holstein calves
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2021 ◽  
Mohammad Mahdi Eskandary ◽  
Mehdi Hossein Yazdi ◽  
Ehsan Mahjoubi ◽  
Mehdi Kazemi-Bonchenari

Abstract This study aimed to determine the optimal feeding time of microencapsulated sodium butyrate (SB) in whole milk (WM) and starter feed on growth performance and health in dairy calves. Forty-eight Holstein calves (age = 4 d; body weight [BW] = 39.45 ± 2.48 kg) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatment groups (12 calves per treatment) in a completely randomized block design and fed (1) WM without microencapsulated SB (SB0) supplementation; (2) 4 g/d SB added to WM since d 4 to 32 (SB4); (3) 4 g/d SB added to WM since d 61 to 74 and equal amount was added to starter since d 75 to 88 (SB60); and (4) 4 g/d SB added to WM (since d 4 to 74) and the starter (since d 74 to 88) throughout the experiment (SBT). Calves fed SB4 and SBT had lower fecal score during pre-weaning, transition period, and overall period (P = 0.043, P = 0.05, and P = 0.015; respectively). In addition, calves in SB4 and SBT groups decreased the number of days with scours during pre-weaning period, and throughout study (P = 0.035 and P = 0.025; respectively). SB60 calves had greater serum total protein (P < 0.001) during post-weaning period. Post-weaning and overall albumin concentrations were greater in SB4 and SBT calves (P = 0.011), and tended to increase in pre-weaning period compared to control calves (P = 0.06). Based on these results, addition of SB in WM is recommendable for the first month of milk-fed calves life.

2021 ◽  
Vol 163 (12) ◽  
pp. 836-850
J. Kretschmann ◽  
L. Früchtl ◽  
M.-L. Fischer ◽  
M. Kaiser ◽  
H. Müller ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 73 (6) ◽  
pp. 1249-1259
J.A. Bombardelli ◽  
K.M. Madureira ◽  
C.H. Seino ◽  
G.S. Gravina ◽  
E.C. Weiss ◽  

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the types of calve housing used in dairy farms, the prevalence of umbilical disorders and related risk factors. The 16 farms studied were visited to characterize the types of installation and possible risk factors, as well as information obtained from a questionnaire applied to the farmers. 806 Holstein calves were physically examined, in addition to collecting blood samples for the evaluation of Failures in Passive Immunity Transfer (FPIT), in animals that manifested inflammatory omphalopathies, and were also submitted to ultrasound examination. The prevalence of omphalopathies was assessed by Fisher's test, and multivariate logistic regression to assess risk factors. Eight types of installation were found: tropical house, suspended cage, collective stall, collective picket, Argentinean type, single-story cage, individual stall, and collective picket with chain. Omphalopathies accounted for 6.45% of the calves. Small size farms (up to 99 lactation cows) had high risk for umbilical disorders, ground floor collective calves, without side protection, with sand floor, in closed sheds and without heatstroke were considered risk factors for omphalopathies. Adequate colostrum and umbilical antisepsis are not associated with disease, its appearance being related to the housing conditions of the animals.

2021 ◽  
Vol 91 (5) ◽  
pp. 473-481
Yuriy Alekhin ◽  
Maksim Zhukov ◽  
Valentina Morgunova ◽  
Yuliya Dronova

The aim of this research was to study the effect of red blood cell system disorders on the further development and productivity of calves that had had bronchopneumonia. The study included 170 Holstein heifers at the age of 180-195 days: healthy heifers (n = 92) and heifers with moderate bronchopneumonia (n = 78). All animals had been under constant clinical supervision for 27 months. Blood sampling was performed in 10 animals from each group at the beginning of the experiment and on day 22, and also when they reached a body weight of 380 kg (the first artificial insemination), 30 days before the planned calving date, and on days 7, 90, 180 of lactation. The blood samples obtained were examined by a hematological analyzer, and the content of fetal hemoglobin was determined by Singer’s method. It was shown that after completion of the course of treatment the clinical symptoms of bronchopneumonia disappeared in calves, but microcytic hypochromic anemia appeared. Further, in these animals an increase was registered in the age of fruitful fertilization by 10.8% and of the insemination index by - 36.7%. After calving and during lactation, the severity of hypochromia decreased, but there was a tendency for macrocytosis, which, combined with increased anisocytosis, indicated hypoplastic anemia. This form of anemia occurred against the background of pathological residual changes after pneumonia due to the depletion of the compensatory potential of the bone marrow and its functional overload during lactation. The operational anemia revealed in lactating cows caused a decrease in milk productivity by 23.2-26.7% (P<0.01).

