gamma glutamyl transferase
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 117-123
Vivek Ahuja ◽  
Raghav Singhal ◽  
Paraag Kumar

Background: Liver diseases are a cause of worldwide morbidity .The course is usually long and has no signs before the development of late stage disease. The only indicative markers are liver enzymes, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) during asymptomatic period. There is a paucity of data from our subcontinent regarding the prevalence, risk factors and etiology of asymptomatic chronically raised liver enzymes.The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and etiology associated with unexplained chronically raised liver transaminases in patients attending OPD in a tertiary care hospital.Methods:This was a prospective study conducted in the Department of Gastroenterology, MMIMSR, Mullana from July 2019-Dec 2020 in 50 patients who presented with chronically raised liver enzymes. Detailed comprehensive history, physical examination and investigation was done to identify etiology and risk factors associated with raised liver enzymes.Results:566 patients were screenedfor inclusion in the study. The prevalence of raised transaminases in asymptomatic patients was 9.4%. NAFLD was the most common etiology of raised liver transaminases, seen in 70 % of patients followed by Hepatitis C and Hepatitis B. Dyslipidemia was the most important risk factor associated with NAFLD.Conclusion:NAFLD should be kept in mind while dealing patients with unexplained transaminitis. Earlier detection could help halt the progression to chronic liver disease.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 373
Davide Masi ◽  
Renata Risi ◽  
Filippo Biagi ◽  
Daniel Vasquez Barahona ◽  
Mikiko Watanabe ◽  

The key factors playing a role in the pathogenesis of metabolic alterations observed in many patients with obesity have not been fully characterized. Their identification is crucial, and it would represent a fundamental step towards better management of this urgent public health issue. This aim could be accomplished by exploiting the potential of machine learning (ML) technology. In a single-centre study (n = 2567), we used an ML analysis to cluster patients with metabolically healthy (MHO) or metabolically unhealthy (MUO) obesity, based on several clinical and biochemical variables. The first model provided by ML was able to predict the presence/absence of MHO with an accuracy of 66.67% and 72.15%, respectively, and included the following parameters: HOMA-IR, upper body fat/lower body fat, glycosylated haemoglobin, red blood cells, age, alanine aminotransferase, uric acid, white blood cells, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and gamma-glutamyl transferase. For each of these parameters, ML provided threshold values identifying either MUO or MHO. A second model including IGF-1 zSDS, a surrogate marker of IGF-1 normalized by age and sex, was even more accurate with a 71.84% and 72.3% precision, respectively. Our results demonstrated high IGF-1 levels in MHO patients, thus highlighting a possible role of IGF-1 as a novel metabolic health parameter to effectively predict the development of MUO using ML technology.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 253-259
Juby Sara Koshy ◽  
Afsheen Raza

The clinical laboratory in today’s world is a rapidly evolving field which faces a constant pressure to produce quick and reliable results. Sigma metric is a new tool which helps to reduce process variability, quantitate the approximate number of analytical errors, and evaluate and guide for better quality control (QC) practices.To analyze sigma metrics of 16 biochemistry analytes using ERBA XL 200 Biochemistry analyzer, interpret parameter performance, compare analyzer performance with other Middle East studies and modify existing QC practices.This study was undertaken at a clinical laboratory for a period of 12 months from January to December 2020 for the following analytes: albumin (ALB), alanine amino transferase (SGPT), aspartate amino transferase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), bilirubin total (BIL T), bilirubin direct (BIL D), calcium (CAL), cholesterol (CHOL), creatinine (CREAT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), glucose (GLUC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG), total protein (PROT), uric acid (UA) and urea. The Coefficient of variance (CV%) and Bias % were calculated from internal quality control (IQC) and external quality assurance scheme (EQAS) records respectively. Total allowable error (TEa) was obtained using guidelines Clinical Laboratories Improvement Act guidelines (CLIA). Sigma metrics was calculated using CV%, Bias% and TEa for the above parameters. It was found that 5 analytes in level 1 and 8 analytes in level 2 had greater than 6 sigma performance indicating world class quality. Cholesterol, glucose (level 1 and 2) and creatinine level 1 showed >4 sigma performance i.e acceptable performance. Urea (both levels) and GGT (level 1) showed <3 sigma and were therefore identified as the problem analytes. Sigma metrics helps to assess analytic methodologies and can serve as an important self assessment tool for quality assurance in the clinical laboratory. Sigma metric evaluation in this study helped to evaluate the quality of several analytes and also categorize them from high performing to problematic analytes, indicating the utility of this tool. In conclusion, parameters showing lesser than 3 sigma need strict monitoring and modification of quality control procedure with change in method if necessary.

