Velocity Flow
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Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (19) ◽  
pp. 6066
Arijit A. Ganguli ◽  
Aniruddha B. Pandit

Hydrodynamics plays a major role in transport of heat and mass transfer in microchannels. This includes flow patterns and flow regimes in which the micro-channels are operated. The flow patterns have a major impact the transport properties. Another important aspect is the pressure drop in micro-channels. In the present review, the experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) studies covering all the above aspects have been covered. The effect of geometrical parameters like shape of channel, channel size, material of construction of channels; operating parameters like flow velocity, flow ratio and fluid properties have been presented and analyzed. Experimental and analytical work of different pressure drop models has also been presented. All the literature related to influence of flow patterns on transport properties like volumetric mass transfer coefficients (VMTC) and heat transfer coefficients (HTC) have been presented and analyzed. It is found that most works in Liquid-Liquid Extraction (LLE) systems have been carried out in slug flow and T-junctions. Models for coupled systems of flow and mass transfer have been presented and works carried out for different coupled systems have been listed. CFD simulations match experimental results within 20% deviations in quantitative and qualitative predictions of flow phenomena for most research articles referred in this review. There is a disparity in prediction of a generalized regime map and a generalized regime map for prediction of flow patterns for various systems would need the help of Artificial Intelligence.

2021 ◽  
Juchen Li ◽  
Mengchao Pei ◽  
Binshi Bo ◽  
Xinxin Zhao ◽  
Jing Cang ◽  

Roles of Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in brain waste clearance and homeostasis has been increasingly recognized, thus measuring its flow dynamics could provide important information about its function and perturbance. While phase-contrast MRI can be used for non-invasive flow mapping, so far its mapping of low velocity flow (such as mouse brain CSF) is not possible. Here we developed a novel generalized Hadamard encoding based multi-band acceleration scheme dubbed HEAP-METRIC (Hadamard Encoding APproach of Multi-band Excitation for short TR Imaging aCcelerating), and with significantly increased SNR per time, HEAP-METRIC phase-contrast MRI achieved fast and accurate mapping of slow (~102 micron/s) flow. Utilizing this novel method, we revealed a heterogeneous global pattern of CSF flow in the awake mouse brain with a averaged flow of ~200 micron/s, and further found isoflurane anesthesia reduced CSF flow that was accompanied by reduction of glymphatic function. Therefore, we developed the novel HEAP-METRIC phase-contrast MRI for mapping low velocity flow, and demonstrated its capability for global mapping of mouse CSF flow and its potential alterations related to various physiological or pathological conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (2) ◽  
pp. 173-178
Imam Faudli ◽  
Azmeri Azmeri ◽  
Cut Dwi Refika

River Region of  Baru-Kluet has a steep slope contour and high rainfall so that it is vulnerable to flooding while during the dry season rice fields experience drought due to lack of water. Therefore, a dam is built to mitigate these issues. The spillway is a flow-control component in the dam which is used to improve regulation and enlarge the flow rate that will cross the spillway building. Spillway that has a steep slope is vulnerable to hydraulic behavior called cavitation. The experiment was carried out at the River and Coast Laboratory of Syiah Kuala University, Indonesia. This study aims to determine the value of the damage cavitation index interval in each series and discharge variation. Cavitation index analysis method used formula of ratio between local water pressure and flow velocity. Flow velocity and pressure at each outflow discharge was collected from the experiment. The results of the damage cavitation index interval in the 0 series and the modified series are located at level 1 for the transition region, level 3 for the launcher region and level 2 for the launcher region of modified series. It is found that the change in series 0 to a modified series with extending width in the side channel, lowering the elevation of side channel, and displacement sill in the transition channel with the aim of reducing the flow velocity. This change still has the possibility of cavitation damage, but it is much safer than the cavitation results of the 0 series. High quality of materials or concrete are not recommended because they are expensive and economically unfeasible, therefore the use of slot aeration/aerator is a suitable option for this case. Keyword: Dam, spillway, cavitation, model test.  

2021 ◽  
Edward Ferdian ◽  
David Marlevi ◽  
Jonas Schollenberger ◽  
Maria Aristova ◽  
Elazer R Edelman ◽  

The development of cerebrovascular disease is tightly coupled to changes in cerebrovascular hemodynamics, with altered flow and relative pressure indicative of the onset, development, and acute manifestation of pathology. Image-based monitoring of cerebrovascular hemodynamics is, however, complicated by the narrow and tortuous vasculature, where accurate output directly depends on sufficient spatial resolution. To address this, we present a method combining dedicated deep learning and state-of-the-art 4D Flow MRI to generate super-resolution full-field images with coupled quantification of relative pressure using a physics-driven image processing approach. The method is trained and validated in a patient-specific in-silico cohort, showing good accuracy in estimating velocity (relative error: 12.0 ± 0.1%, mean absolute error (MAE): 0.07 ± 0.06 m/s at peak velocity), flow (relative error: 6.6 ± 4.7%, root mean square error (RMSE): 0.5 ± 0.1 mL/s at peak flow), and with maintained recovery of relative pressure through the circle of Willis (relative error: 11.0 ± 7.3%, RMSE: 0.3 ± 0.2 mmHg). Furthermore, the method is applied to an in-vivo volunteer cohort, effectively generating data at <0.5mm resolution and showing potential in reducing low-resolution bias in relative pressure estimation. Our approach presents a promising method to non-invasively quantify cerebrovascular hemodynamics, applicable to dedicated clinical cohorts in the future.

