Gland Development
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JCI Insight ◽  
2021 ◽  
Edem Tchegnon ◽  
Chung-Ping Liao ◽  
Elnaz Ghotbi ◽  
Tracey Shipman ◽  
Yong Wang ◽  

Toxicology ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 152932
Qiang Xu ◽  
Quanxu Chen ◽  
Liben Lin ◽  
Pu Zhang ◽  
Zengqiang Li ◽  

Weizhen Chen ◽  
Wei Wei ◽  
Liya Yu ◽  
Xin Zhang ◽  
Fujing Huang ◽  

Baicalin, the main flavonoid component extracted from Scutellaria roots, has a variety of biological activities and is therefore used in the treatment of many kinds of diseases. However, whether baicalin affects the normal development of tissues and organs is still unclear. Here, using a mouse mammary gland model, we investigated the effects of baicalin on the expansion of mammary stem cells (MaSCs) and mammary development, as well as breast cancer progression. Interestingly, we found that baicalin administration significantly accelerates duct elongation at puberty, and promotes alveolar development and facilitates milk secretion during pregnancy. Furthermore, self-renewal of MaSCs was significantly promoted in the presence of baicalin. Moreover, in a tumor xenograft model, baicalin promoted tumor growth of the MDA-MB-231 cell line, but suppressed tumor growth of the ZR-751 cell line. Mechanistically, baicalin can induce expression of the protein C receptor, while inhibiting the expression of the estrogen receptor. Transcriptome analysis revealed that baicalin is involved in signaling pathways related to mammary gland development, immune response, and cell cycle control. Taken together, our results from comprehensive investigation of the biological activity of baicalin provide a theoretical basis for its rational clinical application.

2021 ◽  
Lu Lu ◽  
Toshinobu Kuroishi ◽  
Yukinori Tanaka ◽  
Shunji Sugawara

Abstract Gland macrophages are primed for gland development and functions through interactions within their niche. However, the phenotype, ontogeny, and function of steady-state salivary gland (SG) macrophages remain unclear. We herein identified CD11c+ and CD11c− subsets among CD64+ macrophages in steady-state murine SGs. CD11c− macrophages were predominant in the SGs of embryonic and newborn mice and decreased with advancing age. CD11c+ macrophages were rarely detected in the embryonic period, but rapidly expanded after birth. CD11c+, but not CD11c−, macrophage numbers decreased in mice treated with a CCR2 antagonist, suggesting that CD11c+ macrophages accumulate from bone marrow-derived progenitors in a CCR2-dependent manner, whereas CD11c− macrophages were derived from embryonic progenitors in SGs. CD11c+ and CD11c− macrophages strongly expressed colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1 receptor, the injection of an anti-CSF-1 receptor blocking antibody markedly reduced both subsets, and SGs strongly expressed CSF-1, indicating the dependency of SG resident macrophage development on CSF-1. The phagocytic activity of SG macrophages was extremely weak; however, the gene expression profile of SG macrophages indicated that SG macrophages regulate gland development and functions in SGs. These results suggest that SG CD11c+ and CD11c− macrophages are developed and instructed to perform SG-specific functions in steady-state SGs.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (6) ◽  
pp. e0252954
Silje Modahl Johanson ◽  
Erik Ropstad ◽  
Gunn Charlotte Østby ◽  
Mona Aleksandersen ◽  
Galia Zamaratskaia ◽  

The ability of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with endocrine disrupting properties to interfere with the developing reproductive system is of increasing concern. POPs are transferred from dams to offspring and the high sensitivity of neonates to endocrine disturbances may be caused by underdeveloped systems of metabolism and excretion. The present study aimed to characterize the effect of in utero and lactational exposure to a human relevant mixture of POPs on the female mammary gland, ovarian folliculogenesis and liver function in CD-1 offspring mice. Dams were exposed to the mixture through the diet at Control, Low or High doses (representing 0x, 5000x and 100 000x human estimated daily intake levels, respectively) from weaning and throughout mating, gestation, and lactation. Perinatally exposed female offspring exhibited altered mammary gland development and a suppressed ovarian follicle maturation. Increased hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymatic activities indirectly indicated activation of nuclear receptors and potential generation of reactive products. Hepatocellular hypertrophy was observed from weaning until 30 weeks of age and could potentially lead to hepatotoxicity. Further studies should investigate the effects of human relevant mixtures of POPs on several hormones combined with female reproductive ability and liver function.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
John Maringa Githaka ◽  
Namita Tripathi ◽  
Raven Kirschenman ◽  
Namrata Patel ◽  
Vrajesh Pandya ◽  

AbstractElucidation of non-canonical protein functions can identify novel tissue homeostasis pathways. Herein, we describe a role for the Bcl-2 family member BAD in postnatal mammary gland morphogenesis. In Bad3SA knock-in mice, where BAD cannot undergo phosphorylation at 3 key serine residues, pubertal gland development is delayed due to aberrant tubulogenesis of the ductal epithelium. Proteomic and RPPA analyses identify that BAD regulates focal adhesions and the mRNA translation repressor, 4E-BP1. These results suggest that BAD modulates localized translation that drives focal adhesion maturation and cell motility. Consistent with this, cells within Bad3SA organoids contain unstable protrusions with decreased compartmentalized mRNA translation and focal adhesions, and exhibit reduced cell migration and tubulogenesis. Critically, protrusion stability is rescued by 4E-BP1 depletion. Together our results confirm an unexpected role of BAD in controlling localized translation and cell migration during mammary gland development.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (9) ◽  
pp. 5007
Hailiang Cheng ◽  
Xiaoxu Feng ◽  
Dongyun Zuo ◽  
Youping Zhang ◽  
Qiaolian Wang ◽  

Plant NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) family is involved in various development processes including Programmed Cell Death (PCD) associated development. However, the relationship between NAC family and PCD-associated cotton pigment gland development is largely unknown. In this study, we identified 150, 153 and 299 NAC genes in newly updated genome sequences of G. arboreum, G. raimondii and G. hirsutum, respectively. All NAC genes were divided into 8 groups by the phylogenetic analysis and most of them were conserved during cotton evolution. Using the vital regulator of gland formation GhMYC2-like as bait, expression correlation analysis screened out 6 NAC genes which were low-expressed in glandless cotton and high-expressed in glanded cotton. These 6 NAC genes acted downstream of GhMYC2-like and were induced by MeJA. Silencing CGF1(Cotton Gland Formation1), another MYC-coding gene, caused almost glandless phenotype and down-regulated expression of GhMYC2-like and the 6 NAC genes, indicating a MYC-NAC regulatory network in gland development. In addition, predicted regulatory mechanism showed that the 6 NAC genes were possibly regulated by light, various phytohormones and transcription factors as well as miRNAs. The interaction network and DNA binding sites of the 6 NAC transcription factors were also predicted. These results laid the foundation for further study of gland-related genes and gland development regulatory network.

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