technological gap
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D.K. BOSE ◽  

This study has been conducted to find out the technological gap in recommended cultivation practices of the cabbage growers in order to understand the extent of the difference between the traditional and non- traditional practices practiced by the local farmers in the district. The aforementioned study was conducted at Kuhuboto block in Dimapur district of Nagaland in the year 2021. A descriptive research designed was applied for this study. The primary data was collected from 120 respondents by personal interview method using pre-structure interview schedule. After the analysis of the data, it was observed that, maximum number of the respondents (55.83%) were having medium level of overall utilization of information sources and majority of the cabbage growers (62.50%) belonged to medium level of over-all technological gap category. It indicates that a sum number of the population had incorporated the new technologies while others have still yet to adopt and use the new recommended cabbage cultivation. The socio- economic variables associated with the respondents, such as education and training exposure were positively significant with the extent of adoption of improved package of practices of cabbage cultivation. The above results compel the research and extension system to work on the gaps in a pragmatic way.

Alejandro Bolaños García-Escribano ◽  
Jorge Díaz-Cintas ◽  
Serenella Massidda

The bourgeoning and rapid evolution of cloud-based applications has triggered profound transformations in the audiovisual translation (AVT) mediascape. By drawing attention to the major changes that web-based ecosystems have introduced in localisation workflows, we set out to outline ways in which these new technological advances can be embedded in the AVT classroom. Along these lines, the present study sets out to explore the potential benefits of cloud platforms in AVT training curricula by exploring ways in which this technology can be exploited in subtitling training. An analysis of current subtitling practices and tools, localisation workflows, and in-demand skills in the AVT industry will be followed by an experience-based account on the use of cloud-based platforms in subtitler training environments to simulate and carry out a wide range of tasks. Our study pivots around the idea that cloud subtitling might prove useful to bridge the technological gap between academic institutions and the profession as well as to enhance the distance-learning provision of practice-oriented training in subtitling.

2021 ◽  
Vol 937 (3) ◽  
pp. 032087
V Daroshka ◽  
I Aleksandrov ◽  
M Fedorova ◽  
M Petrov ◽  
A Suleimankadieva ◽  

Abstract The relevance of the topic of the study is due to the strategic importance of increasing the productivity of the agro-industrial complex of Russia to ensure national food security and implementation of the policy of food import substitution, as well as overcoming the technological gap in comparison with the world leaders of agrobusiness and the soonest way to sustainable intensive growth. There is a significant technological gap in the agro-industrial complex in terms of ensuring smart growth of agribusinesses based on digital technologies and solutions, which negatively affects its production, export potential and financial condition. The purpose of the research is to study the problems and prospects of the development of digital infrastructure in the agro-industrial complex of the Russian Federation. The study considers the conceptual apparatus, conducted a statistical study of activity in the digitalization of agriculture by agribusiness, priority business models of agriculture in the digital economy; the assessment of investment activity with regard to the formation of digital infrastructure, the priorities for the development of digital services and solutions. The conclusion of the scientific research identifies the main problems in the formation of digital infrastructure in the agro-industrial complex.

2021 ◽  
Vol 937 (2) ◽  
pp. 022032
V Daroshka ◽  
I Aleksandrov ◽  
I Chekhovskikh ◽  
E Ol ◽  
V Trushkin ◽  

Abstract The relevance of the research topic is due to the strategic importance of the transition of Russian agro-industrial complex to innovative development path, which involves the formation of cooperative ties with the military-industrial complex as a driver of new technological solutions. Statement of the problem. The agro-industrial complex has a significant technological lag in terms of technological competitiveness. Statement of the problem. There is a significant technological gap in the agro-industrial complex in terms of smart growth of agribusiness based on digital technologies and solutions, which negatively affects its production, export potential and financial condition. The aim of the research is to study the development of inter-firm cooperation of military-industrial and agro-industrial complex of the Russian Federation which makes its influence on the environment. The study considers domestic and foreign experience in the implementation of inter-firm cooperation of industries, an analytical review of the main indicators of development and results of cooperation between the military-industrial complex and agro-industrial complex is given. The conclusion of the scientific research identifies the main problems and prospects for the development of cooperative links of industries, taking into account the external challenges and threats to the global economy.

