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Author(s):  
Mohammed Alyakoob ◽  
Mohammad S. Rahman

This paper examines the potential economic spillover effects of a home sharing platform—Airbnb—on the growth of a complimentary local service—restaurants. By circumventing traditional land-use regulations and providing access to underutilized inventory, Airbnb attracts visitors to outlets that are not traditional tourist destinations. Although visitors generally bring significant spending power, it is unclear whether visitors use Airbnb only primarily for lodging and thus do not contribute to the adjacent economy. To evaluate this, we focus on the impact of Airbnb on restaurant employment growth across locales in New York City (NYC). Specifically, we focus on areas in NYC that did not attract a significant tourist volume prior to the emergence of a home-sharing service. Our results indicate a salient and economically significant positive spillover effect on restaurant job growth in an average NYC locality. A one-percentage-point increase in the intensity of Airbnb activity (Airbnb reviews per household) leads to approximately 1.7% restaurant employment growth. Since home-sharing visitors are lodging in areas that are not accustomed to tourists, we also investigate the demographic and market-structure-related heterogeneity of our results. Notably, restaurants in areas with a relatively high number of White residents disproportionately benefit from the economic spillover of Airbnb activity, whereas the impact in majority-Black areas is not statistically significant. Thus, policy makers must consider the heterogeneity in the potential economic benefits as they look to regulate home-sharing activities.


2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (56) ◽  
pp. 37-56
Author(s):  
Alexis S. Esposto ◽  
Luis Federico Giménez

Over the last three decades the labor market of most developed countries have experienced a sustained period of upskilling. This means an overall increase in the skill requirement of jobs determined by the demand for skilled labor. This suggests that their labor demand has become more skill intensive, shifting towards skilled workers relatively to unskilled workers. An analysis of job growth of the Argentine labor market between 1997 and 2009 using data from the EPH, evidences a process of deskilling over this period, with serious implications in terms of competitiveness and about issues related to increasing social and economic inequality.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 558-558
Author(s):  
Laura Donorfio ◽  
Karen Kopera-Frye ◽  
Robert Maiden ◽  
Carrie Andreoletti

Abstract Undergraduate programs (majors, minors, certificates) and continuing education programs in gerontology prepare students for entry-level careers in aging and increase competitiveness for graduate work in a variety of fields. Job growth in the field of gerontology is high, especially for positions requiring a bachelor’s degree and less. Gerontology education at this level is essential for meeting the growing demand for workers in social services and health services who understand the opportunities and challenges that come with increased longevity and global aging. This presentation will highlight the new recommendations for competency-based gerontology education for undergraduate and continuing education credentials outlined in the latest edition of AGHE Standards and Guidelines. Whether you are developing a new curriculum or revising an old one, we will offer suggestions for using the AGHE competencies and guidelines to ensure that your program adequately prepares students and offers them a competitive edge in today’s job market.


2021 ◽  
Vol 106 (6) ◽  
pp. 109-119
Author(s):  
Natalia Govorova ◽  

The European Union is going through a period of profound transformation due to socio-economic and demographic changes. Europe's population is aging as a result of declining fertility and increasing life expectancy, and its share of the world's population continues to decline. The top 10 countries on the planet with the oldest populations include nine EU countries. Older citizens are increasingly shaping the economy, constituting a growing segment in many areas of consumption. The expansion of this age group is expected to lead to an increased demand in many sectors, and in the not-too-distant future will provide significant economic opportunities for European businesses. The so-called “silver economy” (or longevity economy) is a concept of responding to and adapting to the challenges determined by demographic shifts at the global, regional and country levels by inclusively supporting job growth and productivity in traditional and new sectors of the modern digital economy, acceptable to government, business and the entire population, and supposedly capable of becoming the engine of the future economy. Population aging, its density, and household size, in turn, have also had an impact on the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, whose outbreak tested health and welfare systems as well as economic and social sustainability. This is why demographic processes need to be taken into account in the post-pandemic economic cycle, managing their long-term effects has many different aspects concerning health care, including care for the elderly, as well as government budgets. The integration of digital solutions, robotic technologies in these areas can significantly empower the elderly, promote independent and active lifestyles, and integrate into the labor market. Thus, it can be argued that the potential risks of the modern demographic transition are not inevitable, and the challenge is to find tools, opportunities and means to adapt the economy and society to it.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Patrick Ongley

<p>This thesis is concerned with the relationship between economic restructuring, the changing division of labour and social stratification, with particular reference to New Zealand in the period since the 1980s. It begins with a critique of theories of capitalist development, leading to the adoption of an approach which focuses on both the longterm evolution of the division of labour and the ways in which production and employment are subject to periodic upheavals from episodes of economic crisis and restructuring. The regulation approach is used to analyse the restructuring of the New Zealand economy following the global crisis of the 1970s, which transformed it from a model based on mass production and interventionist regulation to one based on flexible production and liberal regulation. This provides a context for analysing related changes in employment, focussing particularly on the massive job losses in New Zealand’s goods-producing industries, the subsequent period of high unemployment and the eventual resurgence in job growth based on more flexible use of labour, expansion in producer and consumer service industries, and growth in both skilled and routine whitecollar occupations. The remainder of the thesis is concerned with the effects of these changes on patterns of social stratification. A consideration of the theoretical and conceptual issues surrounding class, stratification and the division of labour leads to the development of a model of class structure based on relations of production and hierarchical divisions of labour. Census data is reclassified to fit the model and analysed to show changes in patterns of stratification since the 1980s, looking particularly at shifts in the relative size and composition of middle-class and working-class employment and the implications for class formation. The model is also used to analyse changes in structural inequalities between the sexes and between ethnic groups, with a focus on the ways in which different groups were affected by the restructuring process and how this was influenced by historically gendered and ethnicised divisions of labour. The thesis concludes with an assessment of the extent of change in employment and stratification and whether this is indicative of a transition to a post-industrial economy.</p>


