longitudinal design
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Saeed Mastour Alshahrani ◽  
Abdullah F. Alghannam ◽  
Nada Taha ◽  
Shurouq Saeed Alqahtani ◽  
Abrar Al-Mutairi ◽  

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on various health conditions. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on body weight and body mass index (BMI) in Saudi Arabia. We used electronic health records obtained from a healthcare system representing five hospitals in three different regions in the Kingdom to examine the change in weight utilizing a longitudinal design. The study included all adults who had visited outpatient clinics in two different time points, pre-2020 (years 2018 and 2019 prior to COVID-19) and post-2020 (the year 2021). Weight and BMI changes in percentages were described. Also, bivariate chi-square test, paired t-test, and multivariable multinomial logistic regression model were used for the analyses. A total of 165,279 individuals were included in the study. On average, a significant weight gain of 0.33 kg (95% CI: 0.29–0.36) was observed in our study. Approximately 10% of the population had shifted to either overweight or obese BMI classes during the study period, as 4.8% of those with normal BMI pre-2020 had shifted to overweight or obese classes at post-2020, and 5.1% of those who were overweight had shifted to obese class. Also, 23.1% of the population had gained 5% or more of their pre-2020 weight, while 17% had lost 5% or more. Young individuals were over three times more likely to gain 5% or more than older individuals (OR: 3.34; 95% CI: 3.12–3.56). Females had 24% higher odds to gain 5% or more of their pre-2020 weight than males (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.21–1.27). Diabetics were 27% more likely to lose 5% or more than non-diabetics (OR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.23–1.31). Our findings provide insights into the impact of COVID-19 on weight and population health. Further investment in interventions for weight management is warranted during similar circumstances such as lockdowns due to infection waves or new variants. Future studies are also needed to explore the modifications that have occurred during the pandemic in the weight-related lifestyle factors such as dietary choices and physical activity levels.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Eva Matt ◽  
Lisa Kaindl ◽  
Saskia Tenk ◽  
Anicca Egger ◽  
Teodora Kolarova ◽  

Abstract Background With the high spatial resolution and the potential to reach deep brain structures, ultrasound-based brain stimulation techniques offer new opportunities to non-invasively treat neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, little is known about long-term effects of ultrasound-based brain stimulation. Applying a longitudinal design, we comprehensively investigated neuromodulation induced by ultrasound brain stimulation to provide first sham-controlled evidence of long-term effects on the human brain and behavior. Methods Twelve healthy participants received three sham and three verum sessions with transcranial pulse stimulation (TPS) focused on the cortical somatosensory representation of the right hand. One week before and after the sham and verum TPS applications, comprehensive structural and functional resting state MRI investigations and behavioral tests targeting tactile spatial discrimination and sensorimotor dexterity were performed. Results Compared to sham, global efficiency significantly increased within the cortical sensorimotor network after verum TPS, indicating an upregulation of the stimulated functional brain network. Axial diffusivity in left sensorimotor areas decreased after verum TPS, demonstrating an improved axonal status in the stimulated area. Conclusions TPS increased the functional and structural coupling within the stimulated left primary somatosensory cortex and adjacent sensorimotor areas up to one week after the last stimulation. These findings suggest that TPS induces neuroplastic changes that go beyond the spatial and temporal stimulation settings encouraging further clinical applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Jin Wang ◽  
Marisa N. Lytle ◽  
Yael Weiss ◽  
Brianna L. Yamasaki ◽  
James R. Booth

AbstractThis dataset examines language development with a longitudinal design and includes diffusion- and T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), task-based functional MRI (fMRI), and a battery of psycho-educational assessments and parental questionnaires. We collected data from 5.5-6.5-year-old children (ses-5) and followed them up when they were 7-8 years old (ses-7) and then again at 8.5-10 years old (ses-9). To increase the sample size at the older time points, another cohort of 7-8-year-old children (ses-7) were recruited and followed up when they were 8.5–10 years old (ses-9). In total, 322 children who completed at least one structural and functional scan were included. Children performed four fMRI tasks consisting of two word-level tasks examining phonological and semantic processing and two sentence-level tasks investigating semantic and syntactic processing. The MRI data is valuable for examining changes over time in interactive specialization due to the use of multiple imaging modalities and tasks in this longitudinal design. In addition, the extensive psycho-educational assessments and questionnaires provide opportunities to explore brain-behavior and brain-environment associations.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261222
Christine Helle ◽  
Elisabet R. Hillesund ◽  
Nina C. Øverby

