paired samples
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Mindfulness ◽  
2022 ◽  
Jaime Navarrete ◽  
Miguel Ángel García-Salvador ◽  
Ausiàs Cebolla ◽  
Rosa Baños

Abstract Objectives The purpose of this exploratory non-randomized controlled study was to determine the acceptance and effectiveness of an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) co-designed by a police officer. Methods A pretest-posttest control group design was followed. Participants (MBI group = 20; control group = 18) answered baseline and post-training self-reported measures. In addition, the weekly emotional state of the MBI group was collected. Paired-samples t-test and analysis of covariance were performed for pre-post within-group and between-group differences, respectively, as well as linear mixed effects analysis of repeated measures for week-by-week data. Results High acceptance and attendance rates, as well as significant pre-post within-group differences in the MBI group in mindfulness (η2 = 0.43), self-compassion (η2 = 0.43), depression (η2 = 0.54), anxiety (η2 = 0.46), stress (η2 = 0.51), difficulties in emotion regulation, sleep quality (η2 = 0.57), and burnout (η2 = 0.31–0.47), were identified. Moreover, police officers who underwent the MBI experienced a week by week decrease of anger, disgust, anxiety, sadness, and desire. Finally, after adjusting for pre-test scores, significant between-group differences were found in the way of attending to internal and external experiences (observing mindfulness facet; ηp2 = 0.21), depression symptoms (ηp2 = 0.23), general distress (ηp2 = 0.24), and the degree of physical and psychological exhaustion (personal burnout; ηp2 = 0.20). Conclusions The preliminary effectiveness of this MBI on psychopathology and quality of life outcomes in Spanish police officers was discussed. Previous evidence regarding the promising use of MBIs in this population was supported.

2022 ◽  
Feng Xu ◽  
Ling-Yun Wu ◽  
Juan Guo ◽  
Qi He ◽  
Zheng Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background The transformation biology of secondary AML from MDS is still not fully understood. Here, we performed a large cohort of paired self-controlled sequences including target, whole-exome and single cell sequencing to search AML transformation-related mutations (TRMs). Methods 39 target genes from paired samples from 72 patients with MDS who had undergone AML transformation were analyzed by next generation target sequencing. Whole exome and single-cell RNA sequencing were used to verify the dynamics of transformation. Results The target sequencing results showed that sixty-four out of the 72 (88.9%) patients presented presumptive TRMs involving activated signaling, transcription factors, or tumor suppressors. Of the 64 patients, most of TRMs (62.5%, 40 cases) emerged at the leukemia transformation point. All three of the remaining eight patients analyzed by paired whole exome sequencing showed TRMs which are not included in the reference targets. No patient with MDS developed into AML only by acquiring mutations involved in epigenetic modulation or RNA splicing. Single-cell sequencing in one pair sample indicated that the activated cell signaling route was related to TRMs which take place prior to phenotypic development. Of note, target sequencing defined TRMs were limited to a small set of seven genes (in the order: NRAS/KRAS, CEBPA, TP53, FLT3, CBL, PTPN11 and RUNX1, accounted for nearly 90.0% of the TRMs). Conclusions Somatic mutations involving in signaling, transcription factors, or tumor suppressors appeared to be a precondition for AML transformation from MDS. The TRMs may be considered as new therapy targets.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Xiaojuan Zhang ◽  
Hong Zhou ◽  
Xiangling Liao ◽  
Yi Liu

Abstract Background To evaluate the difference in root resorption between standard torque self-ligating brackets and high torque self-ligating brackets in bimaxillary protrusion patients after orthodontic treatment. Methods Pre-treatment and post-treatment Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) of 32 patients (16 treated with the high torque DamonQ 0.022″ bracket and 16 with the 0.022″ standard torque self-ligating bracket) were selected. The first premolars were extracted from all patients before treatment. After mini-screw implants were inserted into the buccal region between the second premolar and first molar, 150 g of force was applied to retract the upper and lower anterior teeth to close the extraction space on each side. CBCT images of all patients were taken before and after treatment. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the maxillary central incisor, lateral incisor and canine was conducted with Mimics 20.0 software. The volumes of the roots were calculated using Gomagics Studio 12.0 software. The differences between the pre-treatment and post-treatment root volumes were statistically evaluated with a paired-samples t-test. Results There was no statistically significant difference in root resorption degree between the two kinds of torque brackets. The patient’s degree of root resorption in the high torque self-ligating group was greater than that in the standard torque group. Conclusions There was no significant difference in root external apical resorption between the high torque self-ligating brackets and the standard torque self-ligating brackets in bimaxillary protrusion patients.

