temperature stability
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2022 ◽  
Vol 210 ◽  
pp. 114410
Lucia Chen ◽  
Zhiyang Wang ◽  
Hanliang Zhu ◽  
Patrick A. Burr ◽  
Jiangtao Qu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 46 (1) ◽  
Eman Zakaria Gomaa

Abstract Background Halophiles are an excellent source of enzymes that are not only salt stable, but also can withstand and carry out reaction efficiently under extreme conditions. l-glutaminase has attracted much attention with respect to proposed applications in several fields such as pharmaceuticals and food industries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer activity of l-glutaminase produced by halophilic bacteria. Various halophilic bacterial strains were screened for extracellular l-glutaminase production. An attempt was made to study the optimization, purification, and characterization of l-glutaminase from Bacillus sp. DV2-37. The antitumor activity of the produced enzyme was also investigated. Results The potentiality of 15 halophilic bacterial strains isolated from the marine environment that produced extracellular l-glutaminase was investigated. Bacillus sp. DV2-37 was selected as the most potent strain and optimized for enzyme production. The optimization of fermentation process revealed that the highest enzyme activity (47.12 U/ml) was observed in a medium supplemented with 1% (w/v) glucose as a carbon source, 1% (w/v) peptone as a nitrogen source, 5% (w/v) NaCl, the initial pH was 7.0, at 37 °C, using 20% (v/v) inoculum size after 96 h of incubation. The produced crude enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and dialysis. Of the various parameters tested, pH 7, 40 °C, and 5% NaCl were found to be the best for l-glutaminase activity. The enzyme also exhibited high salt and temperature stability. The antitumor effect against human breast (MCF-7), hepatocellular (HepG-2), and colon (HCT-116) carcinoma cell lines revealed that l-glutaminase produced by Bacillus sp. DV2-37 showed potent cytotoxic activity of all the tested cell lines in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 3.5, 3.4, and 3.8 µg/ml, respectively. Conclusions The present study proved that l-glutaminase produced by marine bacteria holds proper features and it has a high potential to be useful for many therapeutic applications.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 548
Anca Mesaroș ◽  
Michaela Mesaroș ◽  
Smaranda Buduru

Background: Since fixed orthodontic treatment is widely spread and one of its inconveniences is bracket removal, as this affects enamel integrity as well as being a cause of discomfort to the patient, studies have searched for the most adequate bracket removal technique, many of them focusing on using laser-technology. Methods: Our review focused on articles published investigating methods of orthodontic bracket removal using laser technology in the last 30 years. Results: 19 relevant studies were taken into consideration after a thorough selection. Different types of laser devices, with specific settings and various testing conditions were tested and the investigators presented their pertinent conclusions. Conclusions: Most studies were performed using ceramic brackets and the best results in terms of prevention of enamel loss, temperature stability for the tooth as well as reduced chair time were obtained with Er:YAG lasers.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 283-294
Zhipeng Li ◽  
Dong-Xu Li ◽  
Zong-Yang Shen ◽  
Xiaojun Zeng ◽  
Fusheng Song ◽  