Facilitating positive feeding practices from infancy may be an important strategy to prevent childhood overweight and obesity. Since the feeding situation early in life constitutes a bidirectional relationship, it is important to understand the impact of both maternal and infant characteristics on maternal feeding practices to intervene in a customized and tailored way. Few studies have concurrently examined associations between maternal and infant characteristics in relation to early maternal feeding practices. The aim of the present study was to explore potential associations between infant and maternal characteristics measured at child age five months, and maternal feeding styles and practices during the child’s first two years. Cross-sectional data from a Norwegian randomized controlled trial in which participants responded to questionnaires at child age 5 months (n = 474), 12 months (n = 293) and 24 months (n = 185) were used to explore potential associations. All maternal and child predictor variables were collected at child age five months. Maternal feeding styles and practices were mapped using subscales from the Infant Feeding Questionnaire at child age 5 and 12 months and the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire at child age 24 months. The subscale-scores were split into roughly equal tertiles, and the upper or lower tertile for the outcome of interest were used to create binary outcome variables. Multivariable binary logistic regression models were conducted for each outcome. We found that maternal education and mental health symptoms as well as infant weight, temperament and feeding mode were associated with maternal feeding styles and practices over time. Our findings indicate that risk factors which may have long-term implications for child weight and health outcomes can be identified early. Larger, population-based studies with a longitudinal design are needed to further explore these pathways.

Gopinath Madheswaran ◽  
Pinaz Nasim ◽  
Shonraj Ballae Ganeshrao ◽  
Rajiv Raman ◽  
Ramesh S. Ve

Abstract Purpose Recent research has found variable evidence on the role of mesopic and dark-adapted scotopic microperimetry assessment in age-related macular degeneration. This scoping review summarises how mesopic and scotopic microperimetry can be used to assess disease progression in age-related macular degeneration and identifies gaps in the literature. Methods A population, concept, and context approach was used to develop the search strategy. Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL Plus, Web of Science, and SCOPUS databases were used to conduct the literature search. The key search terms used in the databases were age-related macular degeneration and microperimetry. Results Twelve studies were eligible and included in the review. All the studies (n = 12) were conducted in European countries [Germany (9), Italy (2), and the United Kingdom (1)]. The mesopic and scotopic sensitivities were measured using the Nidek scotopic microperimeter (MP1-S) (n = 6), scotopic Macular Integrity Assessment device (S-MAIA) (n = 5), and both MP1-s and S MAIA (n = 1). 83.3% (n = 10) studied (cross-sectional design) on mesopic, scotopic microperimetry and found reduced rod (scotopic) photoreceptors sensitivities compared to cone (mesopic) photoreceptors sensitivities in patients with small and reticular pseudodrusen despite having good visual acuity. Only 16.7% (n = 2) of studies followed participants with reticular drusen/large drusen for three years (longitudinal design) and found reduced scotopic over mesopic sensitivity at baseline and localized mesopic with profound scotopic sensitivity loss during follow-ups. Conclusion Scotopic sensitivity is a better functional indicator than mesopic sensitivity to understand early and intermediate age-related macular degeneration progression. The evidence from longitudinal studies is debatable due to the limited stimuli range of existing microperimeters, smaller sample size, and lost follow-ups.

2022 ◽  
Ali Amirinejad ◽  
Amin Salehi-Abargouei ◽  
Mina Darand ◽  
Ian G. Davies ◽  
Masoud Mirzaei ◽  

Abstract Background: Depression, anxiety, and stress are common mental problems in different populations. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to investigate the association between dietary insulin index (DII) and insulin load (DIL) and psychological disorders. Method: Participants (n = 10,000) aged 20-69 were randomly selected from 200 clusters in Yazd from the recruitment phase of Yazd Health Study. Dietary intake of study participants was collected by a reliable and validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) consisting of 178 food items. DII and DIL were calculated from the FFQ data using previously published reference values. To assess psychological disorders an Iranian validated short version of a self-reported questionnaire (Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21 [DASS21]) was used.Results: No significant association was observed between DIL and DII with odds of depression or anxiety in crude and adjusted models. The individuals in the highest quartiles of DIL had the lowest odds of stress (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.48–1.01, P-trend = 0.047). This association remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders in model II (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.16–0.91, P-trend = 0.039) and the third and final model (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.16–0.91, P-trend = 0.041).Conclusion: Overall, consumption of foods with higher II as well as IL was associated with lower feelings of stress; however, no significant relation was observed between DII or DIL and risk of depression and anxiety. Further studies with longitudinal design are needed to confirm these results.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Andrius Kavaliunas ◽  
Virginija Danylaitė Karrenbauer ◽  
Stefanie Binzer ◽  
Jan Hillert

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a challenging and disabling condition, predominantly affecting individuals in early adulthood. MS affects the physical, cognitive, and mental health of persons suffering from the disease as well as having a great impact on their financial status and quality of life. However, there is a lack of systematic approach toward assessing the socioeconomic consequences of MS. Our objective was to systematically review analytical observational studies investigating the socioeconomic consequences in persons with MS with different levels of physical disability and cognitive function. We conducted a systematic review on socioeconomic consequences of MS with a focus on employment-, income-, work ability-, and relationship-related outcomes in persons with MS with special focus on disability and cognition. Additionally, the educational characteristics were examined. From 4,957 studies identified, 214 were assessed for eligibility and a total of 19 studies were included in this qualitative assessment; 21 different outcomes were identified. All identified studies reported higher unemployment, higher early retirement, and higher risk of unemployment in relation to higher physical disability. Also, cognitive function was found to be a predictor of employment (unemployment). The studies pointed out significant correlations between greater disability and lower earnings and higher income from benefits. A study found the same correlation in relation to cognitive function. The studies reported higher work disability in relation to higher physical disability and lower cognitive function. In conclusion, this systematic review summarizes the pronounced differences in various socioeconomic outcomes between patients with MS with regards to their physical disability and cognitive function. In addition, we identified a lack of studies with longitudinal design in this field that can provide more robust estimates with covariate adjustments, such as disease modifying treatments.

