemical markers within the groups of samples more easily and efficiently than more conventional approaches.


Beverages ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 2
Author(s):  
Edgar Chambers ◽  
Jane Mertz Garcia ◽  
Han Li

Dysphagia is a dysfunction of the swallowing system and thickened beverages are widely prescribed as a treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the sensory characteristics of pre-thickened water products and determine sensory drivers of liking for those types of products. Pre-thickened water products (two starch-based and two gum-based) were tested in both nectar and honey thick versions. Based on product availability, one product was neutral water, and the others were water with lemon flavoring added. The sensory characteristics of the products were evaluated with a highly trained descriptive panel, and the viscosity of the products was evaluated with both the Bostwick consistometer and the line spread test. Previously published consumer data was used to determine preference maps with the descriptive data. All lemon-flavored products had similar flavor characteristics, except the Thick & Easy Clear that had a less lemon-related flavor than the others. After excluding the lemon-related flavor characteristics, all pre-thickened products had similar “base flavor” notes, no matter whether the products were starch-based or gum-based. This contrasts with literature, which reports differences in flavor of thickened beverages prepared using thickening agents. The thickness of the products varied between nectar and honey thickness, but also varied among products that were stated to be at the same level of thickness. External preference mapping showed that both lemon-related flavor and a thinner beverage texture are potential drivers of consumers acceptance of the product, which was expected based on other studies. In conclusion, pre-thickened beverages are good alternatives for self-mixed thickening agents but a standard for thickness should be agreed on and used by manufacturers.


Beverages ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 1
Author(s):  
Boris Nemzer ◽  
Diganta Kalita ◽  
Alexander Y. Yashin ◽  
Yakov I. Yashin

Red wine, an alcoholic beverage is composed of a spectrum of complex compounds such as water, alcohol, glycerol, organic acid, carbohydrates, polyphenols, and minerals as well as volatile compounds. Major factors that affect the levels of phenolic compounds in red wines are the variety of grapes and the storage of the wines. Among the constituents of red wine, phenolic compounds play a crucial role in attributes including color and mouthfeel and confer beneficial properties on health. Most importantly, phenolic compounds such as flavanols, flavonols, flavanones, flavones, tannins, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, and resveratrol can prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes, inflammation, and some other chronic diseases.


Beverages ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 80
Author(s):  
Mackenzie Gorman ◽  
Sophie Knowles ◽  
Anika Falkeisen ◽  
Sophie Barker ◽  
Rachael Moss ◽  
...  

Consumers have begun to use plant-based alternatives (PBAs) in their coffee instead of dairy products. PBAs can include soy milk, rice milk, coconut milk, almond milk, oat milk, and hemp milk. The objective of this study was to investigate consumer acceptability and sensory perception of coffee with added dairy milk and added oat, soy, and almond PBAs. Consumers (n = 116) that frequently add milk to their coffee (n= 58) and consumers that usually use PBAs (n = 58) were recruited to participate in the study. They evaluated four different coffee samples with the addition of dairy milk as well as soy, almond, and oat PBAs. Overall, the consumers liking increased when they perceived sweetness in their coffee. The plant consumers (usually added PBAs to their coffee) liked the milk addition significantly less than the dairy consumers (usually added dairy to their coffee). In addition, the plant consumers were able to differentiate between the almond and soy PBAs, while the dairy consumers grouped them together. More studies need to be completed to investigate a wider range of PBAs, dairy products, and varieties of coffee.


Beverages ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 79
Author(s):  
Frank Vriesekoop

Food allergies are an important global health concern, with many countries following the World Health Organisation’s guidelines with regards to due labelling of foods and, as such, providing forewarning about the presence of potential allergens to potential consumers. While for some produce, the link to specific allergens might be very clear to most consumers, this is not the case for all produce. People with specific food-related allergies usually know what to look out for, but occasionally, unexpected allergens are present in trusted produce. Beer is known to most to contain barley, which will contain gluten-like proteins that can cause allergic reactions in some people. Similarly, beer might contain sulphites and other potential allergens traditionally associated with beers. This review aims to examine a wide range of allergens that have entered the beer production process in recent years. As a result, examples of beers that contain one or more of the 14 EU-UK listed allergens are described, different allergen regulations in different countries are emphasised and their impact explained, and a number of case studies involving allergic reactions following exposure to and the ingestion of beer are highlighted.


Beverages ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 78
Author(s):  
Harrison Fuller ◽  
Chris Beaver ◽  
James Harbertson

In the following study, total sugar concentrations before and during alcoholic fermentation, as well as ethanol concentrations and pH levels after fermentation, of red and white wine grapes were successfully predicted using Raman spectroscopy. Fluorescing compounds such as anthocyanins and pigmented phenolics found in red wine present one of the primary limitations of enological analysis using Raman spectroscopy. Unlike the spontaneous Raman effect, fluorescence is a highly efficient process and consequently emits a much stronger signal than spontaneous Raman scattering. For this reason, many enological applications of Raman spectroscopy are impractical as the more subtle Raman spectrum of any red wine sample is in large part masked by fluorescing compounds present in the wine. This work employs a simple extraction method to mitigate fluorescence in finished red wines. Ethanol and total sugars (fructose plus glucose) of wines made from red (Cabernet Sauvignon) and white (Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, and Gruner Veltliner) varieties were modeled using support vector regression (SVR), partial least squares regression (PLSR) and Ridge regression (RR). The results, which compared the predicted to measured total sugar concentrations before and during fermentation, were excellent (R2SVR = 0.96, R2PLSR = 0.95, R2RR = 0.95, RMSESVR = 1.59, RMSEPLSR = 1.57, RMSERR = 1.57), as were the ethanol and pH predictions for finished wines after phenolic stripping with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (R2SVR = 0.98, R2PLSR = 0.99, R2RR = 0.99, RMSESVR = 0.23, RMSEPLSR = 0.21, RMSERR = 0.23). The results suggest that Raman spectroscopy is a viable tool for rapid and trustworthy fermentation monitoring.


Beverages ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 77
Author(s):  
Julyene Silva Francisco ◽  
Rafael Carlos Eloy Dias ◽  
Enrique Anastácio Alves ◽  
Rodrigo Barros Rocha ◽  
Janderson Rodrigues Dalazen ◽  
...  

The present investigation characterized the diterpene profile of Coffea canephora coffees, which are natural intervarietal hybrids of Conilon and Robusta. The impact of genetic diversity and environment on these compounds was also evaluated. Five genotypes (clones 03, 05, 08, 25, and 66) from six growing sites in the State of Rondônia in the western Amazon (Alto Alegre dos Parecis, São Miguel do Guaporé, Nova Brasilândia do Oeste, Porto Velho, Rolim de Moura, and Alto Paraíso) were analyzed. The contents of kahweol, cafestol, and 16-O-methylcafestol in light-medium roasted coffees were assessed by UPLC. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p ≤ 0.05). The contents of cafestol and 16-O-methylcafestol ranged from 96 to 457 mg 100 g−1 and 75 to 433 mg 100 g−1, respectively. As for kahweol, from absence up to contents of 36.9 mg 100 g−1 was observed. The diterpene profile was dependent on genetics, growing site, and the interaction between these factors. A higher variability was observed for kahweol contents. The natural intervarietal hybrid coffees stood out for their high contents of diterpenes and increased frequency of kahweol presence (77% of the samples).


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