Keun Lee

After a miraculous economic growth, spurred by the Beijing Consensus, China is now facing a slowdown. This book deals with the interesting issue of the middle-income trap—the phenomenon of the rapidly growing economy of a country stagnating at the middle-income level—in the context of China. It also discusses China’s limitations and future prospects, especially after the onset of a new “cold war” between China and the US, and in particular whether it would fall into the “Thucydides trap,” the conflict between a rising power and the existing hegemon. This book plays around three key terms, the Beijing Consensus, the middle-income trap, and the Thucydides trap, and applies a Schumpeterian approach to these concepts. It also conducts a comparative analysis examining China from an “economic catch-up” perspective. Economic catch-up starts with learning from and imitating a forerunner, but a successful catch-up requires leapfrogging, which implies a latecomer doing something different from, and often ahead of, a forerunner. Technological leapfrogging may lead to technological catch-up, which means reducing the technological gap, and then to economic catch-up in living standards and economic size. This linkage between technological and economic catch-up corresponds exactly with a similar linkage between the Beijing Consensus and escaping (or not) the middle-income and Thucydides traps. The book concludes that China’s successful rise as a global industrial power has been due to its strategy of technological leapfrogging, which has enabled it to move beyond the middle-income trap and possibly the Thucydides trap, although at a slower speed.

Processes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 2013
Qin Ye ◽  
Weiwei Wen ◽  
Chenglei Zhang

Numerous studies have examined the relationship between technological development and pollution. From a global economic perspective, the narrowing of one country’s technological gap relative to the world technology frontier (due to the technological progress) may affect its environmental pollution. However, few studies have focused on this issue. This study examined the relationship between technology gap and air pollution both theoretically and empirically. The theoretical model shows that narrowing the technology gap may help reduce pollution. Using patent data from USPTO, as well as industrial level pollution and socio-economic data in China, this paper found that the narrowing of technology gap plays a role in reducing air pollution emissions in China, which confirms the theoretical model. This study provides a new perspective on the relationship between technology progress and pollution.

Ekaterina Charochkina ◽  
Kseniya Azzheurova ◽  
Denis Chulakov

The article is devoted to the study of the current stage of technological transformation in the aspect of the leading sectors of the Russian economy, which are crucial in the development and strengthening of the country's position in the global technological leadership. Based on a study of current trends in the technological transformation of industries and statistical data analysis, reflecting the main results of the level of technological transformation of leading industries, the assessment of their development in the use and implementation of digital technologies, the most technologically advanced industries were identified. The determining factors of sectoral specifics of technological transformation at the present stage are sectoral characteristics and provision of innovative solutions, the development of digital infrastructure, which forms the features of the technological transformation of industries, its directions and pace of development. It is noted that industries with a high level of concentration, dominated by large businesses with access to significant investment resources, show greater progress in digitalization, and small and medium-sized enterprises lag behind in the rate of implementation of new digital solutions. The main problems of differentiation of industries in the level of technological development, which acts as a barrier to the implementation and development of digital technology in the economic and social spheres, were identified. Effective solutions in this area must involve the formation of appropriate digital infrastructure, comprehensive measures of state support and regulation of the data market, which will increase the level of technological development of industries, including reducing the technological gap between them.

2021 ◽  
Gillibert Raymond ◽  
Alessandro Magazzù ◽  
Agnese Callegari ◽  
David Brente Ciriza ◽  
Foti Antonino ◽  

