Melanoma Cancer
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Diagnóstico ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 60 (4) ◽  
pp. 224-228
Author(s):  
Daniel Enriquez-Vera

Los anticuerpos monoclonales representan una pieza fundamental en el arsenal terapéutico en oncología. Estos compuestos biológicos de alta complejidad han logrado mejorar la supervivencia de los pacientes con cáncer. Entre los clásicos se encuentran: rituximab, bevacizumab, cetuximab, trastuzumab utilizados a diario en nuestro medio. En la última década, la inmunoterapia se ha posicionado como una terapia eficaz para neoplásias de pronóstico adverso como el melanoma, cáncer de pulmón y renal. En el futuro próximo, los nuevos conjugados de anticuerpos y la terapia con células T quiméricas se presentarán como paradigmas de terapias promisorias en el manejo del cáncer.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Olivia Vidal-Cruchez ◽  
Victoria J Nicolini ◽  
Tifenn Rete ◽  
Roger Rezzonico ◽  
Caroline Lacoux ◽  
...  

AbstractBackgroundOveractivation of the Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is a critical driver of many human cancers. However, therapies that target this pathway have only been effective in a few cancers, as cancers inevitably end up developing resistance. Puzzling observations have suggested that MAPK targeting in tumor fails because of an early compensatory RAS overexpression, but through unexplained mechanisms.MethodsLung, breast, and melanoma cancer cells were incubated with MEK inhibitors (MEKi). Kinetics of expression of KRAS, NRAS mRNA and proteins and processing bodies (PBs) proteins were followed overtime by immunoblot and confocal studies.ResultsHere, we identified a novel mechanism of drug tolerance for MEKi involving PBs essential proteins like DDX6 or LSM14A. MEKi promoted the translation of KRAS and NRAS oncogenes, which in turn triggered BRAF phosphorylation. This overexpression, which occurred in the absence of neo-transcription, depended on PBs dissolution as a source of RAS mRNA reservoir. In addition, in response to MEKi removal, we showed that the process was dynamic since the PBs quickly reformed, reducing MAPK signaling. These results underline a dynamic spatiotemporal negative feedback loop of MAPK signaling via RAS mRNA sequestration. Furthermore, in long-tolerant cells, we observed a LSM14A loss of expression that promoted a low PBs number phenotype together with strong KRAS and NRAS induction capacities.ConclusionsAltogether we describe here a new intricate mechanism involving PB, DDX6 and LSM14A in the translation regulation of essential cellular pathways that pave the way for future therapies altering PBs dissolution to improve cancer targeted-drug therapies.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 864-864
Author(s):  
Courtney Millar ◽  
Alyssa Dufour ◽  
Marian Hannan ◽  
Shivani Sahni

Abstract Depression affects more than 250 million people worldwide. Although epidemiological studies have linked higher dietary flavonoids with depression prevention in older women, it is unknown if increasing dietary flavonoids could effectively reduce depression. Mixed berries (blueberry, blackberry, and raspberry) are a rich source of flavonoids, particularly anthocyanin, flavanol, and flavan-3-ol subclasses. Our aim was to determine the association of mixed-berry flavonoid intake with change in depressive symptoms over ~8 years in older adults from the Framingham Heart Study. This community-based prospective longitudinal study included 1,278 adults with assessments on diet (food frequency questionnaire) and depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression, CES-D) at baseline (1998-2001) and follow-up (2005-2008). Absolute change in mixed-berry flavonoid intake (defined as sum of anthocyanin, flavanol, and flavon-3-ols, mg/day) and change in CES-D scores were calculated. Linear regression estimated beta and standard error (SE) for change in CES-D scores per 250 mg/day increase in mixed-berry flavonoids (obtained from ~3/4 cup of mixed berries), adjusting for baseline age, sex, energy-intake, current smoking, body mass index, physical activity, cardiovascular disease, and non-melanoma cancer. Mean age was 59±9 years (range: 33-81), 57% female and mean change in mixed-berry flavonoid intake was 15.0±72.8 mg/day over ~8 years. In adjusted models, each 250 mg/day increase in mixed-berry flavonoid intake was associated with a 1-point reduction in depressive symptoms (beta: -1.06, SE: 0.61, p=0.08) over ~8 years, although this was not statistically significant. These data highlight the need for randomized clinical trials of flavonoid-rich berries to target depressive symptoms in older adults.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yan Cao ◽  
Hayder A. Dhahad ◽  
M. A. El-Shorbagy ◽  
Hajar Q. Alijani ◽  
Mana Zakeri ◽  
...  

AbstractIn this study, a simple and green strategy was reported to prepare bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) by the combination of zinc oxide (ZnO) and copper oxide (CuO) using Sambucus nigra L. extract. The physicochemical properties of these NPs such as crystal structure, size, and morphology were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results suggested that these NPs contained polygonal ZnO NPs with hexagonal phase and spherical CuO NPs with monoclinic phase. The anticancer activity of the prepared bimetallic NPs was evaluated against lung and human melanoma cell lines based on MTT assay. As a result, the bimetallic ZnO/CuO NPs exhibited high toxicity on melanoma cancer cells while their toxicity on lung cancer cells was low.


2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ramandeep Kaur ◽  
Navdeep Kaur

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