Shared Prosperity (or Lack Thereof) in the Sharing Economy

Mohammed Alyakoob ◽  
Mohammad S. Rahman

This paper examines the potential economic spillover effects of a home sharing platform—Airbnb—on the growth of a complimentary local service—restaurants. By circumventing traditional land-use regulations and providing access to underutilized inventory, Airbnb attracts visitors to outlets that are not traditional tourist destinations. Although visitors generally bring significant spending power, it is unclear whether visitors use Airbnb only primarily for lodging and thus do not contribute to the adjacent economy. To evaluate this, we focus on the impact of Airbnb on restaurant employment growth across locales in New York City (NYC). Specifically, we focus on areas in NYC that did not attract a significant tourist volume prior to the emergence of a home-sharing service. Our results indicate a salient and economically significant positive spillover effect on restaurant job growth in an average NYC locality. A one-percentage-point increase in the intensity of Airbnb activity (Airbnb reviews per household) leads to approximately 1.7% restaurant employment growth. Since home-sharing visitors are lodging in areas that are not accustomed to tourists, we also investigate the demographic and market-structure-related heterogeneity of our results. Notably, restaurants in areas with a relatively high number of White residents disproportionately benefit from the economic spillover of Airbnb activity, whereas the impact in majority-Black areas is not statistically significant. Thus, policy makers must consider the heterogeneity in the potential economic benefits as they look to regulate home-sharing activities.

2018 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. e42-e50 ◽  
Andrew P. Loehrer ◽  
David C. Chang ◽  
Zirui Song ◽  
George J. Chang

Purpose: Underinsured patients are less likely to receive complex cancer operations at hospitals with high surgical volumes (high-volume hospitals, or HVHs), which contributes to disparities in care. To date, the impact of insurance coverage expansion on site of complex cancer surgery remains unknown. Methods: Using the 2006 Massachusetts coverage expansion as a natural experiment, we searched the Hospital Cost and Utilization Project state inpatient databases for Massachusetts and control states (New York, New Jersey, and Florida) between 2001 and 2011 to evaluate changes in the utilization of HVHs for resections of bladder, esophageal, stomach, pancreatic, rectal, or lung cancer after the expansion of insurance coverage. We studied nonelderly, adult patients with private insurance and those with government-subsidized or self-pay (GSSP) coverage with a difference-in-differences framework. Results: We studied 11,687 patients in Massachusetts and 56,300 patients in control states. Compared with control states, the 2006 Massachusetts insurance expansion was associated with a 14% increased rate of surgical intervention for GSSP patients (incident rate ratio, 1.14; P = .015), but there was no significant change in the probability of GSSP patients undergoing surgery at an HVH (1.0 percentage-point increase; P = .710). The reform was associated with no change in the uninsured payer-mix at HVHs (0.6 percentage-point increase; P = .244) and with a 5.1 percentage-point decrease for the uninsured payer mix at low-volume hospitals ( P < .001). Conclusion: The 2006 Massachusetts insurance expansion, a model for the Affordable Care Act, was associated with increased rates of complex cancer operations and increased insurance coverage but with no change in utilization of HVH for complex cancer operations.

Bich Le Thi Ngoc

The aim of this study is to analyze empirically the impact of taxation and corruption on the growth of manufacturing firms in Vietnam. The study employed pooled OLS estimation and then instrument variables with fixed effect for the panel data of 1377 firms in Vietnam from 2005 to 2011. These data were obtained from the survey of the Central Institute for Economic Management and the Danish International Development Agency. The results show that both taxation and corruption are negatively associated with firm growth measured by firm sales adjusted according to the GDP deflator. A one-percentage point increase in the bribery rate is linked with a reduction of 16,883 percentage points in firm revenue, over four and a half times bigger than the effect of a one-percentage point increase in the tax rate. From the findings of this research, the author recommends the Vietnam government to lessen taxation on firms and that there should be an urgent revolution in anti-corruption policies as well as bureaucratic improvement in Vietnam.

2020 ◽  
Vol 5 (11) ◽  
pp. e003390
Nolan M Kavanagh ◽  
Elisabeth M Schaffer ◽  
Alex Ndyabakira ◽  
Kara Marson ◽  
Diane V Havlir ◽  