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
◽  
Patrick Ongley

<p>This thesis is concerned with the relationship between economic restructuring, the changing division of labour and social stratification, with particular reference to New Zealand in the period since the 1980s. It begins with a critique of theories of capitalist development, leading to the adoption of an approach which focuses on both the longterm evolution of the division of labour and the ways in which production and employment are subject to periodic upheavals from episodes of economic crisis and restructuring. The regulation approach is used to analyse the restructuring of the New Zealand economy following the global crisis of the 1970s, which transformed it from a model based on mass production and interventionist regulation to one based on flexible production and liberal regulation. This provides a context for analysing related changes in employment, focussing particularly on the massive job losses in New Zealand’s goods-producing industries, the subsequent period of high unemployment and the eventual resurgence in job growth based on more flexible use of labour, expansion in producer and consumer service industries, and growth in both skilled and routine whitecollar occupations. The remainder of the thesis is concerned with the effects of these changes on patterns of social stratification. A consideration of the theoretical and conceptual issues surrounding class, stratification and the division of labour leads to the development of a model of class structure based on relations of production and hierarchical divisions of labour. Census data is reclassified to fit the model and analysed to show changes in patterns of stratification since the 1980s, looking particularly at shifts in the relative size and composition of middle-class and working-class employment and the implications for class formation. The model is also used to analyse changes in structural inequalities between the sexes and between ethnic groups, with a focus on the ways in which different groups were affected by the restructuring process and how this was influenced by historically gendered and ethnicised divisions of labour. The thesis concludes with an assessment of the extent of change in employment and stratification and whether this is indicative of a transition to a post-industrial economy.</p>


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-45
Author(s):  
Katja Mann ◽  
Lukas Püttmann

Abstract We provide a new measure of automation based on patents and study its employment effects. Classifying all U.S. patents granted between 1976 and 2014 as automation or nonautomation patents, we document a strong rise in the number and share of automation patents. We link patents to their industries of use and to commuting zones. To estimate the effect of automation, we use an instrumental variables strategy that relies on innovations developed independently from U.S. labor market trends. We find that automation technology has a positive effect on employment in local labor markets, driven by job growth in the service sector.


2021 ◽  
pp. 089124242110235
Author(s):  
Merissa C. Piazza ◽  
Edward (Ned) Hill

In this study, the present a statistically valid typology of high-growth firms (HGFs), also known as gazelles, to determine if payroll and job growth patterns differ between groups or clusters. Cluster–discriminant analysis was conducted on a cohort of 26,104 HGFs s in Ohio, using data from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages from 2010 to 2015. Only 1.2% of all Ohio’s firms can be classified as high growth. The larger herd of gazelles grows consistently, while the other, much smaller pack experiences short, intense growth spurts. Roughly 30% of the two gazelle clusters (Consistent High Growth and Volatile High Growth) are in the information service, financial service, and professional and business service industries, compared with 18% in the low- and slow-growth cluster. The nongazelle HGF cluster has proportionately more businesses in manufacturing and the leisure and hospitality industries than the gazelle clusters.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Mary K. Foster ◽  
Agnes G. Meinhard ◽  
Ida Berger

[First paragraph of Introduction] : Nonprofit scholars have investigated several theoretical avenues in their search for an understanding of the role of nonprofit organizations in society. Some discussions have concentrated on the economic role of nonprofit organizations focusing on contribution to GDP (Stewart, 1996, Weisbrod, 1998), job growth (Hall & Banting, 2000), and the labour force value of volunteer work (Day & Devlin, 1996; Duchesne, 1989). Other discussions have considered the role from the perspective of contribution to society in terms of social service provision, and recreational and cultural enrichments beyond what can be provided by the for profit or government sectors (Hall & Banting, 2000, Kramer, 2000, Salamon & Anheier, 1998). Yet, a third scholarly focus has been to investigate the role of voluntary organizations in developing and maintaining social capital. With the publication of Putnam’s (2000) book, Bowling Alone, this concept has become the topic of increasing academic discourse, because of the connection that he makes between voluntary associations, social capital and economic development. Indeed, Putnam (1993, 1995) and Fukuyama (1995) conclude that social capital is a precondition for economic prosperity. The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of voluntary organizations as bridgers and bonders in society and the implications of this role in social and economic development. Keywords: CVSS, Centre for Voluntary Sector Studies, Working Paper Series,TRSM, Ted Rogers School of Management Citation:


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