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PPAR Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-17
Minghui Tang ◽  
Jingyao Wang ◽  
Liangsheng Fan

Endometrial cancer is a common malignant tumor in gynecology, and the prognosis of advanced patients is dismal. Recently, many studies on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor pathway have elucidated its crucial involvement in endometrial cancer. Copy number variation (CNA) and nucleotide mutations often occur in tumor tissues, leading to abnormal protein expression and changes in protein structure. We analyzed the exon sequencing data of endometrial cancer patients in the TCGA database and found that somatic changes in PPAR pathway-related genes (PPAR-related-gene) often occur in UCEC patients. Patients with CNA or mutation changes in the exon region of the PPAR-related-gene usually have different prognostic outcomes. Furthermore, we found that the mRNA transcription and protein translation levels of PPAR-related-gene in UCEC are significantly different from that of adjacent tissues/normal uterus. The transcription level of some PPAR-related-gene (DBI, CPT1A, CYP27A1, and ME1) is significantly linked to the prognosis of UCEC patients. We further constructed a prognostic predicting tool called PPAR Risk score, a prognostic prediction tool that is a strong independent risk factor for the overall survival rate of UCEC patients. Comparing to the typical TNM classification system, this tool has higher prediction accuracy. We created a nomogram by combining PPAR Risk score with clinical characteristics of patients in order to increase prediction accuracy and promote clinical use. In summary, our study demonstrated that PPAR-related-gene in UCEC had significant alterations in CNA, nucleotide mutations, and mRNA transcription levels. These findings can provide a fresh perspective for postoperative survival prediction and individualized therapy of UCEC patients.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wenjun Wang ◽  
Ting Li ◽  
Qi Chen ◽  
Shixiang Yao ◽  
Lili Deng ◽  

WRKY transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in the regulation of biotic stress. Citrus is the most productive fruit in the world. It is of great value to investigate the regulatory molecular mechanism of WRKYs in improving disease resistance. In this research, the transcription level of CsWRKY25 was upregulated in P. digitatum infected citrus peel, and CsWRKY25 activated the expression of three target genes (RbohB, RbohD, and PR10). Besides, the Agrobacterium-mediated transient overexpression of CsWRKY25 has also been shown to enhance resistance to P. digitatum in citrus, and caused the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and lignin. The accumulation of ROS also activated the antioxidant system, the catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) genes were significant upregulated, leading to activation of antioxidant enzymes. In addition, the up-regulated expression of MPK5 and MPK6 genes suggested that the regulatory role of CsWRKY25 might be related to the phosphorylation process. In conclusion, CsWRKY25 could enhance the resistance to P. digitatum via modulating ROS production and PR genes in citrus peel.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Xueyuan Han ◽  
Xiaopeng Wei ◽  
Wenjing Lu ◽  
Qiong Wu ◽  
Linchun Mao ◽  

Abstract Background Our previous study has demonstrated that the transcription of AchnKCS involved in suberin biosynthesis was up-regulated by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) during the wound suberization of kiwifruit, but the regulatory mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Results Through subcellular localization analysis in this work, AchnbZIP29 and AchnMYB70 transcription factors were observed to be localized in the nucleus. Yeast one-hybrid and dual-luciferase assay proved the transcriptional activation of AchnMYB70 and transcriptional suppression of AchnbZIP29 on AchnKCS promoter. Furthermore, the transcription level of AchnMYB70 was enhanced by ABA during wound suberization of kiwifruit, but AchnbZIP29 transcription was reduced by ABA. Conclusions Therefore, it was believed that ABA enhanced the transcriptional activation of AchnMYB70 on AchnKCS by increasing AchnMYB70 expression. On the contrary, ABA relieved the inhibitory effect of AchnbZIP29 on transcription of AchnKCS by inhibiting AchnbZIP29 expression. These results gave further insight into the molecular regulatory network of ABA in wound suberization of kiwifruit.

Mingjie Zhou ◽  
Wei Liu ◽  
Jieyan Zhang ◽  
Nan Sun

As the most prevalent internal modification in mRNA, N6-methyladenosine (m6A) plays broad biological functions via fine-tuning gene expression at the post-transcription level. Such modifications are deposited by methyltransferases (i.e., m6A Writers), removed by demethylases (i.e., m6A Erasers), and recognized by m6A binding proteins (i.e., m6A Readers). The m6A decorations regulate the stability, splicing, translocation, and translation efficiency of mRNAs, and exert crucial effects on proliferation, differentiation, and immunologic functions of immunocytes, such as T lymphocyte, B lymphocyte, dendritic cell (DC), and macrophage. Recent studies have revealed the association of dysregulated m6A modification machinery with various types of diseases, including AIDS, cancer, autoimmune disease, and atherosclerosis. Given the crucial roles of m6A modification in activating immunocytes and promoting DNA repair in cells under physiological or pathological states, targeting dysregulated m6A machinery holds therapeutic potential in clinical application. Here, we summarize the biological functions of m6A machinery in immunocytes and the potential clinical applications via targeting m6A machinery.

