The potential for burn injuries arises from contact with a hot surface, flame, hot liquid and steam hazards. The purpose of this study is to develop the flame retardant acrylic and cotton blend textile finished with Enset Ventricosum pseudostem sap (EPS).
The two fabric was produced from (30% acrylic with 70% cotton) and (35% acrylic with 65% cotton) blend. The extracted sap was made alkaline and applied on two mordanted blend fabrics. The effect of blend ratio, the concentration of EPS and treatment time on flammability, Flame retardant properties of both the control and the treated fabrics were analyzed in terms of vertical flammability based on the design of the experiment software using central composite design. The air permeability and tensile strength of treated and controlled fabric were measured.
The blended fabrics at different blended ratios were flame retardant with an optimized result of burning time 2.902 min and 2.775 min and char length 6.442 cm and 7.332 cm in the warp and weft direction, respectively, at a concentration of 520 ml and time 33.588 min. There was a slight significant change in mechanical strengths and air permeability. The thermal degradation and the pyrolysis of the fabric samples were studied using thermogravimetric analysis and the chemical composition by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy abbreviated as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The wash durability of the treated fabric at different blend ratios was carried out for the optimized sample and the test result shows that the flame retardancy property is durable up to 15 washes.
Development of flame retardant cotton and acrylic blend textile fabric finish with ESP was studied; this work provides application of EPS for flame resistance which is optimized statically and successfully applied for a flame retardant property on cotton-acrylic blend fabric.
AbstractThe complete characteristics knowledge of clay minerals is necessary in the evaluation studies of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Ten samples taken from two wells in a heterogeneous clastic gas reservoir formation in NE Iran were selected to conduct the transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) tests for the clay mineralogy studies. The FTIR analysis showed that there were clear signs of clay minerals in all samples. The wavenumber region of the clay minerals in FTIR tests was detected to be 3621, 3432, 1034, and 515 cm−1 for illite, 3567, 3432, 1613, 1088, 990, 687, 651, and 515 cm−1 for magnesium-rich chlorite, 3700, 3621, 3432, 1034, 687, and 463 cm−1 for kaolinite, and 3567, 1088, 990, and 463 cm−1 for glauconite. After screening of samples by the FTIR method, the samples were then analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The PXRD and SEM result showed illite was by far the most common clay present. Kaolinite, magnesium-rich chlorite, and traces of smectite and the mixed-layer clays of both the illite–smectite and chlorite-smectite types were also recognized. The combination of PXRD and WDXRF results could quantify the clay abundances in the each well too. It was concluded that the FTIR analysis successfully could show the absorption bonds of all constituent clays. However, the infrared absorption spectra of mixed-layer clays overlapped those of the respective constituents of each mixed-layer minerals. This can be considered as the evidence of the usefulness of FTIR technique in the screening of the samples for the clay mineralogy studies.
To improve the crop yield and nitrogen uptake efficacy, a novel slow-release urea composite fertilizer (SUCF) was developed using inverse vulcanized copolymer with better biodegradation and nutrient release longevity. Copolymers were synthesized via inverse vulcanization of jatropha oil, and their properties were evaluated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powdered-X-ray diffractometry (p-XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SUCFs were developed by ex situ mixing of inverse vulcanized copolymer with urea powder using mechanical mixer, and their properties were evaluated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FTIR spectra of developed fertilizer possesses the urea characteristics peaks along with the undisturbed peaks representing copolymer, confirming the mechanical mixing and that no reaction took place. SEM images of the SUCFs compared with images of copolymer revealed the appearance of new isolated particles with different morphology; EDX mapping showed that these particles represent the urea added to the copolymer. Nitrogen release longevity of developed fertilizers was evaluated in both soil and distilled water. The leaching test revealed that only 70% of the total nitrogen of SUCF prepared from 50 wt% sulfur copolymer was released after 16 days of incubation in distilled water, whereas it released only 35% nitrogen after 20 days in soil. The biodegradability of all copolymers developed was investigated by burying in soil and it revealed their biodegradable nature as weight loss was observed, which increased with the increase of incubation period.
Flexible sensors and wearable electronics have become important in recent years. A good conductive and flexible textile is needed to develop a commercial wearable device. Conductive polymers have generally been used with limitation in reducing the surface resistance to a certain amount. In this research, a method for fabricating a stretchable highly conductive cotton/lycra knitted fabric is introduced by treating the fabric with polypyrrole (PPy), silver nanoparticles (SNPs) composites, and post-treating with poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly (styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). Polypyrrole and SNPs were in situ fabricated on the cotton/lycra fabric by consecutive redox reaction of silver nitrate and pyrrole and finally covered by PEDOT:PSS solution through dip-coating. The coated textile was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray mapping, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed PPy-SNPs (P-S) composites on the fabric surface. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results, X-ray mapping, EDAX, and XRD analysis also confirmed the P-S composites and PEDOT:PSS polymeric layer on the fabric. Morphological observation showed a layer of PEDOT:PSS on the P-S caused the higher connection of coating on textiles which resulted in the higher electrical conductivity (43 s/m). Also morphological observations showed penetration of the silver particles inside fibers which represented improving in attachment and stability of the coating on the fibers. Further, the electrical conductivity of PPy-SNPs-PEDOT:PSS coated textile increased under the tension. Hence, the stretchable and highly conductive knitted cotton/lycra fabric has potentiality to be used for fabricating the flexible sensors or wearable electronics.
Zizyphus lotus, which belongs to Rhamnaceae family, has been widely used to formulate many healthy food products. The aim of this work was to formulate new functional cookies enriched with different amounts of Zizyphus lotus powder (ZLP; 15%, 30%, 45% and 100%). The chemical properties of ZLP were also determined. The formulated cookies were evaluated for their physicochemical, textural and sensory characteristics. Results revealed that ZLP contained various bioactive components, fatty acids, and antioxidants. ZLP-added cookies demonstrated higher phytochemical and antioxidant activities than control cookies prepared without ZLP. The activity of ZLP cookies was enhanced with increase of ZLP level. Hardness and fracturability (brittleness) of cookies increased with increasing amount of ZLP. Results of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis also revealed the presence of many bioactive compounds in formulated cookies. All cookie samples were generally accepted, but the panelists indicated a higher preference for cookies containing 15% ZLP.