rna editing
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Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 207
Xiaoyun Wu ◽  
Wondossen Ayalew ◽  
Min Chu ◽  
Jie Pei ◽  
Chunnian Liang ◽  

The mammary gland is a complicated organ comprising several types of cells, and it undergoes extensive morphogenetic and metabolic changes during the female reproductive cycle. RNA editing is a posttranscriptional modification event occurring at the RNA nucleotide level, and it drives transcriptomic and proteomic diversities, with potential functional consequences. RNA editing in the mammary gland of yaks, however, remains poorly understood. Here, we used REDItools to identify RNA editing sites in mammary gland tissues in yaks during the lactation period (LP, n = 2) and dry period (DP, n = 3). Totally, 82,872 unique RNA editing sites were identified, most of which were detected in the noncoding regions with a low editing degree. In the coding regions (CDS), we detected 5235 editing sites, among which 1884 caused nonsynonymous amino acid changes. Of these RNA editing sites, 486 were found to generate novel possible miRNA target sites or interfere with the initial miRNA binding sites, indicating that RNA editing was related to gene regulation mediated by miRNA. A total of 14,159 RNA editing sites (involving 3238 common genes) showed a significant differential editing level in the LP when compared with that in the DP through Tukey’s Honest Significant Difference method (p < 0.05). According to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis, genes that showed different RNA editing levels mainly participated in pathways highly related to mammary gland development, including MAPK, PI3K-Akt, FoxO, and GnRH signaling pathways. Collectively, this work demonstrated for the first time the dynamic RNA editome profiles in the mammary gland of yaks and shed more light on the mechanism that regulates lactation together with mammary gland development.

Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 139
Mei Fu ◽  
Xiaona Lin ◽  
Yining Zhou ◽  
Chunmei Zhang ◽  
Bing Liu ◽  

RNA editing is essential for compensating for defects or mutations in haploid organelle genomes and is regulated by numerous trans-factors. Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are the prime factors that are involved in RNA editing; however, many have not yet been identified. Here, we screened the plastid-targeted PLS-DYW subfamily of PPR proteins belonging to Arabidopsis thaliana and identified ORGANELLE TRANSCRIPT PROCESSING 970 (OTP970) as a key player in RNA editing in plastids. A loss-of-function otp970 mutant was impaired in RNA editing of ndhB transcripts at site 149 (ndhB-C149). RNA-immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that OTP970 was associated with the ndhB-C149 site. The complementation of the otp970 mutant with OTP970 lacking the DYW domain (OTP970∆DYW) failed to restore the RNA editing of ndhB-C149. ndhB gene encodes the B subunit of the NADH dehydrogenase-like (NDH) complex; however, neither NDH activity and stability nor NDH-PSI supercomplex formation were affected in otp970 mutant compared to the wild type, indicating that alteration in amino acid sequence is not necessary for NdhB function. Together, these results suggest that OTP970 is involved in the RNA editing of ndhB-C149 and that the DYW domain is essential for its function.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 684
Maria Maldonado ◽  
Kaitlyn Madison Abe ◽  
James Anthony Letts

The last steps of respiration, a core energy-harvesting process, are carried out by a chain of multi-subunit complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Several essential subunits of the respiratory complexes are RNA-edited in plants, frequently leading to changes in the encoded amino acids. While the impact of RNA editing is clear at the sequence and phenotypic levels, the underlying biochemical explanations for these effects have remained obscure. Here, we used the structures of plant respiratory complex I, complex III2 and complex IV to analyze the impact of the amino acid changes of RNA editing in terms of their location and biochemical features. Through specific examples, we demonstrate how the structural information can explain the phenotypes of RNA-editing mutants. This work shows how the structural perspective can bridge the gap between sequence and phenotype and provides a framework for the continued analysis of RNA-editing mutants in plant mitochondria and, by extension, in chloroplasts.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 146
Yuhong Xiong ◽  
Jing Fang ◽  
Xiaohan Jiang ◽  
Tengfei Wang ◽  
Kangchen Liu ◽  

Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) is well known for its high vitamin C content and good taste. Various diseases, especially bacterial canker, are a serious threat to the yield of kiwifruit. Multiple organellar RNA editing factor (MORF) genes are pivotal factors in the RNA editosome that mediates Cytosine-to-Uracil RNA editing, and they are also indispensable for the regulation of chloroplast development, plant growth, and response to stresses. Although the kiwifruit genome has been released, little is known about MORF genes in kiwifruit at the genome-wide level, especially those involved in the response to pathogens stress. In this study, we identified ten MORF genes in the kiwifruit genome. The genomic structures and chromosomal locations analysis indicated that all the MORF genes consisted of three conserved motifs, and they were distributed widely across the seven linkage groups and one contig of the kiwifruit genome. Based on the structural features of MORF proteins and the topology of the phylogenetic tree, the kiwifruit MORF gene family members were classified into six groups (Groups A–F). A synteny analysis indicated that two pairs of MORF genes were tandemly duplicated and five pairs of MORF genes were segmentally duplicated. Moreover, based on analysis of RNA-seq data from five tissues of kiwifruit, we found that both expressions of MORF genes and chloroplast RNA editing exhibited tissue-specific patterns. MORF2 and MORF9 were highly expressed in leaf and shoot, and may be responsible for chloroplast RNA editing, especially the ndhB genes. We also observed different MORF expression and chloroplast RNA editing profiles between resistant and susceptible kiwifruits after pathogen infection, indicating the roles of MORF genes in stress response by modulating the editing extend of mRNA. These results provide a solid foundation for further analyses of the functions and molecular evolution of MORF genes, in particular, for clarifying the resistance mechanisms in kiwifruits and breeding new cultivars with high resistance.

Philipp Reautschnig ◽  
Nicolai Wahn ◽  
Jacqueline Wettengel ◽  
Annika E. Schulz ◽  
Ngadhnjim Latifi ◽  

2022 ◽  
Chunlong Xu ◽  
Yingsi Zhou ◽  
Qingquan Xiao ◽  
Bingbing He ◽  
Guannan Geng ◽  

Sidra Ashraf ◽  
Muhammad Zubair Ghouri ◽  
Muhammad Asif Javed ◽  
Hassan Zafar ◽  
Hazrat Ali ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (3) ◽  
pp. e202101191
Xinfeng Guo ◽  
Silvia Liu ◽  
Rose Yan ◽  
Vy Nguyen ◽  
Mazen Zenati ◽  

The RNA-sensing signaling pathway has been well studied as an essential antiviral mechanism of innate immunity. However, its role in non-infected cells is yet to be thoroughly characterized. Here, we demonstrated that the RNA sensing signaling pathway also reacts to the endogenous cellular RNAs in endothelial cells (ECs), and this reaction is regulated by the RNA-editing enzyme ADAR1. Cellular RNA sequencing analysis showed that EC RNAs endure extensive RNA editing, especially in the RNA transcripts of short interspersed nuclear elements. The EC-specific deletion of ADAR1 dramatically reduced the editing level on short interspersed nuclear element RNAs, resulting in newborn death in mice with damage evident in multiple organs. Genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed a prominent innate immune activation with a dramatically elevated expression of interferon-stimulated genes. However, blocking the RNA sensing signaling pathway by deletion of the cellular RNA receptor MDA-5 prevented interferon-stimulated gene expression and rescued the newborn mice from death. This evidence demonstrated that the RNA-editing/RNA-sensing signaling pathway dramatically modulates EC function, representing a novel molecular mechanism for the regulation of EC functions.

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