IntroductionInterventions informed by behavioural economics, such as planning prompts, have the potential to increase HIV testing at minimal or no cost. Planning prompts have not been previously evaluated for HIV testing uptake. We conducted a randomised clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of low-cost planning prompts to promote HIV testing among men.MethodsWe randomised adult men in rural Ugandan parishes to receive a calendar planning prompt that gave them the opportunity to make a plan to get tested for HIV at health campaigns held in their communities. Participants received either a calendar showing the dates when the community health campaign would be held (control group) or a calendar showing the dates and prompting them to select a date and time when they planned to attend (planning prompt group). Participants were not required to select a date and time or to share their selection with study staff. The primary outcome was HIV testing uptake at the community health campaign.ResultsAmong 2362 participants, 1796 (76%) participants tested for HIV. Men who received a planning prompt were 2.2 percentage points more likely to test than the control group, although the difference was not statistically significant (77.1% vs 74.9%; 95% CI –1.2 to 5.7 percentage points, p=0.20). The planning prompt was more effective among men enrolled ≤40 days before the campaigns (3.6 percentage-point increase in testing; 95% CI –2.9 to 10.1, p=0.27) than among men enrolled >40 days before the campaigns (1.8 percentage-point increase; 95% CI –2.3 to 5.8, p=0.39), although the effects within the subgroups were not significant.ConclusionThese findings suggest that planning prompts may be an effective behavioural intervention to promote HIV testing at minimal or no cost. Large-scale studies should further assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of such interventions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 251 ◽  
pp. 01017
Zhixiang Lu

With the vigorous development of the sharing economy, the short-term rental industry has also spawned many emerging industries that belong to the sharing economy. However, due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, many sharing economy industries, including the short-term housing leasing industry, have been affected. This study takes the rental information of 1,004 short-term rental houses in New York in April 2020 as an example, through machine learning and quantitative analysis, we conducted statistical and visual analysis on the impact of different factors on the housing rental status. This project is based on the machine learning model to predict the changes in the rental status of the house on the time series. The results show that the prediction accuracy of the random forest model has reached more than 94%, and the prediction accuracy of the logistic model has reached more than 74%. At the same time, we have further explored the impact of time span differences and regional differences on the housing rental status.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Wuyi Ye ◽  
Yiqi Wang ◽  
Jinhai Zhao

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to compare the changes in the risk spillover effects between the copper spot and futures markets before and after the issuance of copper options, analyze the risk spillover effects between the three markets after the issuance of the options and can provide effective suggestions for regulators and investors who hedge risks. Design/methodology/approach The MV-CAViaR model is an extended form of the vector autoregressive model (VAR) to the quantile model, and it is also a special form of the MVMQ-CAViaR model. Based on the VAR quantile model, this model has undergone continuous promotion of the Conditional Autoregressive Value-at-Risk Model (CAViaR) and the Multi-quantile Conditional Autoregressive Value-at-Risk Model (MQ-CAViaR), and finally got the current form of the model. Findings The issuance of options has led to certain changes in the risk spillover effect between the copper spot and its derivative markets, and the risk aggregation effect in the futures market has always been significant. Therefore, when supervising the copper product market and investors using copper derivatives to avoid market risks, they need to pay attention to the impact of futures on the spot market, the impact of options on the futures market and the risk spillover effects of spot and futures on the options market. Practical implications The empirical results of this paper can be used to hedge market risk investment strategies, and the changes in market relationships also provide an effective basis for the supervision of the copper product market by the supervisory authority. Originality/value It is the first literature research to discuss the risk and the impact of spillover effects of copper options on China copper market and its derivative markets. The MV-CAViaR model can capture the mutual risk influence between markets by modeling multiple markets simultaneously.

Daniel Crown ◽  
Timothy Wojan ◽  
Anil Rupasingha

Abstract This article estimates the employment spillover effect of high-growth businesses on establishment-level employment growth. We assess whether the impact depends on the rurality of the region, and whether nearby establishments are high-growth businesses themselves. We also estimate the within-industry impact of high-growth establishments (HGEs). The findings show no impact of HGEs on net employment growth, due to equal gross job creation and job destruction on average. However, we find that within the same industry, HGEs contribute to positive net employment growth, with large and nearly equal impacts on existing HGEs across both Metropolitan Statistical Areas regions and non-metro counties.

Devajyoti Deka ◽  
Michael Lahr ◽  
Thomas Marchwinski ◽  
Maia de la Calle

This study estimated the impact of spending by North Jersey Coast Line (NJCL) riders during summer weekends on the economies of the Jersey Shore communities known for beach-oriented recreational activities. The NJCL is a commuter rail line that provides many workers with access to their workplaces on weekdays throughout the year. The line also provides a large number of recreational visitors from New York City and other parts of New Jersey with direct access to the Jersey Shore communities on summer weekends. To estimate the economic benefits to the shore communities from spending by NJCL riders on summer weekends, this study used a software program (R/ECON) regional input–output (I-O) model developed by the Rutgers Economic Advisory Service of Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey. Visitor expenditure data from an onboard survey of NJCL riders were used as model inputs. The survey was conducted during the summer of 2013 and was completed by 2,241 riders returning from the shore area. The R/ECON I-O model provided estimates of economic benefits to the shore communities in terms of jobs, earnings, gross domestic product, state taxes, and local taxes. The model also generated return-on-investment multipliers for these variables. The study showed that the $14.8 million spent by NJCL riders on summer weekends in the shore communities generated approximately 225 annualized jobs, more than $9 million in earnings, and more than $1 million in state taxes. More than 80% of the economic benefit was generated by out-of-state visitor spending.

