chemical diversity
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2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-13
Author(s):  
Pei Lin ◽  
Zheng-Fei Yan ◽  
MooChang Kook ◽  
Chang-Tian Li ◽  
Tae-Hoo Yi

The genus Pleurotus is one of the most widely cultivated and edible mushrooms with various cultivators. Three molecular characteristics were used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 132 tested samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed five clades for tested samples of the genus Pleurotus by the combined ITS and LSU sequences with strong bootstraps and Bayesian posterior probability supports. A total of 94 polymorphic fragments ranging from 10 to 100 bp were observed by using an intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR) marker. The DNA fragment pattern showed that P. ostreatus cultivator (strain P9) was clearly distinguished from wild strain based on their clear banding profiles produced. DNA GC content of the genus Pleurotus varied from 55.6 mol% to 43.3 mol%. Their chemical composition was also determined, including sugar, amino acid, polar lipid, mycolic acid, quinone, and fatty acid, which presented some high homogeneity. Most of the tested samples contained mycolic acid; glucose and arabinose as the main sugars; aspartic acid, arginine, lysine, tyrosine, and alanine as the main amino acids; and C16:0, C18:0, C18:2cis-9,12, anteiso-C14:0, and summed feature 8 as the main fatty acids. In addition, their polar lipid profiles were investigated for the first time, which significantly varied among Pleurotus species. The genus Pleurotus contained menaquinone-6 as the sole respiratory quinone, which showed a significant difference with that of its closely related genera. These results of this study demonstrated that the combined method above could efficiently differentiate each Pleurotus species and thus be considered an efficient tool for surveying the genetic diversity of the genus Pleurotus.


Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 109
Author(s):  
Alexander Lammers ◽  
Michael Lalk ◽  
Paolina Garbeva

We are currently facing an antimicrobial resistance crisis, which means that a lot of bacterial pathogens have developed resistance to common antibiotics. Hence, novel and innovative solutions are urgently needed to combat resistant human pathogens. A new source of antimicrobial compounds could be bacterial volatiles. Volatiles are ubiquitous produced, chemically divers and playing essential roles in intra- and interspecies interactions like communication and antimicrobial defense. In the last years, an increasing number of studies showed bioactivities of bacterial volatiles, including antibacterial, antifungal and anti-oomycete activities, indicating bacterial volatiles as an exciting source for novel antimicrobial compounds. In this review we introduce the chemical diversity of bacterial volatiles, their antimicrobial activities and methods for testing this activity. Concluding, we discuss the possibility of using antimicrobial volatiles to antagonize the antimicrobial resistance crisis.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 57-71
Author(s):  
Samara Testoni ◽  
Lorna Dawson ◽  
Vander Melo ◽  
Josiane Lopes-Mazzetto ◽  
Bruna Ramalho ◽  
...  

Most cases involving soil in criminal investigations in Brazil have focused on the chemical and mineralogical analyses of soil fractions without including the organic matter. The organic fraction contains plant-wax markers which may be useful to “fingerprint” forensic soils due to their chemical diversity, relative longevity and resistant nature. The aim of this study was to test the long- (kilometre), medium- (metre) and short- (centimetre) scale variability of plant-wax biomarkers in a forensic context in anthropised urban soils and soils developed under subtropical conditions. Two areas from the Curitiba municipality and two areas from the Colombo municipality, Paraná State, South Brazil, were selected. Soil colour analysis was carried out to obtain reflectance data over the 360–740 nm wavelength range. Furthermore, plant-wax marker compounds (n-alkanes and fatty-alcohols) were assessed by extraction and separation into different classes and an analysis of the compounds by gas chromatography (GC/MS). The compositions of the wax-marker profiles were different in samples collected side-by-side, showing sensitivity to local variations under subtropical conditions and in areas under intense human urban disturbance. Under these conditions, biomarkers may be used in real crime scenes, even on a micrometric scale of variation.


Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 368
Author(s):  
Ana N. Nunes ◽  
Alexandra Borges ◽  
Ana A. Matias ◽  
Maria Rosário Bronze ◽  
Joana Oliveira

Anthocyanins are natural pigments displaying different attractive colors ranging from red, violet, to blue. These pigments present health benefits that increased their use in food, nutraceuticals, and the cosmetic industry. However, anthocyanins are mainly extracted through conventional methods that are time-consuming and involve the use of organic solvents. Moreover, the chemical diversity of the obtained complex extracts make the downstream purification step challenging. Therefore, the growing demand of these high-value pigments has stimulated the interest in designing new, safe, cost-effective, and tunable strategies for their extraction and purification. The current review focuses on the potential application of compressed fluid-based (such as subcritical and supercritical fluid extraction and pressurized liquid extraction) and deep eutectic solvents-based extraction methods for the recovery of anthocyanins. In addition, an updated review of the application of counter-current chromatography for anthocyanins purification is provided as a faster and cost-effective alternative to preparative-scale HPLC.


Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 65
Author(s):  
Hang Thi Nguyen ◽  
Henrietta Venter ◽  
Lucy Woolford ◽  
Kelly Young ◽  
Adam McCluskey ◽  
...  

In this study, we investigated the potential of an analogue of robenidine (NCL179) to expand its chemical diversity for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections. We show that NCL179 exhibits potent bactericidal activity, returning minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum bactericidal concentrations (MICs/MBCs) of 1–2 µg/mL against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, MICs/MBCs of 1–2 µg/mL against methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius and MICs/MBCs of 2–4 µg/mL against vancomycin-resistant enterococci. NCL179 showed synergistic activity against clinical isolates and reference strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of colistin, whereas NCL179 alone had no activity. Mice given oral NCL179 at 10 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg (4 × doses, 4 h apart) showed no adverse clinical effects and no observable histological effects in any of the organs examined. In a bioluminescent S. aureus sepsis challenge model, mice that received four oral doses of NCL179 at 50 mg/kg at 4 h intervals exhibited significantly reduced bacterial loads, longer survival times and higher overall survival rates than the vehicle-only treated mice. These results support NCL179 as a valid candidate for further development to treat MDR bacterial infections as a stand-alone antibiotic or in combination with existing antibiotic classes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Imane Chamkhi ◽  
Mohamed Hnini ◽  
Jamal Aurag

The Moroccan endemic plant Euphorbia officinarum is a traditional medicinal plant, known locally as “Daghmus.” Plants in the genus Euphorbia are well known for the chemical diversity of their diterpenoids and isoprenoid constituents, which perform many activities such as cytotoxic, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities, as well as different biological properties, that cannot be overlooked. The effect of bioactive compounds (antiviral, antidiabetic, anticancer, and antioxidant). Euphorbia officinarum is an important conventional medicine for the treatment of various conditions, including skin and ophthalmological diseases. It is also used against human pathogens (intestinal parasites). E. officinarum latex is the major part of the plant used for conventional medicine and synthesizing new bioactive compounds. The characterization and isolation of its components are necessary to exploiting and enhancing its therapeutic potential. However, to the best of our knowledge, no review is available to date. In order to have and define a research question, we adopt a strategy by considering the items of the PRISMA checklist. Therefore, this review aims to cover E. officinarum taxonomy, botanical description, distribution, conventional uses, and phytochemical compounds of this plant, including the biological activities of compounds isolated and of these semisynthesized compounds. This article provides a foundation for any further studies from this plant.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Joshua A Walker ◽  
Noah Hamlish ◽  
Avery Tytla ◽  
Daniel D Brauer ◽  
Matthew B Francis ◽  
...  

Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are peptide-derived natural products that include the FDA-approved analgesic ziconotide1,2 as well as compounds with potent antibiotic, antiviral, and anticancer properties.3 RiPP enzymes known as cyclodehydratases and dehydrogenases represent an exceptionally well-studied enzyme class.3 These enzymes work together to catalyze intramolecular, interresidue condensation3,4 and aromatization reactions that install oxazoline/oxazole and thiazoline/thiazole heterocycles within ribosomally produced polypeptide chains. Here we show that the previously reported enzymes MicD-F and ArtGox accept backbone-modified monomers, including aramids and beta-amino acids, within leader-free polypeptides, even at positions immediately preceding or following the site of cyclization/dehydrogenation. The products are sequence-defined chemical polymers with multiple, diverse, non-alpha-amino acid subunits. We show further that MicD-F and ArtGox can install heterocyclic backbones within protein loops and linkers without disrupting the native tertiary fold. Calculations reveal the extent to which these heterocycles restrict conformational space; they also eliminate a peptide bond. Both features could improve the stability or add function to linker sequences now commonplace in emerging biotherapeutics. Moreover, as thiazoles and thiazoline heterocycles are replete in natural products,5,6,7 small molecule drugs,8,9 and peptide-mimetic therapeutics,10 their installation in protein-based biotherapeutics could improve or augment performance, activity, stability, and/or selectivity. This work represents a general strategy to expand the chemical diversity of the proteome beyond and in synergy with what can now be accomplished by expanding the genetic code.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
G. F. Cooper ◽  
E. C. Inglis