2022 ◽  
Mohammad Awad Al-Dawoody Abdulaal

Gallery Run (GR) is a classroom-based dynamic learning technique that promotes higher-order thinking and co-operative learning. This research study examined the influence of GR strategy on Saudi upper-intermediate English as a foreign language(EFL) learners’ oral skills. First off, 62 upper-intermediate EFL learners from a language school in Riyadh were opted and randomly sectioned into an experimental group and a control group. Then, the participants in the two groups were given a speaking pretest. The experiment group applied the GR technique in their classroom, whereas the control group received no treatment and continued with an ordinary classroom program. After two-month classes, a speaking posttest was given to the two groups. To analyze the data collected, Independent and Paired Samples T-tests were conducted. The results showed that the experimental group excelled and outperformed the control group. The results also showed that 25.8% and 48.3% of the participants agreed and strongly agreed respectively that the GR technique enhanced their self-dependence. Furthermore, 45% of the participants reported that the ambiance was delightful, which conduced to the amelioration of their speaking competence. Another significant result was that 61.2% and 19.3% of the learners strongly agreed and agreed respectively that GR reduced the levels of loneliness and social anxiety. Furthermore, 58.1% strongly agreed that the GR technique did not put them under any kind of stress, nor did it encourage social loafing. A final finding reported by the 48.4 % of the learners was that GR reduced their alexithymia, social anxiety, and self-monitoring.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 183
Michella Asfinivia

This examination is awakened by low learning outcomes of science content that has not yett reached the minimum completeness criteria (KKM). One variable that contributes is the low learning outcomes of practice, especially in science learning. Therefore, the right learning strategy is needed which affects the results of easy-to-understand learning. The aim in this study was to understand how much impact the demontrasion method on the results of learning in class IV at SDN 102 / II Kerjan River in Science learning. This type of research is a type of Pre Experimental Design research with a quantitative methodology. Design that uses the type of One Group Pretest Posttest Design. The subjects of this study were 27 students at SD Negeri 102/II Sungai Kerjan. In this examination, the data collection instrument of the researcher used an instrument in the form of test questions. The data collection technique utilizes up to 20 pretest and posttest questions. The data analysis technique used a statistical test, namely the Paired Samples T-Test test because the data were normally distributed. Information handled using SPSS 22.

Mark Anthony Abenir

Studies have shown that for Service-Learning (SL) to be truly valuable and transformative, it must employ participatory project management practices and is ideally conducted in a face-to-face setting. This case study aims to highlight the strategies used to make SL projects long-term and participatory.  It also measures the effectiveness of such approach in achieving a valuable and transformative SL experience for students and partner communities. Qualitative results show that students were able to develop desired personal, professional, and civic competencies. On the part of the partner communities, qualitative results reveal that they appreciate the year-long participatory SL engagement with the students that brought about high quality SL projects. Quantitative data, on the other hand, indicate that the paired samples t-test resulted in a moderate practical significant difference in the pre-and post-test scores of students when it came to their personal, professional, and civic mindedness skills. Finally, quantitative results indicate that partner communities reported that SL projects brought them a very favorable impact in terms of skills and competencies, motivation and commitments, personal growth and self-concept, and acquisition of knowledge. 

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. e0010021
Kriengsak Limkittikul ◽  
Pornthep Chanthavanich ◽  
Kang Sung Lee ◽  
Jung-Seok Lee ◽  
Supawat Chatchen ◽  

Background To determine the seroprevalence and transmission dynamics of dengue virus (DENV), age-stratified longitudinal serological surveys were conducted in Bangphae district, Ratchaburi province, Thailand, for 3 years between April 2012 and April 2015. Methodology The surveys enrolled 2012 healthy children and adults between 1 and 55 years-of-age, and a longitudinal serosurvey of six repeated bleeds of the same cohort of individuals was conducted every 8 months for the first 2 years (M0, M8, M16) and every half a year (M24, M30, M36) for the rest of the study period. All samples were tested using in-house indirect sandwich dengue IgG ELISA to determine DENV antibody titer, and 640 paired samples which showed rising of DENV IgG titers in paired serum were further tested using in-house neutralization assay, Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT50). Principal findings When compared against the gold standard based on the results of PRNT50, sensitivity and specificity of indirect ELISA were found to be both about 85%. The overall DENV IgG positivity determined by ELISA was 74.3% in 2012 and increased to 79.4% by the final sample collection in 2015. In our study sample, more than 98% of subjects older than 25 years were found to be seropositive. Among 518 IgG negative subjects at enrollment, the seroconversion rates were measured in paired bleeds; the rates (between successive visits, approximately 6 months) ranged between 4.8% (between M16 and M24) and 14.7% (between M0 and M8). The dominant serotype of primary DENV infection cases based on seroconversion was identified from the PRNT results and it was DENV-2. Conclusions Our study documented high levels of seroprevalence and rate of transmission. Given the importance of the serostatus and disease burden in consideration for dengue vaccine introduction, our data could be used in decision-making on implementation of various dengue control and preventive measures.