Complexity ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Du Jianguo ◽  
Guanghui Chang ◽  
Daniel Adu ◽  
Ransford Darko ◽  
Muhammad A. S. Khan ◽  

Using a pump in reverse mode as a hydraulic turbine remains an alternative for hydropower generation in meeting energy needs, especially for the provision of electricity to remote and rural settlements. The primary challenge with small hydroelectric systems is attributed to the high price of smaller size hydraulic turbines. A specific commercial pump model, with a flow rate of 12.5 m3/h, head 32 m, pressure side diameter of 50 mm, impeller out, and inlet diameters of 160 mm and 6 mm, respectively, was chosen for this research. This research aimed to investigate a pump’s flow characteristics as a turbine to help select a suitable pump to be used as a turbine for micro- or small hydropower construction. Numerical methodologies have been adopted to contribute to the thoughtful knowledge of pressure and velocity distribution in the pump turbine performance. In this study, the unsteady flow relations amongst the rotating impeller and stationary volute of the centrifugal pump made up four blades and four splitters. Intermittent simulation results of pressure and velocity flow characteristics were studied considering diverse impeller suction angles. The study was conducted by considering a wide range of rotational speeds starting from 750 rpm to 3250 rpm. From the results, it was found that PAT operation was improved when operated at low speeds compared to high-speed operation. Thus, speeds between 1500 rpm and 2000 rpm were suitable for PAT performance. This research helps to realize the unsteady flow physiognomies, which provide information for future research on PAT. This study makes useful facts available which could be helpful for the pump turbine development. Future studies should focus on cost analysis and emission generation in energy generation.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Angela Zagatina ◽  
Nadezhda Zhuravskaya ◽  
Martin Caprnda ◽  
Luis Rodrigo ◽  
Peter Kruzliak

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (1) ◽  
Pinyo Owasit ◽  
Somchai Sriyab

AbstractSince the stenosis geometry of some cardiovascular patients cannot be described by a vertically symmetric function throughout the stenosis, so it motivates us to study the blood flow through a vertically asymmetric stenosis. In addition, we compare the flow quantities in bothvertically symmetric and asymmetric stenoses. The vertically symmetric stenosis is explained by a vertically symmetric function such as an exponential function in bell shape and a cosine function in cosine shape. The vertically asymmetric stenosis is interpreted by a vertically asymmetric function such as the combination of two different stenosis shapes. Blood is treated as a non-Newtonian fluid which is represented in the power-law model. The finite difference scheme is used to solve governing equations for obtaining the flow quantities such as axial velocity, radial velocity, flow rate, resistance to flow, and skin friction. We investigated the way that the stenosis height, stenosis length, and non-Newtonian behavior affect the flow quantities through three various stenoses. The flow quantities in the bell shape and cosine shape of stenosis show significantly different behavior. Moreover, we found that the flow quantities in the single shape (bell shape or cosine shape) have the same behavior as the flow quantities in the combined shape in the first half part, but have a slightly different behavior in the last half part.

Faheem Ejaz ◽  
William Pao ◽  
Mohammad Shakir Nasif

Whenever T-junctions are used in chemical processes and petroleum industries for two-phase separation, a maldistribution of phases is observed between outlets of the junction. Currently, the regular T-junctions are utilized in the industry due to which equipment downstream faces high liquid carryovers. Unfortunately, downstream equipment is not capable of handling high liquid carryovers and they trip frequently, consequently. This review manuscript summarizes the effect of different factors that influence phase separation in the T-junction. This article refers to the geometrical parameters, phase superficial velocity flow regimes encounter during the separation process, and different side arm modifications. This article is a contribution to this field as it summarizes and concludes all these factors comprehensively, to give a verdict on ways to improve phase separation. It is also recommended that the effect of side arm modifications or combinations must be explored for further understanding.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 31-36
Lhiung Phung Hwa

Open and closed channel flow flows are distinct, the flow in the channels will constantly change. The flow will also be altered if the water level or flow velocity changes. It was found that employing the Pitot Tube Portable yielded findings identical to those calculated by other methods. A water transfer system is made up of natural or artificial structures via which water is moved from one site to another. The carrier building may be open or closed, depending on whether you want to utilize it as a shipping or receiving location. An open channel with a relatively narrow opening at the top is known as an open conduit. The speed data collection technique is carried out vertically, with a review point as illustrated above. The velocity of the flow was measured using a Pitot Tube Portable Automatic tool. The results are entered into the Froude number (fr) after each review point to determine the type of velocity flow at each Review point. The normal flow velocity distribution pattern emerges at the measurement sites of 450 cm, 500 cm, and 550 cm.

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