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2022 ◽  
Omololu Ogunseye ◽  
Kamar Oladepo

Abstract. This study investigates the variational effect of climate factors on the productivity of a basin-type solar still during the harmattan season under the tropical savanna climate. The study was extended to examine the influences of selected climatic, operational, and design (COD) parameters on productivity. Additionally, the efficiency of solar still in removing water impurities during harmattan was also investigated. Explorative data and statistical analysis, and laboratory testing methods were used for these investigations. Results show that seasonal effects of harmattan can either increase or lower productivity. The effect of wind speed on productivity was not clearly defined during the harmattan season. Although high irradiation is essential for increased productivity, its effect is modified by other factors. Water temperature is the most significant to productivity amongst selected factors studied via the design of experiment (DOE). Moreover, the effect of harmattan on the water quality produced was not established. The main contribution of this work is the insights generated for both qualitative and quantitative reliability performance of a basin-type solar still under prevailing climate conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
Dyutiman Choudhary ◽  
Kamal Banskota ◽  
Narayan Prasad Khanal ◽  
Andrew James McDonald ◽  
Timothy J. Krupnik ◽  

With economic development agricultural systems in the Global South transform from subsistence farming to higher productivity with market integration and increase in rural income and food security. In Nepal, agriculture continues to provide livelihoods for two-thirds of the predominantly rural population, largely at a subsistence-level. Rice is the staple food and covers the largest land area but yields are relatively low, with an annual import bill of USD 300 Million. The study uses data from 310 households from two distinct rice producing areas to assess farmers' rice production systems. It analyses farmers' rice production efficiency using a stochastic frontier production function to suggest how to advance the transformation of Nepal's rice sector. Our study finds that while agriculture related services such as access to inputs, information, markets, irrigation, and finance have generally improved, paddy farmers are only able to achieve 76% of potential output. Small/marginal farms were relatively less efficient than medium and large farms. Women farmers faced unequal access to technologies and have lower productivity than men. Unavailability of labor and capital, land fragmentation, and the lack of consistent access to seed and fertilizers contribute to reduced efficiency. Public and private sector investments are needed to enhance the timely and adequate access to quality seeds, fertilizers, processing facilities, and equipment services. Adopting a market systems approach through cooperative farming, targeted delivery of extension services, and linkages with rice millers can promote inclusive growth and improve rice food security in Nepal.

Abhinav Kumar Yadav ◽  
S.P. Singh ◽  
D.K. Yadav ◽  
Govind Kumar Yadav ◽  
Kuldeep Singh ◽  

Background: Nitrogen and phosphorus are amongst fundamental macronutrients, which are crucial for the growth and development of plant. Soils of dry land of central Rajasthan are deficit in nitrogen and phosphorus content which leads to lower productivity of kasuri methi. Therefore, adequate supply of nitrogen (foliar spray) and phosphorus could enhance productivity of kasuri methi. Methods: The experiment consisted of sixteen treatment combinations including four levels of phosphorus (control, 20, 40 and 60 kg/ha) and four levels of foliar application of nitrogen (control, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0%). They were under taken in FRBD with three replications. Result: Growth parameters and yield of fresh and dried leaves of the crop increased almost linearly with increasing levels of phosphorus and foliar application of nitrogen. The result indicated that application of phosphorus 60 kg/ha and foliar nitrogen @ 2.0% to the kasuri methi crop significantly increased the plant height (cm) and leaf area per plant (cm2) at each harvest, number of nodules per plant (58.17 and 53.33, respectively) and chlorophyll content (2.32 and 2.39 mg/100 g, respectively), fresh leaves yield (139.1 and 141.66 q/ha, respectively), dry leaves yield (20.01 and 22.38 q/ha, respectively), protein content in leaves (5.28 and 5.75%, respectively) and ascorbic acid in leaves (218.15 and 222.42 mg/100 g, respectively).

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Samin Marzban ◽  
Christhina Candido ◽  
Martin Mackey ◽  
Lina Engelen ◽  
Fan Zhang ◽  