Lavas produced at subduction zones represent the integration of both source heterogeneity and an array of crustal processes, such as: differentiation; mixing; homogenisation; assimilation. Therefore, unravelling the relative contribution of the sub-arc mantle source versus these crustal processes is difficult when using the amalgamated end products in isolation. In contrast, plutonic xenoliths provide a complementary record of the deeper roots of the magmatic plumbing system and provide a unique record of the true chemical diversity of arc crust. Here, we present the δ56Fe record from well characterised plutonic xenoliths from two distinct volcanic centres in the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc–the islands of Martinique and Statia. The primary objective of this study is to test if the Fe isotope systematics of arc lavas are controlled by sub-arc mantle inputs or during subsequent differentiation processes during a magma’s journey through volcanic arc crust. The Fe isotopic record, coupled to petrology, trace element chemistry and radiogenic isotopes of plutonic xenoliths from the two islands reveal a hidden crustal reservoir of heavy Fe that previously hasn’t been considered. Iron isotopes are decoupled from radiogenic isotopes, suggesting that crustal and/or sediment assimilation does not control the Fe systematics of arc magmas. In contrast to arc lavas, the cumulates from both islands record MORB-like δ56Fe values. In Statia, δ56Fe decreases with major and trace element indicators of differentiation (SiO2, Na2O + K2O, Eu/Eu*, Dy/Yb), consistent with fractionating mineral assemblages along a line of liquid descent. In Martinique, δ56Fe shows no clear relationship with most indicators of differentiation (apart from Dy/Yb), suggesting that the δ56Fe signature of the plutonic xenoliths has been overprinted by later stage processes, such as percolating reactive melts. Together, these data suggest that magmatic processes within the sub-arc crust overprint any source variation of the sub-arc mantle and that a light Fe source is not a requirement to produce the light Fe isotopic compositions recorded in volcanic arc lavas. Therefore, whenever possible, the complimentary plutonic record should be considered in isotopic studies to understand the relative control of the mantle source versus magmatic processes in the crust.


Author(s):  
Azucena Gonzalez-Coloma ◽  
Maria Fe Andres ◽  
Rodrigo Contreras ◽  
Gustavo E. Zúñiga ◽  
Carmen E. Díaz

In this work we have investigated the accumulation of ryanoids in different plant parts (leaves, stems roots) of aeroponically grown Persea indica cloned trees (one year old cloned individuals) and a selected mature wild tree. We have tested the insect antifeedant (against Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi) and nematicidal (against Meloidogyne javanica) effects of ethanolic extracts from these different plant parts. The HPLC-MS analysis of P. indica extracts showed that the mature tree (wild) leaves had 2 times more chemical diversity than the stems. The aeroponic plants showed lower differences in chemical diversity between leaves and stems, with the lowest diversity found in the roots. The ryanodane epiryanodol (1) was present in all the plant parts, with the mature stems (wild) having the highest amount. The aeroponic stems also accumulated ryanoids including 1, cinnzeylanol 2 and cinnzeylanone 4. The insect Spodoptera littoralis was strongly affected by the stem extracts while the leaf ones were moderately active. Based on the predicted vs. the real antifeedant values we conclude that the ryanoid content (1 or a combination of 2, 4 and 1) explained the antifeedant effects of the stem extracts while addition-al components contributed to the activity of the leaf ones. Therefore, careful individual selection of P. indica seedlings should be carried out prior to proceed with its aeroponic cultivation in or-der to obtain ryanodane-rich stem or leaf extracts with strong antifeedant effects on S. littoralis.


2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 01-04
Author(s):  
Waill A. Elkhateeb ◽  
Ghoson M. Daba

Botryotrichum and Scopulariopsis are a fungal genera that belongs to Class: Sordariomycetes. This review is to demonstrate secondary metabolites from Botryotrichum and Scopulariopsis and some of their reported biological activities. Moreover, describing the unique chemical diversity of these fungal genera involved in medical, pharmaceutical, agricultural applications. Also highlight the harmful side of these fungi if present.


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