rural landscapes
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Bo Zhong ◽  
Shuang Wu ◽  
Geng Sun ◽  
Ning Wu

Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) is emerging as a cost-effective approach for helping people adapt to climate and non-climate changes. Nowadays, climate change and urbanization have affected agricultural systems, but it is not clear how rural communities have responded or adapted to those changes. Here, we chose two typical villages in the Chengdu Plain, southwest China, through sociological surveys on 90 local farmers with a semi-structured questionnaire, participatory observation, geospatial analysis of land use and land cover, and a literature review, to explore the local people’s perception of changes or disturbances and their adaptation strategies from the perspective of EbA. The results showed that climate change and urbanization had impacted agricultural systems dramatically in the last 40 years. In two case-study sites, climate change and urbanization were perceived by most local farmers as the main drivers impacting on agricultural production, but various resource-use models containing abundant traditional knowledge or practices as well as modern tools, such as information communication technology (ICT), were applied to adapt to these changes. Moreover, culture service through the adaptive decoration of rural landscapes is becoming a new perspective for implementing an EbA strategy. Finally, our findings highlighted the potential value of an EbA strategy for sustaining urban-rural integrated development and enhancing the resilience of agricultural systems.

Buildings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 64
Weijia Wang ◽  
Makoto Watanabe ◽  
Kenta Ono ◽  
Donghong Zhou

Rural tourism has become a hot topic in China in the context of the nation’s rural revitalisation. Rural tourism allows tourists to experience local life and promotes local economic development. However, there is considerable controversy over the landscape design of ancient Chinese villages. Many problems, such as how to design and protect the landscape of these ancient villages and how to improve the tourist experience, are not resolved. For our research object, we selected the ancient Gaotiankeng Village in Kaihua County, Zhejiang Province. Using questionnaires, image interviews, and some user experience techniques such as mental maps, we collected user experience data by assessing design cases. The visualisation method presented a wide range of experience in the landscape and planning field. This study primarily used computer image processing, image entropy calculation, and colour mapping to process the data. A visualisation framework was defined to highlight the landscape aesthetics, landscape service, and tourists’ emotion. The results indicated the relationship of three elements. The objective of our study was to develop a method of landscape design and planning that can effectively enhance tourists’ experience and provide practical suggestions for rural landscapes and relatively better services.

Land ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 89
Elke Mertens ◽  
Richard Stiles ◽  
Nilgül Karadeniz

Green infrastructure is presented as a novel and innovative approach in the current environmental planning discourse, but how new is it really? An historical overview of planning ideas in both the urban and the rural contexts indicates that the concept, if not the term, “green infrastructure” has a very long and distinguished pedigree in the field of landscape and open space planning. To determine how far the concept is indeed new, definitions of green infrastructure from the literature are examined. While “green” has long been loosely used as a synonym for natural features and vegetation in the planning context, “infrastructure” is the part of the term which is really novel. Infrastructure is otherwise understood as being either “technical” or “social”, and the common features of these otherwise very different forms are considered in order to gain a better understanding of how they might also relate to a new interpretation of green infrastructure. A number of international case studies of different “green infrastructure” projects are then presented, again to better understand their common features and potential relationship to other infrastructure types. Finally, the necessity to consider green and blue areas together and to take them as seriously as other forms of infrastructure is emphasized. The developing climate and biodiversity crises underline the urgency of implementing a flexible and multifunctional green-blue infrastructure system. This must be carefully integrated into the existing fabric of both urban and rural landscapes and will require an appropriately resourced administration and management system, reflecting its beneficial impacts.

Land ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 63
Liliana Reina-Usuga ◽  
Carlos Parra-López ◽  
Carmen Carmona-Torres

The global economy, and agriculture, in particular, faces significant challenges and transformation pressures. A major challenge, and opportunity, is the transformation towards digital agriculture or agriculture 4.0, where knowledge transfer (KT) has an important role to play not only in ensuring that digital innovations reach end-users, but also that these innovations contribute to development in rural landscapes. This paper analyses the role of KT in the framework of digital transformation (DT) in the Andalusian olive landscape. Thus, from the perspective of knowledge-generating agents, the main knowledge emitting and receiving actors in the DT are identified by using Social Network Analysis techniques (SNA). Subsequently, the performance of the Technological Innovation System (TIS) in KT is evaluated by using the multi-criteria Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. The results suggest that the knowledge-generating agents, the knowledge transfer actors, and the scientific and dissemination media actors are the main knowledge emitters and highlight their role as cohesive actors of the social network. The main knowledge receivers are olive growers, cooperatives and non-cooperative groups. The results also indicate that the global performance of the TIS in the KT function is medium/low. Furthermore, in the KT sub-functions where the TIS in DT performs best is the quality of the transfer processes of DT, and where it performs worst is the sufficiency of spaces for KT.