Tire and Road Wear Particles (TRWP) are non-exhaust particulate matter generated by road transport means during the mechanical abrasion of tires, brakes and roads. TRWP accumulate on the roadsides and are transported into the aquatic ecosystem during stormwater runoffs. Due to their size (sub-millimetric) and rubber content (elastomers), TRWP are considered microplastics (MPs). While the amount of the MPs polluting the water ecosystem with sizes from ~ 5 μm to more than 100 μm is known, the fraction of smaller particles is unknown due to the technological gap in the detection and analysis of < 5 μm MPs. Here we show that Raman Tweezers, a combination of optical tweezers and Raman spectroscopy, can be used to trap and chemically analyze individual TWRPs in a liquid environment, down to the sub-micrometric scale. Using tire particles mechanically grinded from aged car tires in water solutions, we show that it is possible to optically trap individual sub-micron particles, in a so-called 2D trapping configuration, and acquire their Raman spectrum in few tens of seconds. The analysis is then extended to samples collected from a brake test platform, where we highlight the presence of sub-micrometric agglomerates of rubber and brake debris, thanks to the presence of additional spectral features other than carbon. Our results show the potential of Raman Tweezers in environmental pollution analysis and highlight the formation of nanosized TRWP during wear.

Mani Ram C. M. Balai

The study was carried out during rabi season of 2015-16, 2016-17 and 2017-18 in 6 villages across 3 blocks (Rajsamand, Railmagra and Amet) of Rajsamand district. In all 225 front line demonstrations on chickpea crop were carried out in an area of 90.0 ha with the active participation of farmers with the objective to demonstrate the latest technology of chickpea production potential, technological gap, extension gap, technology index and economic benefit of improved technologies consisting suitable varieties GNG 1581, integrated nutrient management (20:40:0 NPK kg/ha + Rhizobium + PSB @ 20 g/kg seed) and integrated pest management (deep ploughing + seed treatment with Trichoderma viridae @ 6 g/kg seed +pheromone trap @ 10/ha + spray of Quinalphos @ 1.2 l/ha with 600 litres of water) at Rajsamand, Railmagra and Amet blocks of Rajsamand district during 2015-16 to 2017-18. The results revealed that FLD recorded higher yield as compared to farmers’ practices over the years of study. The improved technologies recorded average yield of 18.94 q ha-1 which was 27.97 per cent higher than that obtained with farmer’s practices of 14.81 q ha-1. In spite of increase in yield of chickpea, technological gap, extension gap and technology index existed which was 4.06, 4.13 q ha-1 and 17.67 per cent, respectively. The extension gap can be bridged by popularizing package of practices where in stress need to be laid on improved variety, use of proper seed rate, balanced nutrient application and proper plant protection measures. Improved technologies gave higher net return of Rs. 67727 ha-1 with benefit cost ratio 4.88 as compared to local check (Rs. 50487 ha-1, benefit cost ratio 4.22).

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (02) ◽  
pp. 162-174
N. Sbitnieva ◽  

Peculiarities of national graphic design formation in the 60s of the 20th century in comparison with achievements of the leaders of the world design movement are considered in the article. The aim of the article is to identify peculiarities of Soviet graphic design formation in the 1960s in the context of world achievements in this field. The research methodology combines the methods of comparative, figurative and stylistic analysis, which are based on historical and systematic approaches. The materials of the article proved that in the 1960s professional development of national design took place in conditions of significant economic and technological gap with the leading countries of Europe and the United States. At the same time, due to the tendency to stylistic inertia and imitation of forms and means of graphic art, including aesthetic evaluation criteria, there also was a stylistic gap with progressive trends represented by the Swiss Printing School, the Polish Poster School and American commercial design. The author concludes that the development of Soviet graphic design in the 1960s was in line with opposite trends. On the one hand an impact of world design achievements was obvious, along with significant progress in certain fields of science and technology, the creation of design universities; on the other hand, there were traditions of applied graphics and aesthetic criteria; ideologization of society and state control over all spheres of creative activity. These factors hindered the perception of graphic design as an independent and specific field of art and design activities. Nevertheless, the period of the 1960s was an important stage in the development of design profession in the USSR. The first design educational institutions were established, including the Kharkiv Institute of Arts and Industrial Design; the All-Union Research Scientific Institute of Technical Aesthetics appeared; the publication of the journal “Technical Aesthetics” began. All these changes were of great importance for the development of graphic design, as they marked the beginning of its professional history, formation of the basis, awareness of a fundamentally new type of activity with its own tools and professional tasks.

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