social exchange theory
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2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Damani K. White-Lewis ◽  
Ana L. Romero ◽  
Justin A. Gutzwa ◽  
Sylvia Hurtado

This study applied social exchange theory to examine 74 faculty members’ perceptions of culturally diverse mentor training activities at 10 undergraduate institutions in the early stages of implementing grant-funded interventions focused on determining the most effective ways to engage and retain racially diverse students in biomedical research.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Aakanksha Kataria ◽  
Kumari Rashmi ◽  
Mansi Rastogi

Purpose This study aims to investigate how workplace resourcefulness (positive psychological climate), as well as personal resources (psychological capital [PsyCap]), influence work engagement to promote change-oriented organizational citizenship behaviors (Ch-OCBs) among Indian information technology (IT) personnel. Design/methodology/approach The social exchange theory and job demands-resources model are used to provide rationale for proposing a comprehensive mechanism including antecedents, moderators as well as mediators enabling Ch-OCBs among IT personnel. Structured questionnaires were administered targeting IT professionals and their supervisors to test the proposed relationships. The obtained data from 30 supervisors and 240 subordinates were tested using confirmatory factor analysis, SEM and moderated path analysis technique. Findings Psychological climate, PsyCap and work engagement positively relate to Ch-OCBs; PsyCap moderated the relationship between psychological climate and work engagement. Specifically, the relationship between psychological climate and work engagement has come out stronger for employees with high PsyCap. Work engagement fully mediated the relationship between psychological climate and Ch-OCBs. Practical implications The findings can be critical in promoting voluntary change-focused behaviors among Indian IT personnel, for Indian and foreign (non-Indian) multi-national corporations that are interested in reaping profits by availing change-driven extra-role services of their efficient and the most preferred Indian IT employees of the world. Originality/value This study addresses to the call for more research on change-focused promotive part of OCB and advances the literature by providing evidence on the proposed set of associations from fast-pacing Indian economy.

2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Yun (Yvonne) Yang ◽  
Yoon Koh

Purpose In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic had a devastating impact on global health care and the economy. The restaurant industry has been especially hit hard by the statewide “stay-at-home” orders. To get back on track, many of these businesses need capital. A new and effective form of fundraising for business startups is crowdfunding (CF). However, there has been little research on the pandemic impact on CF. This study aims to fill this gap by investigating the pandemic-related impact on restaurant CF. Design/methodology/approach This study extracted all 2,686 restaurant CF projects in the USA from the Kickstarter platform from April 2010 to January 2021. By conducting descriptive analyses and multiple logistic regression models, this study examined the pandemic impact on CF success. Findings This study finds that, while controlling the effects of other determinants, businesses in the midst of the pandemic are more likely to be successfully funded than businesses unaffected by the pandemic. Findings also reveal that restaurant startups lowered their funding goals and posted more updates/comments/pledge levels during the pandemic, which made projects more likely to be selected as a “Project We Love” and increased the odds of funding success. However, mentioning COVID-19-related information or locating projects in “red zones” are not found to have any significant direct or moderating impact on the funding success. Research limitations/implications This study pioneers the research topic restaurant CF and attempts to raise the research attention of small- and medium-sized enterprises and entrepreneurial financing. Using quantitative methods, it provides a new perspective on pandemic-impact research. Social exchange theory is extended to the context of reward-based CF under crisis. Finally, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first investigation of the possible moderating effect of project location on the relationship between restaurant CF characteristics and success. Practical implications The findings of this study suggest restaurateurs to be confident about the fundraising of their startup business through reward-based CF, even when located within so-called pandemic red zones, and perform appropriate communication strategies while using the reward-based CF. Originality/value This study is one of the earliest to examine the main and moderating effects of the pandemic-related factors on business CF in the hospitality realm. The findings are reference for researchers and restaurateurs on fundraising in a crisis context.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Enguo Cao ◽  
Jinzhi Jiang ◽  
Yanjun Duan ◽  
Hui Peng

Along with the rapid application of new information technologies, the data-driven era is coming, and online consumption platforms are booming. However, massive user data have not been fully developed for design value, and the application of data-driven methods of requirement engineering needs to be further expanded. This study proposes a data-driven expectation prediction framework based on social exchange theory, which analyzes user expectations in the consumption process, and predicts improvement plans to assist designers make better design improvement. According to the classification and concept definition of social exchange resources, consumption exchange elements were divided into seven categories: money, commodity, services, information, value, emotion, and status, and based on these categories, two data-driven methods, namely, word frequency statistics and scale surveys, were combined to analyze user-generated data. Then, a mathematical expectation formula was used to expand user expectation prediction. Moreover, by calculating mathematical expectation, explicit and implicit expectations are distinguished to derive a reliable design improvement plan. To validate its feasibility and advantages, an illustrative example of CoCo Fresh Tea & Juice service system improvement design is further adopted. As an exploratory study, it is hoped that this study provides useful insights into the data mining process of consumption comment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 90
Hyginus Obinna Ogbonna ◽  
Chidi Slessor Mbah