AbstractLead-free bulk ceramics for advanced pulsed power capacitors show relatively low recoverable energy storage density (Wrec) especially at low electric field condition. To address this challenge, we propose an A-site defect engineering to optimize the electric polarization behavior by disrupting the orderly arrangement of A-site ions, in which $${\rm{B}}{{\rm{a}}_{0.105}}{\rm{N}}{{\rm{a}}_{0.325}}{\rm{S}}{{\rm{r}}_{0.245 - 1.5x}}{_{0.5x}}{\rm{B}}{{\rm{i}}_{0.325 + x}}{\rm{Ti}}{{\rm{O}}_3}$$ Ba 0.105 Na 0.325 Sr 0.245 − 1.5 x □ 0.5 x Bi 0.325 + x TiO 3 ($${\rm{BN}}{{\rm{S}}_{0.245 - 1.5x}}{_{0.5x}}{{\rm{B}}_{0.325 + x}}{\rm{T}}$$ BNS 0.245 − 1.5 x □ 0.5 x B 0.325 + x T , x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, and 0.08) lead-free ceramics are selected as the representative. The $${\rm{BN}}{{\rm{S}}_{0.245 - 1.5x}}{_{0.5x}}{{\rm{B}}_{0.325 + x}}{\rm{T}}$$ BNS 0.245 − 1.5 x □ 0.5 x B 0.325 + x T ceramics are prepared by using pressureless solid-state sintering and achieve large Wrec (1.8 J/cm3) at a low electric field (@110 kV/cm) when x = 0.06. The value of 1.8 J/cm3 is super high as compared to all other Wrec in lead-free bulk ceramics under a relatively low electric field (< 160 kV/cm). Furthermore, a high dielectric constant of 2930 within 15% fluctuation in a wide temperature range of 40–350 °C is also obtained in $${\rm{BN}}{{\rm{S}}_{0.245 - 1.5x}}{_{0.5x}}{{\rm{B}}_{0.325 + x}}{\rm{T}}$$ BNS 0.245 − 1.5 x □ 0.5 x B 0.325 + x T (x = 0.06) ceramics. The excellent performances can be attributed to the A-site defect engineering, which can reduce remnant polarization (Pr) and improve the thermal evolution of polar nanoregions (PNRs). This work confirms that the $${\rm{BN}}{{\rm{S}}_{0.245 - 1.5x}}{_{0.5x}}{{\rm{B}}_{0.325 + x}}{\rm{T}}$$ BNS 0.245 − 1.5 x □ 0.5 x B 0.325 + x T (x = 0.06) ceramics are desirable for advanced pulsed power capacitors, and will push the development of a series of Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3 (BNT)-based ceramics with high Wrec and high-temperature stability.

Coatings ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 78
Huadong Sun ◽  
Peng Jiang ◽  
Yongling Ding ◽  
Laixue Pang ◽  
Yinbin Liu ◽  

In order to systematically study and develop a type of gussasphalt (GA) mix with superior performance, namely GA-10; the effect of Qingchuan Rock Asphalt (QRA) and Trinidad Lake asphalt (TLA) on the GA-10 mix was assessed based on the study of composite natural asphalt modified gussasphalt (CNAMGA) binder. Various analytical tests were used to evaluate the engineering properties, thermal stability and microstructure of CNAMGA mix. The results indicate that the stability of QRA modified binder and TLA modified binder in the normal temperature range and the high temperature range have been improved, and the temperature susceptibility is reduced. The optimal asphalt–aggregate ratio of the GA mix is determined to be 9.7%, which has good high-temperature stability, low-temperature crack resistance and construction workability. The QRA mix has better high-temperature stability than the TLA mix, whereas the low-temperature cracking resistance of the TLA mix is better than that of the QRA mix. The two kinds of GA-10 mix have similar construction workability. The fact that the abundant fine aggregates wrapped in binder fill the coarse aggregates surface contributes to the better adhesion of the GA asphalt concrete. The distribution of aggregate and binder is relatively uniform with fewer pores, and the overall proportion of the binder is greater than that of aggregate.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 24
Vinothini Venkatachalam ◽  
Sergej Blem ◽  
Ali Gülhan ◽  
Jon Binner