Amparo Mora ◽  
Andrew Wilby ◽  
Rosa Menéndez

Abstract Rural landscapes in Europe have suffered considerable land-use change in the last 50 years, with agricultural intensification in western regions and land abandonment in eastern and southern regions. The negative impacts of agricultural intensification on butterflies and other insects in western Europe have been well studied. However, less is known about the impacts of abandonment on mountain and humid areas of eastern and southern Europe, where landscapes have remained more natural. We sampled butterfly communities in the Picos de Europa National Park (Spain), a region which is undergoing a process of rural abandonment. 19 hay meadows with different periods of abandonment were studied (long-term 18 years or mid-term abandoned, 3–7 years) and compared to meadows continuously managed in a traditional way. We examined how local meadow characteristics and landscape variables affected butterfly community response to abandonment. Butterfly communities were affected by abandonment, with an overall increase in the density of individuals in the long term. Community composition appears to undergo major change over time, with a species turnover of around 50% in the first few years of abandonment, rising to around 70% after 18 years of abandonment. There was a tendency for species with higher preference for closed habitats to increase their densities as time since abandonment proceeded. Landscape variables had a major impact on butterfly communities, stronger than the effect of meadow management. Community preference for closed habitats was associated with higher forest cover in the surroundings of the meadows, but heterogeneous landscapes (in their composition or configuration) mitigated this effect. Implications for insect conservation Our findings suggest that we should ensure that communities have time to react to the diverse stressors imposed by global change. Facilitating survival to all kinds of functional and taxonomic groups implies promoting landscape heterogeneity and connectivity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (24) ◽  
pp. 13799
Esperanza Ayuga-Téllez ◽  
Juan José Ramírez-Montoro ◽  
Maria Ángeles Grande-Ortiz ◽  
Diego Muñoz-Violero

For centuries, agricultural activities have marked and defined the landscape with its own distinctive features. The consideration of the rural landscape as a resource has gained traction in recent years. In Europe, the European Landscape Convention offers a solid framework that places landscape at the forefront of European policies on cultural heritage, environment, and territorial ordination. The most important new development is the integrated vision of the landscape in its cultural and natural aspects, and the introduction of its social dimension. This work analyses the influence of different factors on preferences for rural landscapes in the locality of Campo de Criptana (Ciudad Real), representative of the singular rural landscape of the La Mancha plain. The method for assessing landscape is the people’s aesthetic response to it. Specifically, an analysis has been made of the observers’ preferences in relation to their educational level (university educated or not), gender, age, and place of origin (whether they come from the locality itself or from outside). This is one of the few works that analyse the place of origin of the observer. In view of these results, it can be concluded that all the demographic factors analysed have an influence on preferences in rural landscapes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Barbara Prus ◽  
Małgorzata Dudzińska ◽  
Stanisław Bacior

AbstractThe article attempts to define and determine the intangible components of cultural heritage related to the spatial structure of land in a comprehensive way using computational methods. The components were quantified and a method of empirical evaluation of landscape durability was proposed for agricultural areas of significant cultural and historical value with an evident mosaic structure of fields, baulks, ponds, meadows, and forests. This method allows us to identify places more resistant to political transformation and those with greater cultural potential. The paper proposed an integrated approach to the measuring of the degree of preservation of spatial arrangements in the landscape based on a set of objects that describe the spatial land structure. The article classifies areas by the degree of preservation of rural spatial arrangements of land. The spatial analysis employed facilitated a synthetic quantification of the multi-criteria process. Three groups of factors were used: spatial assessment of land-cover type persistence (u), agricultural land structure persistence (w), and persistence of settlement buildings (z). The final results pinpointed areas in need of strategic intervention to sufficiently protect the rural cultural heritage, properly consider them in zoning planning, and ensure their sustainable development. The proposed tool can be used to monitor the degree of changes in the landscape layout structure when multiple time points are analysed as well.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 13319
Daimou Wei ◽  
Zhexiao Wang ◽  
Bin Zhang

Traditional rural Chinese landscapes have fragmented from the impact of rapid urbanisation and modernisation. Aiming to address this tough issue, the Chinese central government proposed the Traditional Villages Project, which is top-down traditional village management and conservation policy. A traditional village landscape network (TVLN) can be used to integrate rural landscapes and ensure the unified protection of natural and cultural landscapes. This paper aimed to establish a method of building a TVLN through three main steps: the calculation of the connection strength of traditional villages, calculation of the tie strength between traditional villages, and establishment of a TVLN. The results demonstrated the rich layers and stable structure of the Yuan River Basin’s TVLN, but there was a hidden risk in its stability due to the existence of tangent and isolated points. This TVLN quantitatively examined the characteristics and relationships of traditional villages and provided data support for the approval of traditional villages and protection policy formulation. A TVLN can support the overall conservation of traditional village landscapes, enhance their comprehensive value, and promote the sustainable management and cross-regional protection of traditional village landscapes.

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