subjective pain
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Logan Erz ◽  
Brandon Larson ◽  
Shayda Mirhaidari ◽  
Chad Cook ◽  
Doug Wagner

Abstract Background Given the ongoing battle with opioid abuse and over-use in the United States new strategies are consistently being implemented in an attempt to reduce opioid use and over prescribing. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine if a more regulated explicit pain management instruction plan could reduce the number of opioids taken. Methods Blinded randomized prospective study comparing a total of 110 (Group A=55, Group B=55) women undergoing elective outpatient bilateral breast reduction surgery by two different plastic surgeons. Patients were randomly divided into either Group A (control) that received general pain management instructions or Group B (experimental) that received explicit pain management instructions from the surgeons and nurses. Participants were asked to record the number of times they treated their pain with each separate modality. They were also asked to record their average daily pain scale for the days that they were treating their pain. Results Patients in group B took on average 1.5 oxycodone while patients in group A took on average 5.7 oxycodone (p<0.01). Thirty-four patients in group B took no oxycodone. Patients in group B also had statistically significant lower subjective pain scores. Conclusions Based on these results it appears that standardizing how patients are instructed to treat their pain post-operatively may reduce the number of narcotics needed, thus reducing the number of narcotics prescribed without compromising pain control.

Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 42
Oliver Laugisch ◽  
Thorsten M. Auschill ◽  
Christian Heumann ◽  
Anton Sculean ◽  
Nicole B. Arweiler

Precise measurements of periodontal parameters (such as pocket depths: PPD, gingival margins: GM) are important for diagnosis of periodontal disease and its treatment. Most examiners use manual millimeter-scaled probes, dependent on adequate pressure and correct readouts. Electronic probes aim to objectify and facilitate the diagnostic process. This randomized controlled trial compared measurements of a standard manual (MP) with those of an electronic pressure-sensitive periodontal probe (EP) and its influence on patients’ acceptance and practicability. In 20 patients (2436 measuring points) PPD and GM were measured either with MP or EP by professionals with different levels of experience: dentist (10 patients), 7th and 10th semester dental students (5 patients each). Time needed was measured in minutes and patients’ subjective pain was evaluated by visual analogue scale. Differences were analyzed using the generalized estimating equations approach (GEE) and paired Wilcoxon tests. Mean PPD varied with ΔPPD 0.38 mm between both probes, which was significant (p < 0.001), but GM did not (ΔREC 0.07 mm, p = 0.197). There was a statistically significant correlation of both probes (Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient GM: 0.674, PPD: 0.685). Differences can be considered robust (no deviation in either direction). The comparison of time needed and pain sensitivity did not result in statistically significant differences (p > 0.05).

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 892-892
Jinshil Hyun ◽  
Jiyue Qin ◽  
Cuiling Wang ◽  
Mindy Katz ◽  
Jelena Pavlovic ◽  

Abstract Individual’s pain experiences vary substantially over time periods, and the variability in pain may be an important metric to predict health consequences. However, research on its reliability is lacking among older adults. We aimed to examine the reliabilities of both intra-individual mean (IIM) and intra-individual variability (IIV) of subjective pain reports assessed using ecological momentary assessments (EMA) among racially diverse, community dwelling older adults. Participants were from the Einstein Aging Study (N=311, age=70-91) and completed a 14-day EMA protocol which included self-reports of pain intensity 6 times a day. Pain IIV was quantified using intraindividual standard deviation (iSD). We followed Wang and Grimm(2012)’s approach to calculate the reliability of IIM and IIV. Over a 2-week period, we found excellent reliabilities for both pain IIM (.99) and pain IIV (.91), showing that these measures are reliable and can be used to link with various health outcomes among community dwelling older adults. We also estimated the average number of assessments that produce acceptable levels of reliability. The average of 2 assessments for pain IIM and 23 assessments for pain IIV produced values that exceeded reliability score of .80, suggesting that a briefer study design may be used to reduce participants’ burden with reliable pain metrics. Future studies need to examine whether pain IIV is associated with cognitive, emotional, and physical health among older adults and whether intervention studies that target to reduce pain IIV improve health consequences.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Kristijan B. Todoroski

