low viscosity
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Zhijun Zhao ◽  
Jubao Gao ◽  
Mingsheng Luo ◽  
Xinyue Liu ◽  
Yongsheng Zhao ◽  

2022 ◽  
John E. Busteed ◽  
Jesus Arroyo ◽  
Francisco Morales ◽  
Mohammed Omer ◽  
Francisco E. Fragachan

Abstract Uniformly distributing proppant inside fractures with low damage on fracture conductivity is the most important index of successful fracturing fluids. However, due to very low proppant suspension capacity of slickwater and friction reducers fracturing fluids and longer fracture closure time in nano & pico darcies formations, proppants settles quickly and accumulates near wellbore resulting in worse-than-expected well performance, as the fracture full capacity is not open and contributing to production. Traditionally, cross-linked polymer fluid systems are capable to suspend and transport high loading of proppants into a hydraulically generated fracture. Nevertheless, amount of unbroken cross-linked polymers is usually left in fractures causing damage to fracture proppant conductivity, depending on polymer loading. To mitigate these challenges, a low viscosity-engineered-fluid with excellent proppantcarrying capacity and suspension-in excess of 30 hours at static formation temperature conditions - has been designed, enhancing proppant placement and distribution within developed fractures, with a 98% plus retained conductivity. In this work experimental and numerical tests are presented together with the path followed in developing a network of packed structures from polymer associations providing low viscosity and maximum proppant suspension. Challenges encountered during field injection with friction are discussed together with the problem understanding characterized via extensive friction loop tests. Suspension tests performed with up to 8-10 PPA of proppant concentration at temperature conditions are shared, together with slot tests performed. Physics-based model results from a 3D Discrete Fracture Network simulator that computes viscosity, and elastic parameters based on shear rate, allows to estimate pressure losses along the flow path from surface lines, tubular goods, perforations, and fracture. This work will demonstrate the advanced capabilities and performance of the engineered fluid over conventional fracturing fluids and its benefits. Additionally, this paper will present field injection pressure analysis performed during the development of this fluid, together with a field case including production results after 8 months of treatment. The field case production decline observed after fracture treatment demonstrates the value of this system in sustaining well production and adding additional reserves.

2022 ◽  
Norah Aljuryyed ◽  
Abdullah Al Moajil ◽  
Sinan Caliskan ◽  
Saeed Alghamdi

Abstract Acid retardation through emulsification is commonly used in reservoir stimulation operations, however, emulsified acid are viscous fluids, thus require additional equipment at field for preparation and pumping requirements. Mixture of HCl with organic acids and/or chemical retarders have been used developed to retard acid reaction with carbonate, however, lower dissolving power. Development of low viscosity and high dissolving retarded acid recipes (e.g., equivalent to 15-26 wt.% HCl) addresses the drawbacks of emulsified acids and HCl acid mixtures with weaker organic acids. The objective of this study is to compare wormhole profile generated as a result of injecting acids in Indian limestone cores using 28 wt.% emulsified acid and single-phase retarded acids at comparable dissolving power at 200 and 300°F. Coreflood analysis testing was conducted using Indiana limestone core plugs to assess the pore volume profile of retarded acid at temperatures of 200 and 300° F. This test is supported by Computed Tomography to evaluate the propagation behavior as a result of the fluid/rock reaction. Wider wormholes were observed with 28 wt.% emulsified acid at 200°F when compared to test results conducted at 300°F. The optimum injection rate was 1 cm3/min at 200 and 300°F based on wormhole profile and examined flow rates. Generally, face-dissolution and wider wormholes were observed with emulsified acids, especially at 200°F. Narrower wormholes were formed as a result of injecting retarded acids into Indiana limestone cores compared to 28 wt.% emulsified acid. Breakthrough was not achieved with retarded acid recipe at 300°F and flow rates of 1 and 3 cm3/min, suggesting higher flow rates (e.g., > 3 cm3/min) are required for the retarded acid to be more effective at 300°F.

2022 ◽  
Veikko F. Geyer ◽  
Jonathon Howard ◽  
Pablo Sartori

AbstractBiological systems are robust to perturbations at both the genetic and environmental levels, although these same perturbations can elicit variation in behaviour. The interplay between functional robustness and behavioural variability is exemplified at the organellar level by the beating of cilia and flagella. Cilia are motile despite wide genetic diversity between and within species, differences in intracellular concentrations of ATP and calcium, and considerable environment fluctuations in temperature and viscosity. At the same time, these perturbations result in a variety of spatio-temporal patterns that span a rich behavioural space. To investigate this behavioural space we analysed the dynamics of isolated cilia from the unicellular algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under many different environmental and genetic conditions. We found that, despite large changes in beat frequency and amplitude, the space of waveform shapes is low-dimensional in the sense that two features account for 80% of the observed variation. The geometry of this behavioural space accords with the predictions of a simple mechanochemical model in the low-viscosity regime. This allowed us to associate waveform shape variability with changes in only the curvature response coefficients of the dynein motors.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 351
Juanming Wei ◽  
Wenfeng Jia ◽  
Luo Zuo ◽  
Hao Chen ◽  
Yujun Feng

