transmission rates
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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-21
Yubo Yan ◽  
Panlong Yang ◽  
Jie Xiong ◽  
Xiang-Yang Li

The global IoT market is experiencing a fast growth with a massive number of IoT/wearable devices deployed around us and even on our bodies. This trend incorporates more users to upload data frequently and timely to the APs. Previous work mainly focus on improving the up-link throughput. However, incorporating more users to transmit concurrently is actually more important than improving the throughout for each individual user, as the IoT devices may not require very high transmission rates but the number of devices is usually large. In the current state-of-the-arts (up-link MU-MIMO), the number of transmissions is either confined to no more than the number of antennas (node-degree-of-freedom, node-DoF) at an AP or clock synchronized with cables between APs to support more concurrent transmissions. However, synchronized APs still incur a very high collaboration overhead, prohibiting its real-life adoption. We thus propose novel schemes to remove the cable-synchronization constraint while still being able to support more concurrent users than the node-DoF limit, and at the same time minimize the collaboration overhead. In this paper, we design, implement, and experimentally evaluate OpenCarrier, the first distributed system to break the user limitation for up-link MU-MIMO networks with coordinated APs. Our experiments demonstrate that OpenCarrier is able to support up to five up-link high-throughput transmissions for MU-MIMO network with 2-antenna APs.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
Paolo Bosetti ◽  
Cécile Tran Kiem ◽  
Alessio Andronico ◽  
Juliette Paireau ◽  
Daniel Levy-Bruhl ◽  

Europe has experienced a large COVID-19 wave caused by the Delta variant in winter 2021/22. Using mathematical models applied to Metropolitan France, we find that boosters administered to ≥ 65, ≥ 50 or ≥ 18 year-olds may reduce the hospitalisation peak by 25%, 36% and 43% respectively, with a delay of 5 months between second and third dose. A 10% reduction in transmission rates might further reduce it by 41%, indicating that even small increases in protective behaviours may be critical to mitigate the wave.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 101
Stefanos Limnaios ◽  
Evangelia Georgia Kostaki ◽  
Georgios Adamis ◽  
Myrto Astriti ◽  
Maria Chini ◽  

Our aim was to estimate the date of the origin and the transmission rates of the major local clusters of subtypes A1 and B in Greece. Phylodynamic analyses were conducted in 14 subtype A1 and 31 subtype B clusters. The earliest dates of origin for subtypes A1 and B were in 1982.6 and in 1985.5, respectively. The transmission rate for the subtype A1 clusters ranged between 7.54 and 39.61 infections/100 person years (IQR: 9.39, 15.88), and for subtype B clusters between 4.42 and 36.44 infections/100 person years (IQR: 7.38, 15.04). Statistical analysis revealed that the average difference in the transmission rate between the PWID and the MSM clusters was 6.73 (95% CI: 0.86 to 12.60; p = 0.026). Our study provides evidence that the date of introduction of subtype A1 in Greece was the earliest in Europe. Transmission rates were significantly higher for PWID than MSM clusters due to the conditions that gave rise to an extensive PWID HIV-1 outbreak ten years ago in Athens, Greece. Transmission rate can be considered as a valuable measure for public health since it provides a proxy of the rate of epidemic growth within a cluster and, therefore, it can be useful for targeted HIV prevention programs.

Alan Y. Gu ◽  
Yanzhe Zhu ◽  
Jing Li ◽  
Michael R. Hoffmann

Speech generates droplets averaged 6 μm in size. Their settling time and SARS-CoV-2 viral viability inside those droplets, both calculated from temperature and relative humidity, predict COVID transmission rates within one-sigma interval.

Mireia Valles-Colomer ◽  
Rodrigo Bacigalupe ◽  
Sara Vieira-Silva ◽  
Shinya Suzuki ◽  
Youssef Darzi ◽  

AbstractAlthough the composition and functional potential of the human gut microbiota evolve over the lifespan, kinship has been identified as a key covariate of microbial community diversification. However, to date, sharing of microbiota features within families has mostly been assessed between parents and their direct offspring. Here we investigate the potential transmission and persistence of familial microbiome patterns and microbial genotypes in a family cohort (n = 102) spanning 3 to 5 generations over the same female bloodline. We observe microbiome community composition associated with kinship, with seven low abundant genera displaying familial distribution patterns. While kinship and current cohabitation emerge as closely entangled variables, our explorative analyses of microbial genotype distribution and transmission estimates point at the latter as a key covariate of strain dissemination. Highest potential transmission rates are estimated between sisters and mother–daughter pairs, decreasing with increasing daughter’s age and being higher among cohabiting pairs than those living apart. Although rare, we detect potential transmission events spanning three and four generations, primarily involving species of the genera Alistipes and Bacteroides. Overall, while our analyses confirm the existence of family-bound microbiome community profiles, transmission or co-acquisition of bacterial strains appears to be strongly linked to cohabitation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (12) ◽  
pp. 120075-120088
Fabio Barros De Sousa ◽  
Simone Cristina da Costa Tavares ◽  
Jorge Everaldo De Oliveira ◽  
Jackson Moreira De Oliveira ◽  
Elizabeth Rego Sabino ◽  

Neste trabalho, investigamos um método de compensação de dispersão para as taxas de transmissão de 10 Gbps e 40 Gbps com formatos de modulação retorno ao zero (return to zero - RZ) e não retorno ao zero (non-return to zero - NRZ) usando fibra monomodo (single mode-fiber - SMF) e fibra compensadora de dispersão (dispersion compensating fiber - DCF). A influência da dispersão do compensador DCF com o aumento da potência do laser CW foi estudada, afim de se avaliar o desempenho dos sistemas de comunicação por fibra óptica aqui propostos. Os resultados da simulação foram validados através do formato do pulso, do espectro óptico e do diagrama de olho para a análise do fator Q e da taxa de erro de bit (bit error rate – BER).

