This study aims to analyze the role of mTOR inhibitor on the expression of miR-211 in rat brain tissue and the biological effect of miR-211 in attenuating seizure. Rats were randomly divided into four groups, and the number of seizures and the duration of single seizure were observed
within 24 hours after intervention. The level of miR-211 in brain tissue was detected by RT qPCR, the apoptosis of nerve cells was assessed by TUNEL staining, the level of immune cells was detected by flow cytometry, and the level of serum inflammatory factors was determined by ELISA. The
number of seizures and the duration of single seizure in the three groups treated by rapamycin within 24 hours were lower than those in the control group, and the symptom relief in group C was the best. After treatment, the expression level of miR-211 in the brain tissue of epileptic rats
increased. TUNEL staining showed that neuronal apoptosis was obvious in epileptic rats. The anti apoptotic ability of group C was the most significant, followed by group D and group B. Compared with group A, the levels of CD3+ cells, CD8+ cells and CD4+/CD25+
cells in brain tissue of group C were decreased, while the levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ were lower in group C than those in control. In group C (n = 5), the levels of CD3+ cells, CD8+ cells and CD4+/CD25+ cells were elevated, and
the levels of immune related cytokines IL-2 and IFN-γ were higher than those of rats without miR-211 inhibition. mTOR inhibitors can improve the local immune microenvironment, reduce the release of inflammatory factors, and finally decrease the frequency and duration of seizures
by up regulating the level of miR-211 in rat brain tissue.
Since the discovery of α-synuclein as the major component in Lewy bodies, research into this protein in the context of Parkinson’s disease pathology has been exponential. Cannabinoids are being investigated as potential therapies for Parkinson’s disease from numerous aspects, but still little is known about the links between the cannabinoid system and the pathogenic α-synuclein protein; understanding these links will be necessary if cannabinoid therapies are to reach the clinic in the future. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the time-course of alterations in components of the endocannabinoid system after viral-mediated α-synuclein overexpression in the rat brain. Rats were given unilateral intranigral injections of AAV-GFP or AAV-α-synuclein and sacrificed 4, 8 and 12 weeks later for qRT-PCR and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry analyses of the endocannabinoid system, in addition to histological visualization of α-synuclein expression along the nigrostriatal pathway. As anticipated, intranigral delivery of AAV-α-synuclein induced widespread overexpression of human α-synuclein in the nigrostriatal pathway, both at the mRNA level and the protein level. However, despite this profound α-synuclein overexpression, we detected no differences in CB1 or CB2 receptor expression in the nigrostriatal pathway; however, interestingly, there was a reduction in the expression of neuroinflammatory markers. Furthermore, there was a reduction in the levels of the endocannabinoid 2-AG and the related lipid immune mediator OEA at week 12 post-surgery, indicating that α-synuclein overexpression triggers dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system. Although this research does show that the endocannabinoid system is impacted by α-synuclein, further research is necessary to more comprehensively understand the link between the cannabinoid system and the α-synuclein aspect of Parkinson’s disease pathology in order for cannabinoid-based therapies to be feasible for the treatment of this disease in the coming years.
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a particularly malignant primary brain tumor. Despite enormous advances in the surgical treatment of cancer, radio- and chemotherapy, the average survival of patients suffering from this cancer does not usually exceed several months. For obvious ethical reasons, the search and testing of the new drugs and therapies of GBM cannot be carried out on humans, and for this purpose, animal models of the disease are most often used. However, to assess the efficacy and safety of the therapy basing on these models, a deep knowledge of the pathological changes associated with tumor development in the animal brain is necessary. Therefore, as part of our study, the synchrotron radiation-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy was applied for multi-elemental micro-imaging of the rat brain in which glioblastoma develops. Elemental changes occurring in animals after the implantation of two human glioma cell lines as well as the cells taken directly from a patient suffering from GBM were compared. Both the extent and intensity of elemental changes strongly correlated with the regions of glioma growth. The obtained results showed that the observation of elemental anomalies accompanying tumor development within an animal’s brain might facilitate our understanding of the pathogenesis and progress of GBM and also determine potential biomarkers of its extension. The tumors appearing in a rat’s brain were characterized by an increased accumulation of Fe and Se, whilst the tissue directly surrounding the tumor presented a higher accumulation of Cu. Furthermore, the results of the study allow us to consider Se as a potential elemental marker of GBM progression.
AbstractExcessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by NADPH oxidase (Nox) resulted in inflammation. The negative regulator of ROS (NRROS) dampens ROS generation during inflammatory responses. 15-Deoxy-∆12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) exhibits neuroprotective effects on central nervous system (CNS). However, whether 15d-PGJ2-induced NRROS expression was unknown in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1). NRROS expression was determined by Western blot, RT/real-time PCR, and promoter activity assays. The signaling components were investigated using pharmacological inhibitors or specific siRNAs. The interaction between transcription factors and the NRROS promoter was investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Upregulation of NRROS on the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-mediated ROS generation and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretion was measured. 15d-PGJ2-induced NRROS expression was mediated through PI3K/Akt-dependent activation of Sp1 and FoxO1 and established the essential promoter regions. We demonstrated that 15d-PGJ2 activated PI3K/Akt and following by cooperation between phosphorylated nuclear FoxO1 and Sp1 to initiate the NRROS transcription. In addition, Nrf2 played a key role in NRROS expression induced by 15d-PGJ2 which was mediated through its phosphorylation. Finally, the NRROS stable clones attenuated the H2O2-induced ROS generation and expression of IL-6 through suppressing the Nox-2 activity. These results suggested that 15d-PGJ2-induced NRROS expression is mediated through a PI3K/Akt-dependent FoxO1 and Sp1 phosphorylation, and Nrf2 cascade, which suppresses ROS generation through attenuating the p47phox phosphorylation and gp91phox formation and IL-6 expression in RBA-1 cells. These results confirmed the mechanisms underlying 15d-PGJ2-induced NRROS expression which might be a potential strategy for prevention and management of brain inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.