BMC Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Maria Valeria Esposito ◽  
Bruno Fosso ◽  
Marcella Nunziato ◽  
Giorgio Casaburi ◽  
Valeria D’Argenio ◽  

Abstract Background Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy in women, in whom it reaches 20% of the total neoplasia incidence. Most BCs are considered sporadic and a number of factors, including familiarity, age, hormonal cycles and diet, have been reported to be BC risk factors. Also the gut microbiota plays a role in breast cancer development. In fact, its imbalance has been associated to various human diseases including cancer although a consequential cause-effect phenomenon has never been proven. Methods The aim of this work was to characterize the breast tissue microbiome in 34 women affected by BC using an NGS-based method, and analyzing the tumoral and the adjacent non-tumoral tissue of each patient. Results The healthy and tumor tissues differed in bacterial composition and richness: the number of Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs) was higher in healthy tissues than in tumor tissues (p = 0.001). Moreover, our analyses, able to investigate from phylum down to species taxa for each sample, revealed major differences in the two richest phyla, namely, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Notably, the levels of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were, respectively, higher and lower in healthy with respect to tumor tissues. Conclusions Our study provides information about the breast tissue microbial composition, as compared with very closely adjacent healthy tissue (paired samples within the same woman); the differences found are such to have possible diagnostic and therapeutic implications; further studies are necessary to clarify if the differences found in the breast tissue microbiome are simply an association or a concausative pathogenetic effect in BC. A comparison of different results on similar studies seems not to assess a universal microbiome signature, but single ones depending on the environmental cohorts’ locations.

Robotics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 5
Dominic Wen How Tan ◽  
Poh Kiat Ng ◽  
Ervina Efzan Mhd Noor ◽  
Adi Saptari ◽  
Chee Chen Hue ◽  

As people age, their finger function deteriorates due to muscle, nerve, and brain degeneration. While exercises might delay this deterioration, an invention that enhances elderly people’s pinching abilities is essential. This study aims to design and develop a finger grip enhancer that facilitates the day-to-day pinching activities of elderly people. This research is an extension of a previous study that conceptualised a finger grip enhancer. The device facilitates finger flexion on the thumb and index finger, and weighs 520 g, allowing for improved portability and sufficient force exertion (13.9 N) for day-to-day pinching. To test for usability, eleven subjects aged 65 years and above performed a pinch-lift-hold test on various household objects. The pinch force before and after utilising the device was measured. Using Minitab 18, the statistical significance of using this device was analysed with a paired-samples t-test. With this device, the elderly people’s pinching abilities significantly improved in both pinch force and pinch force steadiness (p < 0.05). The proposed device has the potential to enhance elderly people’s quality of life by supporting a firm pinch in the handling of everyday objects. This research has applicational value in developing exoskeleton devices for patients who require rehabilitation.

Brian Randolph ◽  
Patricia M. Cisarik

Background: The blood pressure (BP)-lowering effect of beetroot is attributed to its high nitrate concentration, which converts to the vasodilator nitric oxide. Nitric oxide may also mediate ocular aqueous outflow to regulate intraocular pressure (IOP). Aims: We investigated the effect of beetroot juice on IOP and ocular vessel density. Subjects and Methods: With a single-blind, crossover design, 19 healthy young adults participated on 2 days 1 week apart. On Visit 1, baseline IOP, BP, and ocular vessel density (optical coherence tomography angiography, disc, and macula) were measured. Three hours after consumption of 16 ounces of beetroot juice or water (randomly assigned), all measurements were repeated. On Visit 2, baseline and 3-hour post-consumption measurements were assessed, with each subject consuming the drink not ingested on Visit 1. Results: Paired-samples t-test showed 1) no difference in IOP change post-water vs post-beet root juice (P = 0.27), and 2) mean systolic and diastolic BPs were lower only post-beet root juice (systolic: -4.8 (SEM ± 2.1) mm Hg, P = 0.032, 95% CI (0.47, 9.11); diastolic: -6.2 (SEM± 1.4) mm Hg, P <0.001, 95% CI (3.27, 9.15)). Superficial vessel density was significantly lower in several macular regions post-beet root juice, but not post-water (Wilcoxon signed ranks test, immediately superior, inferior, and temporal to center; respective P values of 0.016, 0.035, and 0.046). Conclusions: Beetroot juice lowers BP and macular vessel density, but does not lower IOP in young, healthy adults. Further investigation into its effect on IOP and vessel density in glaucomatous eyes is warranted. Keywords: beetroot, blood pressure, intraocular pressure, vessel density.

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