Agriculture ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 29
David Gimeno ◽  
Jaime Gonzalez-Buesa ◽  
Rosa Oria ◽  
Maria Eugenia Venturini ◽  
Esther Arias

Red raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) are highly appreciated by consumers. However, their postharvest shelf life scarcely exceeds 5 d under the refrigeration temperatures usually applied during commercialization, due to their high susceptibility to dehydration, softening and rot incidence. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the ability of UV-C radiation (UV1: 2 kJ m−2 and UV2: 4 kJ m−2), passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with transmission rates (TR) for O2 and CO2 of 1805 mL d−1 and 1570 mL d−1 (MAP1), and 902 mL d−1 and 785 mL d−1 (MAP2), respectively, and the combination of both technologies to prolong raspberries’ shelf life at 6 °C. Their influence on respiration, physicochemical parameters, and microbiological and nutritional quality was assessed during 12 d of storage. The combination of 4 kJ m−2 UV-C radiation and a packaging film with O2 and CO2 transmission rates of 902 mL d−1 and 785 mL d−1, respectively, produced a synergistic effect against rot development, delaying senescence of the fruit. The UV2MAP2 and MAP2 samples only showed 1.66% rot incidence after 8 d of storage. The UV2MAP2 samples also had higher bioactive content (1.76 g kg−1 of gallic acid equivalents (GAE), 1.08 g kg−1 of catechin equivalents (CE) and 0.32 g kg−1 of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside equivalents (CGE)) than the control samples at the end of their shelf life. Moreover, the mass loss was minimal (0.56%), and fruit color and firmness were maintained during shelf life. However, the rest of the batches were not suitable for commercialization after 4 d due to excessive mold development.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 3
Alexandros Nikolaidis ◽  
Ron Kramer ◽  
Sergej Ostojic

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious respiratory and vascular disease that continues to spread among people around the world, mutating into new strains with increased transmission rates, such as the delta variant. The scientific community is struggling to discover the link between negative COVID-19 outcomes in patients with preexisting conditions, as well as identify the cause of the negative clinical patient outcomes (patients who need medical attention, including hospitalization) in what seems like a widespread range of COVID-19 symptoms that manifest atypically to any preexisting respiratory tract infectious diseases known so far. Having successfully developed a nutritional formulation intervention based on nitrate, a nitric oxide precursor, the authors hypothesis is that both the comorbidities associated with negative clinical patient outcomes and symptoms associated with COVID-19 sickness are linked to the depletion of a simple molecule: nitric oxide.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 385
John Abraham Ziswan Suryosumunar

<p><span lang="EN-US">The COVID-19 pandemic, which is global disaster, has an impact on all aspects of human life. Indonesia is one of the countries that has</span><span lang="EN-US"> </span><span lang="EN-US">a high rate of COVID-19</span><span lang="EN-US"> </span><span lang="EN-US">transmission,</span><span lang="EN-US"> </span><span lang="EN-US">this has an effect on various</span><span lang="EN-US"> </span><span lang="EN-US">policies</span><span lang="EN-US"> </span><span lang="EN-US">in suppressing transmission rates by limiting social mobility.</span><span lang="EN-US"> </span><span lang="EN-US">In the midst of this pandemic, people are faced with uncertain conditions that result in levels boredom, fear and even public anxiety increased.</span><span lang="EN-US"> </span><span lang="EN-US">The author is interested in exploring the realities of the COVID-19 pandemic by seeing that there is a relationship between public anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic and awareness of the need for spirituality in facing the various changes that have occurred.</span><span lang="EN-US"> </span><span lang="EN-US">Using the philosophical hermeneutic method, this qualitative research was conducted by trying to discuss one of the spiritual practices of Javanese society, namely Tapa Brata, and to relate it to public anxiety that occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic.</span><span lang="EN-US"> </span><span lang="EN-US">The results of the discussion</span><span lang="EN-US"> </span><span lang="EN-US">carried out are: (1)</span><span lang="EN-US"> </span><span lang="EN-US">anxiety in the people during the pandemic period is caused by awareness of an uncertain and constantly changing reality.</span><span lang="EN-US"> </span><span lang="EN-US">(2)</span><span lang="EN-US"> </span><span lang="EN-US">Tapa brata is the mental practice of forming a self that is calm and wise in accepting all changes.</span><span lang="EN-US"> </span><span lang="EN-US">(3)</span><span lang="EN-US"> </span><span lang="EN-US">Tapa brata is an inner practice that is personal and</span><span lang="EN-US"> </span><span lang="EN-US">can overcome public anxiety during a pandemic and has a physiological effect in increasing immunity during the Covid-19 pandemic.</span></p>

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