Abstract Background Both chewed aspirin and sublingual nitroglycerin are fast acting medications and reach therapeutic levels within a few minutes. Current guidelines for managing acute coronary syndrome (ACS) do not recognize the importance of the order or timing of administering aspirin and nitroglycerin. This retrospective study aimed to examine if there was any benefit to the timing of giving aspirin before or after nitroglycerin in cases of ACS. Methods From the large National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) 2017 Version database, 2594 patients with acute coronary syndrome were identified (based on chest pain and their ECG finding) that received aspirin plus nitroglycerin in prehospital settings. Based on which medication was given first, the patients were separated in 2 groups: an aspirin-first and a nitroglycerin-first group. The 2246 patients who received aspirin first were further stratified based on the time between administration of aspirin and the first dose of nitroglycerin. The other 348 patients who received nitroglycerin first were similarly stratified. Results In patients with STEMI ischemia, giving nitroglycerin 10 min after aspirin dosing (compared to giving them simultaneously) leads to a greater than 20% reduction in need for additional nitroglycerin, a greater than 7% decrease in subjective pain experienced by the patient and reduced need for additional opioids. The aspirin-first group in total, had a 39.6% decrease in subjective pain experience after giving additional nitroglycerin compared to nitroglycerin-first group. Conclusion In patients with ACS, this study found that giving nitroglycerin 10 min after aspirin was associated with a reduction in subjective pain scores, as well as a reduced need for additional nitroglycerin or opioids. Future prospective trials examining the timing of aspirin vs. nitroglycerin are needed to confirm these findings.

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (21) ◽  
pp. 6580
Jae-Hong Lee ◽  
Eun-Hee Jung ◽  
Seong-Nyum Jeong

Block bone substitutes have better augmentation stability for guided bone regeneration (GBR) than particulate bone substitutes. This study sought to determine whether GBR with an L-shaped porcine block bone (DPBM-C) differs from GBR with an L-shaped bovine block bone (DBBM-C) based on clinical, radiographic, and volumetric outcomes for peri-implant dehiscence defects. A total of 42 peri-implant defects were grafted with 20 L-shaped DPBM-C and 22 DBBM-C groups. The horizontal and vertical thicknesses of the augmented hard tissue were measured using sagittal cone-beam computed tomography, and the volumetric tissue change was evaluated by stereolithography image superimposition. Postoperative discomfort, early wound healing outcomes, and implant stability were also assessed. Among the clinical (subjective pain and swelling, wound dehiscence, membrane exposure, and periotest values), radiographic (changes in horizontal and vertical hard tissue thickness), and volumetric parameters of the L-shaped DPBM-C and DBBM-C groups during the healing period, only the periotest values showed a statistically significant difference (0.67 ± 1.19, p = 0.042). Within the limitations of this study, an L-shaped DPBM-C is not inferior to an L-shaped DBBM-C based on their clinical, radiographic, and volumetric outcomes for GBR of peri-implant dehiscence defects.

Healthcare ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 1437
SukKyong Kim ◽  
HyeonCheol Jeong

This study aimed to analyze the influence of patient-selected music listening on the pain and anxiety levels of hemodialysis patients after undergoing a vascular access operation. Methods: Sixty five patients were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 32) or the control group (n = 33). The experimental group was instructed to listen to their favorite music using headphones during their operations at the center. The control group underwent the operations without listening to any music. The pain measurement during vascular access operation was measured by subjective pain and objective pain behavior; anxiety was measured by subjective anxiety and anxiety states. Results: The experimental group reported significantly lower subjective pain levels than the control group (t = 9.36, p = 0.003). Regarding objective pain behaviors, the experimental group had a significantly lower score than the control group (t = 4.59, p = 0.036). The experimental group had significantly lowered subjective anxiety compared to the control group (F = 10.10, p = 0.002). Regarding anxiety states, the experimental group had significantly lower scores than the control group (F = 23.34, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results suggest that patient-selected music listening reduced hemodialysis patients’ pain and anxiety levels during vascular access operations. Therefore, music medicine can be included as a new clinical intervention.

2021 ◽  
Vol 108 (Supplement_6) ◽  
N N Thazhathe Peedika ◽  
P Goswami

Abstract Introduction Osteoarthritis of the thumb base is a common condition. Usually effects the elderly population causing significant disability. Modalities of treatment of osteoarthritis which includes conservative measures, non-operative interventions, and surgery. In this study we endeavored to assess how effective are image guided steroid injections for base of thumb Osteoarthritis as assessed by subjective pain relief perceived by patient and what percentage of these patients proceed to operative treatment. Method Retrospective data between January 2015 and December 2018 of the patients who underwent Steroid injections to the Base of thumb joints (CMCJ and/or STTJ) for Osteoarthritis under image intensifier guidance was collected from Hospital management system –TRAK and eHealth services. Follow up of the patients were done for Maximum 1 to 5 years. Results A total number of 692 patients with thumb base osteoarthritis were included in the study of which 546 patients underwent Image guided steroid injection to the thumb base. The mean Age of patients was 64.5 years and the Female: Male ratio was 401:145. Mean number of injections each patient received- 3.25 (1 – 7 times). Pain relief after first, second and third injections were 3.15 months, 2.63 and 1.75 months, respectively. 127 (23.2% of injections patients) underwent trapeziectomy. Mean time between first injection & Surgery was 1.3yrs (6 months -2 years) Conclusions This study demonstrates the effectiveness of image guided steroid injections for thumb base osteoarthritis. Though about a quarter of these patients proceed to operative management, steroid injections can delay the same considerably.