Vahid Parvizi Mastali ◽  
Rastegar Hoseini ◽  
Mohammad Azizi

Abstract Background Exercise-induced muscle damage typically caused by unaccustomed exercise results in pain, soreness, inflammation, and muscle and liver damages. Antioxidant supplementation might be a useful approach to reduce myocytes and hepatocytes damages. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of short-term vitamin D (Vit D) supplementation on the response to muscle and liver damages indices by Exhaustive Aerobic Exercise (EAE) in untrained men. Methods In this clinical trial, 24 untrained men were randomly divided into experimental (Exp; n = 12) and control (C; n = 12) groups. Exp received 2000 IU of Vit D daily for six weeks (42 days), while C daily received a lactose placebo with the same color, shape, and warmth percentage. Two bouts of EAE were performed on a treadmill before and after six weeks of supplementation. Anthropometric characteristics (Bodyweight (BW), height, Body Fat Percentage (BFP), Body Mass Index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR)) were measured at the Pre 1 and Pre 2. Blood samples were taken to measure the Creatine Kinase (CK), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase (GGT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), and Vit D levels at four stages: Pre 1 (before the first EE session), Post 1 (after the first EE session), Pre 2 (before the second EE session), and Post 2 (after the second EE session). The data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA, Bonferroni's post hoc test, independent t test, and dependent t-test at the significant level of P < 0.05 using SPSS version 26. Results The results show significant differences between Exp and C in alterations of BW (P = 0.039), BMI (P = 0.025), BFP (P = 0.043), and WHR (P = 0.035). The results showed that EAE increased muscle and liver damage indices and Vit D (P < 0.05). Compared with C, the results of the independent t-test showed significantly lower ALT (P = 0.001; P = 0.001), AST (P = 0.011; P = 0.001), GGT (P = 0.018; P = 0.001), and ALP (P = 0.001; P = 0.001); while significantly higher Vit D (P = 0.001, P = 0.001) in the Exp in both Pre 2 and Post 2; receptivity. The independent t test showed significantly lower ALT (P = 0.001; P = 0.001), AST (P = 0.011; P = 0.001), GGT (P = 0.018; P = 0.001), and ALP (P = 0.001; P = 0.001) and considerably greater Vit D (P = 0.001, P = 0.001) in the Exp in both Pre 2 and Post 2 compared to C. The results of an independent t test showed that LDH and CK levels in the Exp were significantly lower than those in the Post 2 (P = 0.001). Conclusions Short-term Vit D supplementation could prevent myocytes and hepatocytes damage induced by EAE.

Medicine ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 101 (1) ◽  
pp. e28443
Mindan Xing ◽  
Min Gao ◽  
Jia Li ◽  
Ping Han ◽  
Ling Mei ◽  

Gut ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. gutjnl-2021-324295
Meritxell Ventura-Cots ◽  
Josepmaria Argemi ◽  
Patricia D Jones ◽  
Carolin Lackner ◽  
Mohamed El Hag ◽  