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to map and describe findings from research conducted in workspaces designed to support activity-based working (ABW) over the past 10 years (2010–2020) with a view of informing post-COVID workplaces of the positive and negative attributes of ABW. Design/methodology/approach Scopus was used as the search engine for this review. Papers which reported findings related to ABW and performed field study in ABW workspaces with adult occupants were included. Out of the 442 initial papers, 40 papers were included following iterative title and abstract and full text review process and consideration of inclusion and exclusion criteria. These papers were divided into three groupings (organizational, human and physical environment) based on their major focus. Positive and negative effects of ABW environments on occupants are discussed within these three topics in consideration of the implications for the post-COVID workplace. Findings Although the included studies were inclined to be either more positive (i.e. interior design) or negative (i.e. indoor environmental quality, productivity, distraction and privacy) in relation to various attributes of ABW, no single effect of ABW environments on occupants was in full agreement between the studies. The shortcomings of ABW environments are more related to how this way of working is implemented and how occupants use it, rather than the concept itself. A partial uptake of ABW leads to occupants’ dissatisfaction, lower productivity and lower well-being, while a holistic approach increases the chance of success. It is hypothesised that many currently reported negative aspects of the ABW concept might diminish overtime as ABW evolves and as new challenges arise. A continuous post-occupancy evaluation after relocation to an ABW-supportive environment can inform the organization about the changing needs and preference of the occupants; hence, the organization can tailor the ABW solution to the arising needs. The inter-connection between the three key ABW pillars (organizational, human and physical environment) is crucial to the success of this concept specifically in the context of the post-COVID-19 workplace. Originality/value This paper highlights the key shortcomings and limitations of studies produced over the past decade and identifies keys gaps in the current body of literature. It provides a new insight on how findings related to open-plan offices designed to support ABW can be categorized on the three big heading of organizational, physical and human-related aspects, and further investigates the positive and negatives outcomes reported on ABW under these headings. It also discusses how the findings arising from this literature review can inform the post-COVID workplace.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 1895-1890
Dibyendu Saha

Air pollution is a notable worldwide warning to human health. Every year, air pollution is accountable for more than five million death, out of these 91% occur in lower-middle-income countries. In addition to this, various respiratory & cardiovascular diseases, lower productivity and increased mortality are also related to air pollution, that’s why it’s often called a silent or invisible killer. However, Ecotourism generates opportunities for tourists wishing to enjoy the natural environment without destructing or disturbing its habitats. It is increasingly considered instrumental in helping the local socio-economic sustainable development and also as a means for generating revenues with the object of preserving the local traditional culture and craft. Environmental ambient quality must be considered as a crucial aspect in the predetermining process of prospective tourists and tourism destinations. The present study site Baranti, in Raghunathpur subdivision of Purulia district, West Bengal, India is situated in a splendid location within Baranti Lake and Baranti Hill, both has emerged as a fast-grown ecotourism spot over the last 7-8 years. The present study was carried out through survey questionnaire method from May 2020 (01.05.2020) - November 2020 (30.11.2020) on different categories of respondents like local people, hotel-resort owners & staff, local businessmen and tourists and simultaneously during this period, the air quality was also measured in respect of temperature, humidity, PM 2.5, PM 10, particles and CO2 through Temtop M2000C Air Quality Monitor at the said site. In the observation, ambient air quality was measured at three hours intervals on a day every week and 10 readings were taken from each site at a distance of 10 meters apart and the mean values were considered for statistical analyses. It was found that average PM 2.5, PM 10 & CO2 in ambient air in the study site were 64.26 ug/m3, 89.43 ug/m3 & 701.66 respectively therefore unexpectedly the ambient air is not only polluted but also moderate to unhealthy in respect of the said parameters as judged by the yardstick of Air Quality Guideline Levels laid down by the WHO. A well-defined management plan is required for controlling and minimising the said pollution with the interference of the Government and other agencies for the sustainable growth and development of the said ecotourism spot.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Alexandra A. Henderson ◽  
Claire E. Smith

PurposeWhile presenteeism is empirically linked to lower productivity, the role of a person's motives for engaging in presenteeism has been overlooked. Using a Conservation of Resources Theory framework, we examine the moderating effects of presenteeism motives (approach and avoidance motives) on the presenteeism–productivity relationship.Design/methodology/approachA sample of 327 dental hygienists with chronic health conditions was surveyed. Moderated multiple regression was used to test study hypotheses.FindingsResults indicate that presenteeism does indeed appear to detriment productivity. However, we demonstrate that motives are an important moderator, such that high approach motives appear to mitigate the negative effects of presenteeism on productivity.Practical implicationsBased on our findings, we suggest managers strive to improve the approach motives of their employees through processes such as job enrichment.Originality/valueThis study demonstrates that presenteeism is not always detrimental to productivity, as approach motives appear to mitigate the negative effects of presenteeism on productivity. These results could drive future research on presenteeism, as well as inform best practices related to managing workers with chronic health issues.

Fermentation ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 307
Kaloyan Petrov ◽  
Penka Petrova

The growing need for industrial production of bio-based acetoin and 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) is due to both environmental concerns, and their widespread use in the food, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries. Acetoin is a common spice added to many foods, but also a valuable reagent in many chemical syntheses. Similarly, 2,3-BD is an indispensable chemical on the platform in the production of synthetic rubber, printing inks, perfumes, antifreeze, and fuel additives. This state-of-the-art review focuses on representatives of the genus Bacillus as prospective producers of acetoin and 2,3-BD. They have the following important advantages: non-pathogenic nature, unpretentiousness to growing conditions, and the ability to utilize a huge number of substrates (glucose, sucrose, starch, cellulose, and inulin hydrolysates), sugars from the composition of lignocellulose (cellobiose, mannose, galactose, xylose, and arabinose), as well as waste glycerol. In addition, these strains can be improved by genetic engineering, and are amenable to process optimization. Bacillus spp. are among the best acetoin producers. They also synthesize 2,3-BD in titer and yield comparable to those of the pathogenic producers. However, Bacillus spp. show relatively lower productivity, which can be increased in the course of challenging future research.