This paper focuses on the critical investigation of ‘Social Exchange theory’ and ‘Social Change’ in the works of George Homans. The objectives are to appropriate the interpenetrations of the twin concepts, and their implications towards the amelioration of the human condition both within the state, and within the global socio-economic relations. Thus, the paper achieves its objectives by applying a qualitative-critical descriptive method of analysis on the subject matter –with a critique from Peter Blau’s variant perspective for helpful extrapolations to explaining human condition within the state, and globally. The paper made some findings, draws conclusions, and recommendations. A few of these findings include 1) the propensities of breaching the norm of reciprocity in social exchange process are higher than the tendencies to maintain the norm; 2) at the breach of the norm of reciprocity, there are higher risks of losses than the gains, and there are immanent implications; 3).That societal progress can also emerge via resistance to an ‘apopular’ status quo. The paper concluded that, there is a semblance of order when the norm of reciprocity is observed among nations, and within nations; but moments of aggression exists with immanent crisis-tendencies that are anti-development where the norm is violated. Therefore, the paper recommends: the state should be committed to its part of the social contract with the citizenry in terms of provisions of human-centered development facilities; and where the state loses the sanctity of its legitimacy and turns to a ‘class-state’, counter-reactions and resistance from the subaltern classes (the civil society) through protests for progressive social change or for the improvement of the human condition, should not be discouraged. Additionally, the advanced nations should recognize the socioeconomic rights of the less developed nations for a fair deal in the global economic relations.   Received: 29 November 2021 / Accepted: 28 December 2021 / Published: 5 January 2022

Muhammad Syahrul Ulum ◽  
Alfa Warda ◽  
Zuris Dwi Elina ◽  
Ilmi Sephia Ardiana

This study aims to find out how the role of the preacher in bringing changes to the social conditions of the people who used to work in the Dadapan prostitution localization, Kediri City. Da'i plays an important role as a propagator of religion to protect the community. Thus, the relationship between the preacher and his community must be close regardless of the background or social conditions of the community. This research uses a qualitative approach with a case study method and is equipped with George Homans' social exchange theory, namely as an analytical tool to understand and seek clarity of cases so that researchers know more clearly about the phenomenon of da'wah in the ex-Dadapan localization community. The results of this study conclude that the da'wah process that occurs in Dadapan Village in social exchange theory explains that they are willing to interact when the interaction produces benefits for themselves. Therefore, in the dynamics of increasing religious understanding in the ex-Dadapan localization, it is necessary to have a reward given so that people want to interact in discussing religious studies.

2022 ◽  
pp. 27-54
Zeynep Merve Ünal

The aim of the chapter is to advance the framework of meaningful work under the new normal of COVID-19. The conceptualization of meaningful work is defined by the extensive literature review and current research findings. Future of work and its meaning are shaped by the crucial internal and external triggers as human resource practices, job-demand resources model, leadership, job crafting, playful work design, strengths used by individuals, and self-leadership. The meaning at distance work is reinforced by the fulfillment of individual needs. Within this context, new conceptualization of needs for meaning-based person job fit has emerged. The understanding of the relationship between variables and new meaningful work were enlightened by the theoretical framework of self-determination theory, social exchange theory, job-demand resources theory, work identity theory, social learning theory, social cognitive theory, and self-leadership theory. The chapter explores the possible outcomes of COVID-19 and its possible opportunities for employees, organizations, and education sectors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 62 (1) ◽  
Marcello Romani-Dias ◽  
Angela Maria Scroccaro Biasoli ◽  
Jorge Carneiro ◽  
Aline dos Santos Barbosa

ABSTRACT The internationalization of higher education has gained in theoretical and empirical importance in recent decades. In this context, this article aims to describe and analyze the internationalization of business schools from the activities of their academics and based on the propositions defended by the Social Exchange Theory (SET). To achieve our goal we conducted 39 interviews with academics from business schools in the United States and Brazil, including Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Harvard, Getulio Vargas Foundation (FGV) and University of Sao Paulo (USP). We found that: (i) there are individual rewards that are not addressed by SET; (ii) there are benefits to third parties not covered by SET; (iii) certain non-rational choices are not provided by SET; and (iv) the condition of equivalence between costs and rewards provided by SET has its weaknesses. With these findings we add theoretical and empirical contributions to our theme.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1468-1489
Rand H. Al-Dmour

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of employee engagement with their work as a mediating factor in the relationship between utilisation of a human resource information system (HRIS) and employee performance in five-star hotels in Jordan. A conceptual framework based on social exchange theory and content analysis of similar previous studies was developed. A quantitative approach and simple random sampling were used to obtain data via questionnaires completed by 221 human resources (HR) employees working at 21 five-star hotels in Jordan. The response rate was 71%. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to analyse and verify the study variables. The findings revealed that use of a HRIS had a significant positive influence on both employee performance and work engagement, while the latter acted as a partial mediator between HRIS utilisation and employee performance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 51-66 ◽  
Jawad Khan ◽  
Muhammad Usman ◽  
Imran Saeed ◽  
Amna Ali ◽  
Hena Gul Nisar

Management scholars view workplace spirituality as the main factor behind building trust among employees and playing a pivotal role in enhancing the organization's positive outcomes, i.e., knowledge sharing behavior & work engagement. Underpinning social exchange theory, we explored the linkage between workplace spirituality, knowledge sharing behavior, and work engagement. We further studied to look at the mediating effect of trust between workplace spirituality and positive outcomes. Data was collected from six private companies, the total number of respondents was (n=196). The study's analysis showed that workplace spirituality substantially positively impacts knowledge sharing behavior and work engagement. Furthermore, the link between workplace spirituality, knowledge sharing behavior, and work engagement is positively and statistically significantly mediated by trust. Thus, this work contributes significantly to the research paradigm by presenting workplace spirituality as a solution for high-rise trust among employees, fostering employee engagement in their work, and improving the capacity of knowledge-sharing behavior. Additionally, at the end of this study, theoretical and managerial suggestions, future avenues, and limitations are stated.

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