Age-specific resources in human MRI mitigate processing biases that arise from structural changes across the lifespan. There are fewer age-specific resources for preclinical imaging, and they only represent developmental periods rather than adulthood. Since rats recapitulate many facets of human aging, it was hypothesized that brain volume and each tissue's relative contribution to total brain volume would change with age in the adult rat. Data from a longitudinal study of rats at 3, 5, 11, and 17 months old were used to test this hypothesis. Tissue volume was estimated from high resolution structural images using a priori information from tissue probability maps. However, existing tissue probability maps generated inaccurate gray matter probabilities in subcortical structures, particularly the thalamus. To address this issue, gray matter, white matter, and CSF tissue probability maps were generated by combining anatomical and signal intensity information. The effects of age on volumetric estimations were then assessed with mixed-effects models. Results showed that herein estimation of gray matter volumes better matched histological evidence, as compared to existing resources. All tissue volumes increased with age, and the tissue proportions relative to total brain volume varied across adulthood. Consequently, a set of rat brain templates and tissue probability maps from across the adult lifespan is released to expand the preclinical MRI community's fundamental resources.
AbstractChronic stress is one of the key precipitating factors in major depressive disorder (MDD). Stress associated studies have underscored the mechanistic role of epigenetic master players like microRNAs (miRNAs) in depression pathophysiology at both preclinical and clinical levels. Previously, we had reported changes in miR-218-5p expression in response to corticosterone (CORT) induced chronic stress. MiR-218-5p was one of the most significantly induced miRNAs in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of rats under chronic stress. In the present report, we have investigated how chronic CORT exposure mechanistically affected miR-218-5p expression in the rat brain and how miR-218 could trigger molecular changes on its downstream regulatory pathways. Elevated expression of miR-218-5p was found in the PFC of CORT-treated rats. A glucocorticoid receptor (GR) targeted Chromatin-Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed high GR occupancy on the promoter region of Slit3 gene hosting miR-218-2 in its 3rd intron. RNA-sequencing data based on RNA Induced silencing Complex Immunoprecipitation (RISC-IP) with AGO2 in SH-SY5Y cells detected six consistent target genes of miR-218-5p (APOL4, DTWD1, BNIP1, METTL22, SNAPC1, and HDAC6). The expression of all five genes, except APOL4, was successfully validated with qPCR in CORT-treated rat PFC. Further, Hdac6-based ChIP-seq experiment helped in mapping major genomic loci enriched for intergenic regions in the PFC of CORT-treated rat. A proximity-based gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed a majority of the intergenic sites to be part of key genes implicated in central nervous system functions, notably synapse organization, neuron projection morphogenesis, and axonogenesis. Our results suggest that the upregulation of miR-218-5p in PFC of CORT-treated rats possibly resulted from GR biding in the promoter region of Slit3 gene. Interestingly, Hdac6 was one of the consistent target genes potentially found to regulate CNS related genes by chromatin modification. Collectively, these findings establish the role of miR-218-5p in chronic stress and the epigenetic function it plays to induce chromatin-based transcriptional changes of several CNS genes in triggering stress-induced disorders, including depression. This also opens up the scope to understand the role of miR-218-5p as a potential target for noncoding RNA therapeutics in clinical depression.
Bradykinin (BK) has been shown to induce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression and participate in neuroinflammation. The BK/MMP-9 axis can be a target for managing neuroinflammation. Our previous reports have indicated that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activity is involved in BK-induced MMP-9 expression in rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1). Rhamnetin (RNT), a flavonoid compound, possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, we proposed RNT could attenuate BK-induced response in RBA-1. This study aims to approach mechanisms underlying RNT regulating BK-stimulated MMP-9 expression, especially ROS and NF-κB. We used pharmacological inhibitors and siRNAs to dissect molecular mechanisms. Western blotting and gelatin zymography were used to evaluate protein and MMP-9 expression. Real-time PCR was used for gene expression. Wound healing assay was applied for cell migration. 2ʹ,7ʹ-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCF-DA) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) were used for ROS generation and NOX activity, respectively. Promoter luciferase assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay were applied to detect gene transcription. Our results showed that RNT inhibits BK-induced MMP-9 protein and mRNA expression, promoter activity, and cell migration in RBA-1 cells. Besides, the levels of phospho-PKCδ, NOX activity, ROS, phospho-ERK1/2, phospho-p65, and NF-κB p65 binding to MMP-9 promoter were attenuated by RNT. In summary, RNT attenuates BK-enhanced MMP-9 upregulation through inhibiting PKCδ/NOX/ROS/ERK1/2-dependent NF-κB activity in RBA-1.