2021 ◽  
Ayesha Ahmed Abdulla Salem Alsaeedi ◽  
Manar Maher Mohamed Elabrashy ◽  
Mohamed Ali Alzeyoudi ◽  
Mohamed Mubarak Albadi ◽  
Sandeep Soni ◽  

Abstract Asset engineers spend significant time in data validation on a daily basis by gathering data from multiple sources, manually collecting and analyzing these data points to deduce well behavior, and finally implementing the changes on the field. This paper proposes a closed-loop methodology that drastically reduces the time lost in low-efficiency activities, helps engineers to make faster decisions, and assists in efficiently implementing the changes in the field. This well performance evaluation starts with direct integration with the corporate database to feed the field data into a hydraulic model. Next, Pre-configured well performance limits such as reservoir parameters, well calibration parameters, and surface parameters are used to validate the input data and alert the end-user to trigger a well performance evaluation workflow. This workflow is based on a business intelligence tool that integrates statistical information with physics-based model information. Finally, after the engineer makes a holistic decision, an integrated action tracking mechanism assigns an actionable item to the field operator to close the workflow. This approach significantly reduces the time spent on data consolidation and analysis. Essentially this means more time for the engineers to focus on well behavior improvement strategies such as stimulation or re-perforation from more than three hundred strings with more than a thousand well data captured over a month. This approach is not entirely dependent on either static physics-based or statistical models; instead, this approach integrates both methods to enhance decision-making. Moreover, the dynamic behavior of the well is captured in the statistical model and validated against the estimated well behavior derived from the hydraulic model. Furthermore, the streamlined visualization tool helps engineers quickly identify well problems, such as lower productivity, reduced reservoir pressure, increased well scale, increased restrictions in the wellbore, etc. Another critical value addition of this closed-loop workflow is the actionable feedback that is well defined and stored within the system for common reference. For example, the asset engineers provide actionable feedback such as retesting requirement, well stimulation, artificial lift candidate, tubing clearance. Within the action tracking framework, field engineers can quickly filter the assigned action items to him or her for the day and take appropriate actions. This new integrated action-based closed-loop workflow significantly reduces the time spent on daily validation tasks and well performance evaluation tasks by combining the statistical and hydraulic models supported with visualization and action tracking capabilities.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Daiana V. Trapé ◽  
Olivia V. López ◽  
Marcelo A. Villar

AbstractThis work aimed to study the feasibility of using vinasse for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production by Bacillus megaterium. To optimize the culture medium, a Box–Behnken design was employed considering carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (Ph) concentrations as independent variables and PHB productivity as the response variable. The productivity decreased when C or N were increased, probably due to the presence of phenolic compounds and the limitation of N for the production of PHB by Bacillus sp. bacteria. An additional experimental design to optimize the C/N ratio and growing conditions (fermentation time and temperature) was carried out. Fermentation time had a statistically significant effect on PHB productivity reaching 10.6 mg/L h. On the other hand, the variability in physicochemical properties of vinasse samples led to significant differences in PHB productivity. Lower productivity values were obtained when vinasse had higher values of DBO. Therefore, biopolymers production from vinasse is a feasible alternative to valorize this bioethanol by-product. Graphical Abstract

Forests ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1653
Maydra A. Inail ◽  
Eko B. Hardiyanto ◽  
Daniel S. Mendham ◽  
Erlanda Thaher

We report on a study of mid-rotation weed control and nutrient management in Eucalyptus pellita plantations in South Sumatra. The study was established at two contrasting sites (representing high and low productivity for the region) that had previously carried three rotations of Acacia mangium. A combination of weed control, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) fertiliser were applied at 1 and 2 years after establishment. We found that the addition of up to 250 kg N ha−1 applied either at 1 year or 2 years after planting did not improve growth. The application of P (30 kg P ha−1) at age 1 year (in addition to 12 kg P ha−1 applied at planting) did not enhance tree growth either. Keeping the plantation free from weed competition throughout rotation (full weed control) enhanced wood volume up to age 4 years at the high-productivity site, while it improved wood volume up to the end of rotation at age 6 years at the low-productivity site. An additional experiment assessing the effect of weed control in the early phase of plantation establishment revealed that weed competition reduced young tree growth of E. pellita substantially. The results of the studies support the current practice of plantation management of E. pellita in the region that applied only P fertiliser at planting time and that kept trees free from weed competition before canopy closure. Full weed control throughout rotation is worth practicing at lower-productivity sites to achieve maximum productivity.

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