2022 ◽  
pp. 026540752110565
Iulia M. Domocus ◽  
Lavinia E. Damian ◽  
Oana Benga

Previous theory and research linked perfectionism to contingent self-worth and conditional acceptance, but little research directly investigated how adolescents’ perfectionism and their perceived family acceptance shape each other over time. The present study is the first to investigate the reciprocal longitudinal relations between adolescents’ perfectionism and their perceived family acceptance. The study examined a sample of 264 adolescents (aged 14–19 years) over a period of 3 months, using a cross-lagged longitudinal design with two time points. Results showed that perfectionistic standards predict relative increases, whereas perfectionistic concerns predict relative decreases in adolescents’ perceived mother, father, and family acceptance. However, perceived family acceptance did not predict significant changes in perfectionistic standards nor in perfectionistic concerns. Considering this, the results emphasize the role of perfectionism as a predictor for perceptions of mother, father, and family acceptance and capture how perfectionism may shape interpersonal experiences within the family. Implications of these findings for both research and practice are discussed.

2022 ◽  
pp. 026540752110702
Frank D. Fincham

Trait mindfulness is associated with sexual satisfaction, but their temporal relation is unexplored. Using a short-term longitudinal design, the present study not only examines their temporal relation but also extends extant research by also investigating relationship mindfulness and potential mechanisms that might account for any temporal relation that exists between the two forms of mindfulness and sexual quality. Participants were sexually active emerging adults ( N = 104) in romantic relationships who initially completed measures of trait and relationship mindfulness, and 6 weeks later measures of relationship satisfaction and difficulties in emotion regulation. After another 6 weeks, they completed a measure of sexual quality. Relationship mindfulness was related to sexual satisfaction 12 weeks later via relationship satisfaction, whereas trait mindfulness was related to later sexual dissatisfaction via difficulties in emotion regulation. These results suggest that the temporal relationship between mindfulness and sexual quality is indirect and more nuanced than previously thought. Several avenues for future research are suggested.

10.2196/30286 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. e30286
Adesoji Ademiluyi ◽  
Chuqin Li ◽  
Albert Park

Background The growth of social networking has created a paradigm in which many forms of personal communication are being replaced by internet communication technologies, such as social media. This has led to social issues, such as cyberbullying. In response, researchers are investigating cyberbullying to determine its implications in various life sectors. Objective This manuscript reviews the methods, results, and limitations of the current cyberbullying research and discusses the physical and mental repercussions of cyberbullying and social exclusion as well as methods of predicting and counteracting these events. On the basis of the findings, we discuss future research directions. Methods Using ScienceDirect, ACM Digital Library, and PubMed, 34 research articles were used in this review. A review was conducted using the selected articles with the goal of understanding the current landscape of cyberbullying research. Results Studies have analyzed correlations between depressive and suicidal ideations in subjects as well as relationships in the social, educational, and financial status of the perpetrators. Studies have explored detection methods for monitoring cyberbullying. Automated detection has yet to become effective and accurate; however, several factors, such as personal background and physical appearance, have been identified to correlate with the likelihood that a person becomes a survivor or perpetrator of web-based cybervictimization. Social support is currently common in recovery efforts but may require diversification for specific applications in web-based incidents. Conclusions Relations between social status, age, gender, and behaviors have been discovered that offer new insights into the origins and likeliness of cyberbullying events. Rehabilitation from such events is possible; however, automatic detection is not yet a viable solution for prevention of cyberbullying incidents. Effects such as social exclusion and suicidal ideations are closely tied to incidents of cyberbullying and require further study across various social and demographical populations. New studies should be conducted to explore the experiences of survivors and perpetrators and identify causal links. The breadth of research includes demographics from China, Canada, Taiwan, Iran, the United States, and Namibia. Wider ranges of national populations should be considered in future studies for accurate assessments, given global internet communication technology activity. The studies emphasize the need for formal classification terminology. With formal classification, researchers will have a more definite scope, allowing specific research on a single definable topic rather than on general bullying events and symptoms. Of all the studies, 2 used a longitudinal design for their research methodology. The low number of longitudinal studies leaves gaps between causation and correlation, and further research is required to understand the effects of cyberbullying. Research addressing ongoing victimization is required for the various forms of cyberbullying; social support offers the most effective current standard for prevention.

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