2021 ◽  
Vol 108 (Supplement_6) ◽  
A Goel ◽  
A Tahim ◽  
D Komath

Abstract Introduction Temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) affects 12% of the population, with up to 5% seeking help for their symptoms. Minimally invasive TMJ surgery techniques have been harnessed by Oral and Maxillofacial surgeons to directly visualise joint pathology, facilitate joint arthrocentesis and enable safe injection of analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents into the joint space. This study compares outcomes after injection of either morphine or protein-rich plasma (PRP) after TMJ arthroscopy and arthrocentesis. Method Consecutive patients between 2017-2020 undergoing either morphine or PRP injections after TMJ arthroscopy and arthrocentesis were retrospectively reviewed. Basic demographics and Wilkes score were noted. All patients underwent a trial of conservative management prior to any surgical intervention. Pre- and post-operative mouth opening was measured objectively (mm), while pre- and post-operative pain scores were noted using standard subjective pain scores (1-10). Results 31 patients underwent TMJ injections with morphine (n = 18) or PRP (n = 13) after TMJ arthroscopy and arthrocentesis. Both groups showed a significant reduction in subjective pain scores post-operative ( p &lt; 0.05). Patients receiving PRP injections showed greater mouth opening scores (4.0mm change in MO for PRP vs 1.7mm change in MO for morphine) . Conclusions PRP shows to be as effective in pain management of patients with TMJD undergoing arthroscopy and arthrocentesis as morphine. The increase in mouth opening in patients receiving PRP injection could be attributed to the anti-inflammatory potential of PRP. These findings suggest that further evaluation of the benefits of PRP use in TMJD is warranted.

2021 ◽  
Lauren Y Atlas ◽  
Troy C Dildine ◽  
Esther E Palacios-Barrios ◽  
Qingbao Yu ◽  
Richard C Reynolds ◽  

Recent data suggest that interactions between systems involved in higher order knowledge and associative learning drive responses during appetitive and aversive learning. However, it is unknown how these systems impact subjective responses, such as pain. We tested how instructions and reversal learning influence pain and pain-evoked brain activation. Healthy volunteers (n = 40) were either instructed about contingencies between cues and aversive outcomes or learned through experience in a paradigm where contingencies reversed three times. We measured predictive cue effects on pain and heat-evoked brain responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Predictive cues dynamically modulated pain perception as contingencies changed, regardless of whether participants received contingency instructions. Heat-evoked responses in the insula, anterior cingulate, and putamen updated as contingencies changed, whereas the periaqueductal gray and thalamus responded to initial contingencies throughout the task. Quantitative modeling revealed that expected value was shaped purely by instructions in the Instructed Group, whereas expected value updated dynamically in the Uninstructed Group as a function of error-based learning. These differences were accompanied by dissociations in the neural correlates of value-based learning in the rostral anterior cingulate, medial prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. These results show how predictions impact subjective pain. Moreover, imaging data delineate three types of networks involved in pain generation and value-based learning: those that respond to initial contingencies, those that update dynamically during feedback-driven learning as contingencies change, and those that are sensitive to instruction. Together, these findings provide multiple points of entry for therapies designs to impact pain.

2021 ◽  
pp. 019459982110329
Beatrice C. Go ◽  
Cammille C. Go ◽  
Kevin Chorath ◽  
Alvaro Moreira ◽  
Karthik Rajasekaran

Objective Postoperative pain after head and neck cancer surgery is commonly treated with opioids, which are associated with considerable side effects. The objective of this study is to analyze the safety and efficacy of using multimodal analgesia (MMA) for patients undergoing head and neck cancer surgery with free flap reconstruction. Data Sources A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, Scopus, and Review Methods All studies comparing patients receiving MMA (gabapentin, corticosteroids, local anesthetic, acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]) vs patients receiving opioids for head and neck cancer surgery with free flap reconstruction were screened. The primary outcome was postoperative opioid usage. Secondary outcomes included length of stay, subjective pain scores, surgical/medical complications, adverse effects, and 30-day outcomes. Results A total of 10 studies representing 1253 patients (MMA, n = 594; non-MMA, n = 659) met inclusion criteria. Gabapentinoids were the most commonly used intervention (72.9%) followed by NSAIDs (44.6%), acetaminophen (44.3%), corticosteroids (25.1%), ketamine (7.2%), and nerve block (3.4%). Eight studies reported a significant decrease in postoperative opioid usage in the MMA groups. Subjective pain had wider variation, with most studies citing significant pain improvement. There were no differences in surgical outcomes, medical complications, adverse effects, or 30-day mortality and readmission rates. Conclusion With the rise of the opioid epidemic, MMA may play an important role in the treatment of postoperative pain after head and neck cancer surgery. A growing body of literature demonstrates a variety of effective perioperative regimens.

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