2017 ◽  
Vol 51 (9/10) ◽  
pp. 1695-1712 ◽  
Mouna Sebri ◽  
Georges Zaccour

Purpose The starting conjecture is that the market share of a brand in one category benefits from its performance in another category, and vice versa. The purpose of this paper is to assess the umbrella-branding spillovers by investigating the presence of synergy effect between categories when a retailer and/or a manufacturer decide to adopt/use the same name for his products. In fact, besides the cross-category dependency due to substitutability or complementarity, products can also be linked through their brand name in presence of an umbrella-branding strategy. Design/methodology/approach The authors propose an extended market-share model to account for the spillover effect at the brand level. The spillover is modeled to be generated by the brand's performance and not specific to marketing instruments, as done in the literature. They adopt a multiplicative competitive interaction (MCI) form for the attraction function. Based on aggregated data of two complementary oral-hygiene categories, the authors estimate the umbrella-branding spillover parameters using the iterate three-stage least squares (I3SLS) method. They contrast the results in three scenarios: no spillover, brand-constant spillover and brand-specific spillover. Findings The ensuing results indicate that umbrella-branding spillover is (i) significant and positive, i.e. the brand performance is boosted by its performance in a related category, through the so-called brand-attraction multiplier; (ii) asymmetric, i.e. the spillover is not equal in both directions; and associated to the market strength of each competing brand; (iii) variable across brands. The results show that not accounting for umbrella-branding spillover leads to misestimating the parameters and has a considerable impact on price-elasticities computation. Research limitations/implications Because store brands and some national brands exist in many categories, and thus because consumers make inferences when they face a large number of brands in different categories, spillover effects cannot be labelled as simply complementary or substitution-related. Future research may provide insight about the spillover phenomenon in a more general framework that would consider the spillover occurring between more than two categories. Practical implications Providing accurate assessment for umbrella-branding spillovers governing the competing brands, the results offer a relevant and straightforward method for decision makers to precisely assess the impact of a marketing effort in one category on the retailer's global performance. The findings provide better forecasts of market response in terms of sales and profit, within a cross-category perspective. Originality/value This study develops and estimates a market-share model with the aim of measuring brand-category spillover effects. The literature dealt with cross-category interactions in terms of substitutability or complementarity between the products offered in the two or more categories under investigation. Here, the focal point (and contribution) of the authors is the link at the brand level. Indeed, the authors only require that a minimum of one brand is offered in at least two of the categories of interest. Further, the spillover considered is not specific to marketing instruments, but is generated by the brand performance (attraction or market share), which is the result of both the firms marketing-mix choice and competitors marketing policies.

2020 ◽  
Verónica Frisancho ◽  
Martín Valdivia

This paper evaluates the impact of the introduction of savings groups on poverty, vulnerability, and financial inclusion outcomes in rural Peru. Using a cluster randomized control trial and relying on both survey and administrative records, we investigate the impact of savings groups after more than two years of exposure. We find t hat savings groups channel expensive investments such as housing improvements and reduce households' vulnerability to idiosyncratic shocks, particularly among households in poorer districts. The treatment also induces changes in households labor allocation choices: access to savings groups increases female labor market participation and, in poorer areas, it fosters greater specialization in agricultural activities. Access to savings groups also leads to a four-percentage point increase in access to credit among women, mainly driven by access to the groups loans. However, the introduction of savings groups has no impact on the likelihood of using formal financial services.On the contrary, it discourages access to loans from formal financial institutions and microfinance lenders among the unbanked.

2009 ◽  
Vol 27 (32) ◽  
pp. 5370-5375 ◽  
Veena Shankaran ◽  
Thanh Ha Luu ◽  
Narissa Nonzee ◽  
Elizabeth Richey ◽  
June M. McKoy ◽  

Purpose Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening remains underutilized in the United States. Prior studies reporting the cost effectiveness of randomized interventions to improve CRC screening have not been replicated in the setting of small physician practices. We recently conducted a randomized trial evaluating an academic detailing intervention in 264 small practices in geographically diverse New York City communities. The objective of this secondary analysis is to assess the cost effectiveness of this intervention. Methods A total of 264 physician offices were randomly assigned to usual care or to a series of visits from trained physician educators. CRC screening rates were measured at baseline and 12 months. The intervention costs were measured and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was derived. Sensitivity analyses were based on varying cost and effectiveness estimates. Results Academic detailing was associated with a 7% increase in CRC screening with colonoscopy. The total intervention cost was $147,865, and the ICER was $21,124 per percentage point increase in CRC screening rate. Sensitivity analyses that varied the costs of the intervention and the average medical practice size were associated with ICERs ranging from $13,631 to $36,109 per percentage point increase in CRC screening rates. Conclusion A comprehensive, multicomponent academic detailing intervention conducted in small practices in metropolitan New York was clinically effective in improving CRC screening rates, but was not cost effective.

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