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 3044
Sarah Schwarzkopf ◽  
Asako Kinoshita ◽  
Jeannette Kluess ◽  
Susanne Kersten ◽  
Ulrich Meyer ◽  

The authors wish to make the following correction to their paper [...]

2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (Supplement_3) ◽  
pp. 53-54
Tara L Felix

Abstract To increase profitably, dairy farms across the United States have rapidly adopted breeding a portion of their cows to beef sires, generating crossbred progeny. The resulting progeny have, in some cases, increased the value of the calf to the dairy, due to their perceived potential for improved growth, feed efficiency, and carcass characteristics for beef production. U.S. research is behind our European counterparts in recommending the appropriate beef sires for dairy matings, and U.S. semen trends show Angus sales over many other breeds. However, Kempster et al. (1982) reported that calves sired by British breed bulls were actually at a disadvantage in growth performance compared to even purebred Holstein calves. Finnish researchers agreed, reporting that the resulting crossbreds from Aberdeen Angus and Hereford bulls were extremely variable, making them undesirable for beef production. However, resulting crossbred calves from late maturing breed types (Charolais, Limousine, and Simmental) had better average daily gain and carcass characteristics than their counterparts from early maturing breeds (Huuskonen et al., 2013). A comprehensive review of early crossbred systems similarly suggested that calves sired by Continental breeds, like Charolais, had an advantage in the feedlot and the packing house (Shank, 2003). Going a bit further, another European study examined the used of 3 beef breeds (Belgian Blue, Limousine, and Galacian Blonde) known for heavy muscling, but not common in the United States, for use as crossbreeding sires (Fouz et al., 2012). Holstein cows bred to Belgian Blue sires had the greatest difficulty calving; however, calving difficulties were reduced with increasing dam age (Fouz et al., 2012). Unfortunately, that trial did not go on to evaluate feedlot performance. Thus, there remains a dearth of scientific references for crossbred mating decisions as well as subsequent growth performance and carcass outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 99 (Supplement_3) ◽  
pp. 173-174
Tianyu Chen ◽  
Jianxin Xiao ◽  
Tingting Li ◽  
Jing Ma ◽  
Zhijun Cao

Abstract To determine the appropriate time to feed hay to calves, 210 healthy Holstein calves at d 2 were randomly divided into 3 groups: feeding basic diet (starter) without hay (CON), inclusion of oat hay from the second week (H2) or fourth week (H4) in addition to the basic diet. All calves were weaned on d 56 and raised in the same hutches until the end of the experiment (d 70). Calf starter intake and fecal score were recorded daily throughout the experimental period. Body weight, body size, blood and rumen fluid samples were collected every 2 weeks before weaning and once a week after weaning. Inclusion of oat hay in the basic diet (H2 and H4) resulted in increased body weight (P &lt; 0.01) and average daily gain (P &lt; 0.01) throughout the experiment when compared to the basic diet (CON) only. Calves fed oat hay from 2 weeks of life had the highest starter intake (P &lt; 0.01), average daily gain (P &lt; 0.01) in the pre- and post-weaning periods. Body length and heart girth was similar between treatments. The H2 calves had lower diarrhea frequency (P &lt; 0.05) and diarrhea days (P &lt; 0.05) during the post-weaning period. Compared to the CON calves, inclusion of hay increased the rumen pH (P &lt; 0.01), while decreasing the NH3-N (P &lt; 0.01) and tend to decrease the total VFA (P &lt; 0.06) during the entire trial. Calves in H2 treatment spent more time ruminating (P &lt; 0.01), but less time standing (P &lt; 0.05), eating starter (P &lt; 0.01) and engaging in abnormal behaviors (P &lt; 0.01). In conclusion, calves supplemented with oat hay improved growth rate and rumen fermentation when compared with calves fed only starter, and adding hay from 2 weeks of calves life may be the best choice for the farm to have the greatest growth and health performance.

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