Water-soluble polymers as drag reducers have been widely utilized in slick-water for fracturing shale oil and gas reservoirs. However, the low viscosity characteristics, high operating costs, and freshwater consumption of conventional friction reducers limit their practical use in deeper oil and gas reservoirs. Therefore, a high viscosity water-soluble friction reducer (HVFR), poly-(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid-co-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulphonic acid), was synthesized via free radical polymerization in aqueous solution. The molecular weight, solubility, rheological behavior, and drag reduction performance of HVFR were thoroughly investigated. The results showed that the viscosity-average molecular weight of HVFR is 23.2 × 106 g⋅mol−1. The HVFR powder could be quickly dissolved in water within 240 s under 700 rpm. The storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) as well as viscosity of the solutions increased with an increase in polymer concentration. At a concentration of 1700 mg⋅L−1, HVFR solution shows 67% viscosity retention rate after heating from 30 to 90 °C, and the viscosity retention rate of HVFR solution when increasing CNaCl to 21,000 mg⋅L−1 is 66%. HVFR exhibits significant drag reduction performance for both low viscosity and high viscosity. A maximum drag reduction of 80.2% is attained from HVFR at 400 mg⋅L−1 with 5.0 mPa⋅s, and drag reduction of HVFR is 75.1% at 1700 mg⋅L−1 with 30.2 mPa⋅s. These findings not only indicate the prospective use of HVFR in slick-water hydrofracking, but also shed light on the design of novel friction reducers utilized in the oil and gas industry.

2022 ◽  
Vol 58 (4) ◽  
pp. 216-221
Hendra Suherman ◽  
Kamdini Aksa ◽  
Yovial Mahyoedin ◽  
Edi Septe ◽  
Irmayani Irmayani

Kenaf is a nonwoody fibrous plant, and its fibre can be potentially used as a reinforcement in the matrix to produce biocomposite materials. The properties of biocomposite materials are highly dependent on the reinforcing material and the matrix used as a binder. This study used kenaf fibre as a reinforcing material with different compositions (10, 20, and 30 wt.%) and different fibre lengths (1 cm and 3 cm) in the matrix using the casting process. Low viscosity epoxy resin (635 thin epoxy resin) with a viscosity of 6 poise was used as the matrix. The results showed that the highest flexural strength, impact strength and shore hardness were obtained at a 30 wt.% kenaf fibre composition with a 1-cm kenaf fibre length, namely, 85 MPa, 338 KJ/m2 and 98 SHD, respectively. The length of the fibre in the matrix affects the mechanical properties of the resulting biocomposite. This condition is caused by kenaf fibres with a length of 1 cm being more dispersed in the matrix than fibres with a length of 3 cm.

2022 ◽  
Vol 905 ◽  
pp. 221-230
Hong Wei Pan ◽  
Chong Guang Zang ◽  
Yu Long Zhang

To solve the problems of low strength and high viscosity of room temperature vulcanized liquid silicone rubber, a series of terminated vinyl silicone oil were designed and synthesized, and low viscosity and high strength silicone rubber were prepared by the mechanical reinforcing agent. the results show that the molecular structure of the vinyl-terminated silicone oil has a significant effect on the mechanical properties and viscosity of the silicone rubber, and the best performance is found when the content of vinyl-terminated silicone oil is 0.16%. The low viscosity and high strength silicone rubber prepared from it was reinforced by vinyl MQ resin and fumed silica, which had a significant effect on improving the performance. Its tensile strength increased to 5.03 MPa, elongation at break to 338.90%, and tear strength to 7.15 kN/m compared to conventional silicone rubber, while the hardness increased to 43°. The viscosity is 34.9 Pa•s. The compression modulus is 7.48 MPa.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2161 (1) ◽  
pp. 012026
Neha Thakur ◽  
Hari Murthy

Abstract Flow simulations of jetting of inkjet drops are presented for water and ethylene glycol. In the inkjet printing process, droplet jetting behaviour is the deciding parameter for print quality. The multiphase volume of fluid (VOF) method is used because the interaction between two phases (air and liquid) is involved in the drop formation process. The commercial inkjet printer has a nozzle diameter of ∼73.2μm. In this work, a simulation model of inkjet printer nozzles with different diameters 40μm, 60μm, and 80μm are developed using ANSYS FLUENT software. It is observed that when water is taken as solvent then the stable droplets are generated at 60μm nozzle diameter till 9μs because of its low viscosity. For higher diameter, the stamen formation is observed. Ethylene glycol stable droplets are achieved at 80μm nozzle diameter till 9μs because of their high viscosity (∼10 times that of water). Along with the droplet formation, the sustainability of the droplet in the air before reaching the substrate is also important. The simulation model is an inexpensive, fast, and flexible alternative to study the ink characteristics of the real-world system without wasting resources.

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