Screening Strategy
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2021 ◽  
Vol 44 (12) ◽  
pp. 1872-1877
Author(s):  
Shengquan Hu ◽  
Jing Liu ◽  
Sikang Chen ◽  
Jian Gao ◽  
Yubo Zhou ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qianhui Hua ◽  
Hong Xu ◽  
Xinyi Chen ◽  
Junhang Pan ◽  
Ying Peng ◽  
...  

To evaluate China's current rifampin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) screening strategy from stakeholders' perspectives, the perceptions, attitudes, and interests of 245 stakeholders from three eastern, central, and western China provinces on RR-TB screening strategies, were investigated through stakeholder survey and interview. The attitudes toward three RR-TB screening strategies were statistically different: inclination to choose who to screen (Z = 98.477; P < 0.001), funding for rapid diagnostic technology screening either by reimbursed health insurance or directly subsidized financial assistance (Z = 4.142, P < 0.001), and respondents' attitude during RR-TB screening implementation levels (Z = 2.380, P = 0.017). In conclusion, RR-TB screening scope could be expanded by applying rapid diagnostic technologies. Provinces with different economic status could adjust their screening policies accordingly.


Author(s):  
Anaam Ameen ◽  
Kelly Brown ◽  
Lynn Dennany

Abstract Synthetic Cannabinoids (SC) are amongst the most prevalent class of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) which have emerged. The increase in hospitalisation and fatalities as a result of the prevalence of these SC and their abuse, highlights the necessity for the rapid and reliable screening for the substance within toxicological samples. Being able to rapidly screen for these substances would aim to improve overdose triage and ultimately improve treatment administration. Not only this but it would have further advantages for in-field applications such as the identification of drivers under the influence. To this avail we investigate the ability of a simple electrochemical screening strategy for the detection of SC, BB-22 and its primary metabolite BB-22-3-Carboxyindole. Assessment of the feasibility of the strategy for implementation into toxicological sample analysis was performed through detection not only under ideal electrolyte conditions (down to 5 µM for BB-22 and 2 µM for its metabolite) but also within the complex biological matrix of human pooled serum (between 200 and 700 µM), a relevant matrix it would likely encounter if employed within this field.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Lore Raets ◽  
Marie Vandewinkel ◽  
Paul Van Crombrugge ◽  
Carolien Moyson ◽  
Johan Verhaeghe ◽  
...  

AimsTo determine the preferred method of screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).Methods1804 women from a prospective study (NCT02036619) received a glucose challenge test (GCT) and 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) between 24-28 weeks. Tolerance of screening tests and preference for screening strategy (two-step screening strategy with GCT compared to one-step screening strategy with OGTT) were evaluated by a self-designed questionnaire at the time of the GCT and OGTT.ResultsCompared to women who preferred one-step screening [26.2% (472)], women who preferred two-step screening [46.3% (834)] were less often from a minor ethnic background [6.0% (50) vs. 10.7% (50), p=0.003], had less often a previous history of GDM [7.3% (29) vs. 13.8% (32), p=0.008], were less often overweight or obese [respectively 23.1% (50) vs. 24.8% (116), p<0.001 and 7.9% (66) vs. 18.2% (85), p<0.001], were less insulin resistant in early pregnancy (HOMA-IR 8.9 (6.4-12.3) vs. 9.9 (7.2-14.2), p<0.001], and pregnancy outcomes were similar except for fewer labor inductions and emergency cesarean sections [respectively 26.6% (198) vs. 32.5% (137), p=0.031 and 8.2% (68) vs. 13.0% (61), p=0.005]. Women who preferred two-step screening had more often complaints of the OGTT compared to women who preferred one-step screening [50.4% (420) vs. 40.3% (190), p<0.001].ConclusionsA two-step GDM screening involving a GCT and subsequent OGTT is the preferred GDM screening strategy. Women with a more adverse metabolic profile preferred one-step screening with OGTT while women preferring two-step screening had a better metabolic profile and more discomfort of the OGTT. The preference for the GDM screening method is in line with the recommended Flemish modified two-step screening method, in which women at higher risk for GDM are recommended a one-step screening strategy with an OGTT, while women without these risk factors, are offered a two-step screening strategy with GCT.Clinical Trial RegistrationNCT02036619 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02036619


2021 ◽  
pp. archdischild-2021-321864
Author(s):  
Rachel Elizabeth Jane Besser ◽  
Sze May Ng ◽  
John W Gregory ◽  
Colin M Dayan ◽  
Tabitha Randell ◽  
...  

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease of childhood affecting 1:500 children aged under 15 years, with around 25% presenting with life-threatening diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). While first-degree relatives have the highest risk of T1D, more than 85% of children who develop T1D do not have a family history. Despite public health awareness campaigns, DKA rates have not fallen over the last decade. T1D has a long prodrome, and it is now possible to identify children who go on to develop T1D with a high degree of certainty. The reasons for identifying children presymptomatically include prevention of DKA and related morbidities and mortality, reducing the need for hospitalisation, time to provide emotional support and education to ensure a smooth transition to insulin treatment, and opportunities for new treatments to prevent or delay progression. Research studies of population-based screening strategies include using islet autoantibodies alone or in combination with genetic risk factors, both of which can be measured from a capillary sample. If found during screening, the presence of two or more islet autoantibodies has a high positive predictive value for future T1D in childhood (under 18 years), offering an opportunity for DKA prevention. However, a single time-point test will not identify all children who go on to develop T1D, and so combining with genetic risk factors for T1D may be an alternative approach. Here we discuss the pros and cons of T1D screening in the UK, the different strategies available, the knowledge gaps and why a T1D screening strategy is needed.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tammy Szu-Yu Ho ◽  
J. Tabitha Hees ◽  
Zhuqiu Xu ◽  
Riki Kawaguchi ◽  
Natalia P Biscola ◽  
...  

CNS neurons do not regenerate after injury, leading to permanent functional deficits. Although sensory and motor neuron axons do regrow after peripheral nerve injury, functional outcome is limited due to the incomplete and slow regrowth. The lack of human-relevant assays suitable for large-scale drug screens has limited neuro-repair therapy discovery. To address this we developed a phenotypic screening strategy using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived motor neurons to identify axon-regeneration promoting compounds and targets. The screens involve both re-plating human motor neurons on chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and measuring regeneration responses to laser axotomy in spot cultures, and from them we identified multiple hits that promote injured axon regrowth. The top hit blebbistatin, a non-muscle myosin II inhibitor, accelerated axon regeneration and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury in vivo. Human injury in a dish assays are suitable, therefore, to screen for therapeutic interventions that can induce or accelerate axon regeneration.


Author(s):  
Xixi Nan ◽  
Xia Li ◽  
Yufei Xiang ◽  
Xiang Yan ◽  
Houde Zhou ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sebastian Niezen ◽  
Elliot B. Tapper ◽  
Hirsh Trivedi ◽  
Michelle Lai ◽  
Michael P. Curry ◽  
...  

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