ObjectiveAlcohol-related liver disease (ALD) ranges from never-decompensated ALD (ndALD) to the life-threatening decompensated phenotype, known as alcohol-related hepatitis (AH). A multidimensional study of the clinical, histological and molecular features of these subtypes is lacking.DesignTwo large cohorts of patients were recruited in an international, observational multicentre study: a retrospective cohort of patients with ndALD (n=110) and a prospective cohort of patients with AH (n=225). Clinical, analytical, immunohistochemistry and hepatic RNA microarray analysis of both disease phenotypes were performed.ResultsAge and mean alcohol intake were similar in both groups. AH patients had greater aspartate amino transferase/alanine amino transferase ratio and lower gamma-glutamyl transferase levels than in ndALD patients. Patients with AH demonstrated profound liver failure and increased mortality. One-year mortality was 10% in ndALD and 50% in AH. Histologically, steatosis grade, ballooning and pericellular fibrosis were similar in both groups, while advanced fibrosis, Mallory-Denk bodies, bilirubinostasis, severe neutrophil infiltration and ductular reaction were more frequent among AH patients. Transcriptome analysis revealed a profound gene dysregulation within both phenotypes when compare to controls. While ndALD was characterised by deregulated expression of genes involved in matrisome and immune response, the development of AH resulted in a marked deregulation of genes involved in hepatocyte reprogramming and bile acid metabolism.ConclusionsDespite comparable alcohol intake, AH patients presented with worse liver function compared with ndALD patients. Bilirubinostasis, severe fibrosis and ductular reaction were prominent features of AH. AH patients exhibited a more profound deregulation of gene expression compared with ndALD patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 277
Carolin Sack ◽  
Nina Ferrari ◽  
David Friesen ◽  
Fabiola Haas ◽  
Marlen Klaudius ◽  

Sarcopenic obesity is increasingly found in youth, but its health consequences remain unclear. Therefore, we studied the prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors as well as muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness using data from the German Children’s Health InterventionaL Trial (CHILT III) programme. In addition to anthropometric data and blood pressure, muscle and fat mass were determined with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sarcopenia was classified via muscle-to-fat ratio. A fasting blood sample was taken, muscular fitness was determined using the standing long jump, and cardiorespiratory fitness was determined using bicycle ergometry. Of the 119 obese participants included in the analysis (47.1% female, mean age 12.2 years), 83 (69.7%) had sarcopenia. Affected individuals had higher gamma-glutamyl transferase, higher glutamate pyruvate transaminase, higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, higher diastolic blood pressure, and lower muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness (each p < 0.05) compared to participants who were ‘only’ obese. No differences were found in other parameters. In our study, sarcopenic obesity was associated with various disorders in children and adolescents. However, the clinical value must be tested with larger samples and reference populations to develop a unique definition and appropriate methods in terms of identification but also related preventive or therapeutic approaches.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Salavhuddin Mahmud ◽  
Jahida Gulshan ◽  
Mashud Parvez ◽  
Farhana Tasneem ◽  
Syed Shafi Ahmed

Abstract Background Neonatal cholestasis (NC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young infants. This study examines the etiology of NC and its outcome during 2 years of follow-up at a tertiary referral center in Bangladesh. Results Out of 80 cholestatic infants, 60% had intrahepatic cholestasis with a mean age of onset of 12.4±2.8 days and a mean age of admission of 82.4±29.0 days. The remaining 40% were extrahepatic with a mean age of onset of 6.7±2.3 days and a mean age of admission of 94.6±50.4 days. Biliary atresia (BA), idiopathic neonatal hepatitis (INH), and TORCH (Toxoplasma, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex) infection except rubella were the most common causes. After receiving treatment, 46.2% of the cases improved, 23.8% deteriorated with morbidity, and 30% died. The majority of the children with INH, TORCH, choledochal cyst, hypothyroidism, galactosemia, and urinary tract infection (UTI) with sepsis were improved. Significant mortality was found in BA (56.6%), intrahepatic bile duct paucity (PIBD) (100%), and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) (100%) whereas the rest of BA (43.4%) live with persistent morbidity. Significant clinical improvement was observed in 37 (46.2%) cases of cholestasis evidenced by decreasing jaundice, change of color of urine from dark to normal color, change of stool color from pale to yellow, and gradual decrease in liver size from hepatomegaly state. In addition, decreasing median total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, alanine transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and alkaline phosphatase showed biochemical improvement at 2 years follow-up. The age of admission, etiology, and presence of ascites are the predictors of outcomes. Conclusion BA was the most common cause of extrahepatic while INH and TORCH infection were the most common cause of intrahepatic cholestasis. Majority of children with intrahepatic cholestasis improved but deteriorated with BA and genetic causes. Prompt referral and early diagnosis as well as the etiology of NC were the main determinants of the favorable outcome.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (6) ◽  
Renata Barcelos Repoles ◽  
Clarice Silva Cesario ◽  
Edilberto Nobrega Martinez ◽  
Waldomiro de Paula Lopes ◽  
Delma Henriques Rodrigues ◽  