Ultra high-temperature ceramic matrix composites (UHTCMCs) based on carbon fibre (Cf) have been shown to offer excellent temperature stability exceeding 2000 °C in highly corrosive environments, which are prime requirements for various aerospace applications. In C3Harme, a recent European Union-funded Horizon 2020 project, an experimental campaign has been carried out to assess and screen a range of UHTCMC materials for near-zero ablation rocket nozzle and thermal protection systems. Samples with ZrB2-impregnated pyrolytic carbon matrices and 2.5D woven continuous carbon fibre preforms, produced by slurry impregnation and radio frequency aided chemical vapour infiltration (RF-CVI), were tested using the vertical free jet facility at DLR, Cologne using solid propellants. When compared to standard CVI, RFCVI accelerates pyrolytic carbon densification, resulting in a much shorter manufacturing time. The samples survived the initial thermal shock and subsequent surface temperatures of >2000 °C with a minimal ablation rate. Post-test characterisation revealed a correlation between surface temperature and an accelerated catalytic activity, which lead to an understanding of the crucial role of preserving the bulk of the sample.

2022 ◽  
K.G. Karapetyan

Abstract. The paper considers applications of foamed glassy phosphate materials as carriers of biologically active substances. The atomic layer deposition method allowed chemically synthesizing surface-modified composite materials based on graphite and carbon fibers, which maximally preserved the activity of enzymes and biologically active substances. The synthesis process of a mono-layer titanium-containing coating on the surface of graphite and carbon fibers by processing them with TiCl4 vapors is considered. The main characteristics of the graphite surface before and after modification and characteristics of the porous structure and surface of carbon fibers are obtained. Biologically active substances by adsorption from a solution to the surface of both the original and modified carriers were applied. biological activity and temperature stability of the obtained composite materials were studied. It is shown that the activity of a biologically active substance depends on the chemical composition and state of the surface of carbon-based carriers.

Lang Bian ◽  
Qiangwei Kou ◽  
Linjing Liu ◽  
Huashan Zheng ◽  
Nan Wang ◽  

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 192
Alexander Paul Fellows ◽  
Debashis Puhan ◽  
Janet S. S. Wong ◽  
Michael T. L. Casford ◽  
Paul B. Davies

The blend of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and polybenzimidazole (PBI) produces a high-performance blend (PPB) that is a potential replacement material in several industries due to its high temperature stability and desirable tribological properties. Understanding the nanoscale structure and interface of the two domains of the blend is critical for elucidating the origin of these desirable properties. Whilst achieving the physical characterisation of the domain structures is relatively uncomplicated, the elucidation of structures at the interface presents a significant experimental challenge. In this work, we combine atomic force microscopy (AFM) with an IR laser (AFM-IR) and thermal cantilever probes (nanoTA) to gain insights into the chemical heterogeneity and extent of mixing within the blend structure for the first time. The AFM-IR and nanoTA measurements show that domains in the blend are compositionally different from those of the pure PEEK and PBI polymers, with significant variations observed in a transition region several microns wide in proximity to domain boundary. This strongly points to physical mixing of the two components on a molecular scale at the interface. The versatility intrinsic to the combined methodology employed in this work provides nano- and microscale chemical information that can be used to understand the link between properties of different length scales across a wide range of materials.

2022 ◽  
Vol 355 ◽  
pp. 01025
Qin Zhang ◽  
Hua Su ◽  
Xiaoli Tang

Herein, the influence of Cu2+ substitution on the phase composition, bulk density, microstructures, and microwave dielectric properties of Li2CuxZn1−xSiO4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.06) ceramics prepared by a solid-state reaction were investigated. The results of XRD and mapping showed that Cu2+ substitution can avoid the influence of secondary phase on the properties of samples. According to the analysis of bulk density, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties, a proper amount of Cu substitution not only improved the sintering characteristics of Li2CuxZn1−xSiO4 ceramics, reduced the densification temperature from 1250 °C to 950 °C, but also increased the Q×f value. Furthermore, Cu2+ substitution also improved the temperature stability of the samples. Particularly, the Li2Cu0.04Zn0.96SiO4 ceramics sintered at 950 °C for 5 h possessed excellent microwave dielectric properties: εr = 5.624, Q×f = 12,764 GHz, and τf = −77 ppm/°C, exhibiting a potential for the low temperature co-fired ceramic applications.

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