ABSTRACT: The coati (Nasua nasua, Linnaeus 1766) is a generalist species, feeding on often-discarded human food in dumpsters around ecological tourism sites. We investigated the body weight and some blood chemistry variables related to the diet of wild coatis from three parks: Parque Municipal das Mangabeiras (PM), Parque Nacional do Caparaó (PNC) e Estação Ecológica Água Limpa (EEAL). We tested the plasma of 53 coatis for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), cholesterol (Chol), triglycerides (Trig), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Male and female adults did not significantly differ on the weight (P > 0.05) and blood chemistry indexes (P > 0.05). The adult coatis of the PM were heavier than the adult coatis of the other two parks. There were significant differences in HDL (P < 0.04), AST (P < 0.001), ALT (P < 0.001), and GGT (P < 0.001) between adults of the three parks. Only ALT and ALP were significantly different (P < 0.05) among the young coatis. The results suggested the coatis of the three parks have different health status. The consumption of discarded human food seems to affect body weight of the PM coatis. The coatis from PNC and EEAL had blood chemistry profiles suggestive of liver disorder. We recommend carrying on environmental education programs to visitors and additional clinical investigations on coatis from these parks.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
pp. 155
Fidelis Oyakhire ◽  
Emokpae M.A ◽  
Enehizena Ogie ◽  
Egho E Valentine

Diabetes mellitus is an internationally recognized health problem and a leading cause of death worldwide. However, the most significant increase in prevalence is expected to occur in Asia and Africa, where most patients will be found by 2030. Diabetic Mellitus is a clinical and metabolic syndrome characterized by abnormal carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism resulting in hyperglycemia, increased protein breakdown, Ketosis or acidosis due to absolute or relative deficiency, and insulin resistance, thereby leading to vascular complications such as retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy. This study evaluated the levels of plasma bilirubin, ALP, and GGT among diabetic patients. A total of eighty (80) individuals were recruited for the study comprising of forty (40) diabetes patients with age range 25-80 years and forty (40) control subjects with the age range of 20-30 years in Irrua/Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. The study was carried out within six months (December 2018 - May 2019). All patients were diabetes. The serum Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), total and conjugated bilirubin were assayed by spectrophotometric method, and the data obtained were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 23.0 software. Serum levels of ALP, GGT, Total and unconjugated bilirubin were significantly elevated (P&lt;0.05) among diabetes patients than control subjects except for conjugated bilirubin which was lower (P&gt;0.05)  when compared with that of the control subjects. The mean serum levels of  ALP, GGT, total, unconjugated and conjugated bilirubin of male diabetes patients were non statistically significant (P&gt;0.05) when compared with female diabetes subjects except the age (P&lt;0.05). These findings indicate that hepatic injury was more likely among diabetes, and liver enzymes (ALP, GGT) are critical for monitoring glucose control concomitant with hepatic injury. Bilirubin is a potentially important biomarker for the assessment of the hepatic excretory system in diabetes mellitus.

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