2021 ◽  
Guoqiang Xu ◽  
Jiyue Wang ◽  
Luning Gu ◽  
Yaxin Zhu ◽  
Jian Zha ◽  

Abstract Background Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a natural anionic biopolymer widely used in various fields, including medicine, food, cosmetics, and environmental protection. The γ-PGA synthase complex, CapBCA, is the only polyprotein complex responsible for γ-PGA synthesis. However, systematic and in-depth research on the function of each component involved in γ-PGA synthesis is scarce, which limits enhanced production of γ-PGA. Results To address this limitation, γ-PGA synthase components were localized, and their functions associated with γ-PGA synthesis were investigated in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Bioinformatics analysis and confocal microscopic observations of CapB-sfGFP, CapC-sfGFP, and CapA-sfGFP proteins revealed that γ-PGA synthase components CapB, CapC, and CapA were all localized on the cell membrane. More importantly, γ-PGA was detected only when CapB, CapC, and CapA were expressed in combination in C. glutamicum. Furthermore, enhancement of CapB or CapC transcription levels (from low to high) and maintaining medium-level CapA transcription led to 35.44% and 76.53% increase in γ-PGA yield (γ-PGA yield-to-biomass), respectively. However, maintaining medium-level CapB and CapC transcription, and moderate enhancement of CapA transcription level (from low to medium) led to 35.01% increase in γ-PGA yield, whereas a further increase in CapA expression (from medium to high) led to 10.36% decrease in γ-PGA yield. Notably, CapC had the greatest influence (accounting for 68.24%) on γ-PGA synthesis. Conclusions The present study determined the membrane localization of γ-PGA synthase components, CapB, CapC, and CapA, in C. glutamicum and confirmed the significance of these components in γ-PGA production. Furthermore, CapC was found to have the greatest influence on controlling γ-PGA synthesis. These findings shed light into the effect of γ-PGA synthase component expression on γ-PGA synthesis, and provide insights for further improvement in γ-PGA production.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (1) ◽  
Mohammed M. Laqqan ◽  
Maged M. Yassin

Abstract Background Tobacco smoking is considered as one of the lifestyles factors that influence the sperm DNA methylation and global sperm DNA methylation and that may affect the sperm phenotype. This study was performed to investigate whether tobacco cigarette heavy smoking influences sperm DNA methylation patterns and semen parameters and to determine whether there is an alteration in the transcription level of MAPK8IP3, GAA, ANXA2, PRRC2A, and PDE11A genes in heavy smokers compared to non-smokers. Thirty samples were subjected to 450K arrays as a screening study to assess the variation in sperm DNA methylation levels between heavy smokers and non-smokers. Five CpG sites have the highest difference in methylation levels (cg07869343, cg05813498, cg09785377, cg06833981, and cg02745784), which are located in the MAPK8IP3, GAA, ANXA2, PRRC2A, and PDE11A genes, respectively, and were selected for further analysis using deep bisulfite sequencing in 280 independent samples (120 proven non-smokers and 160 heavy smokers) with a mean age of 33.8 ± 8.4 years. The global sperm DNA methylation, sperm DNA fragmentation, and chromatin non-condensation were evaluated also. Results A significant increase was found in the methylation level at seven, three, and seventeen CpGs within the GAA, ANXA2, and MAPK8IP3 genes amplicon, respectively (P< 0.01) in heavy smokers compared to non-smokers. Additionally, a significant increase was found in the methylation levels at all CpGs within PRRC2A and PDE11A gene amplicon (P< 0.01). A significant increase was found in the level of sperm chromatin non-condensation, DNA fragmentation, and global DNA methylation (P < 0.001) in heavy smokers compared to non-smokers. Conclusion These results indicate that tobacco cigarette smoking can alter the DNA methylation level at several CpGs, the status of global DNA methylation, and transcription level of the following genes “MAPK8IP3, GAA, ANXA2, PRRC2A, and PDE11A” in human spermatozoa. These findings may affect negatively semen parameters and men’s fertility.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Fangli Wu ◽  
Jinfeng Xu ◽  
Tiantian Gao ◽  
Diao Huang ◽  
Weibo Jin

Abstract Background Plant miRNAs are involved in the response to biotic and abiotic stresses by altering their expression levels, and they play an important role in the regulation of plant resistance to stress. However, the molecular mechanism that regulates the expression levels of miRNAs in plants with biotic and abiotic stress still needs to be explored. Previously, we found that the expression of the miR482 family was changed in tomato infected by Botrytis cinerea. In this study, we investigated and uncovered the mechanism underlying the response of miR482 to B. cinerea infection in tomato. Results First, RT-qPCR was employed to detect the expression patterns of miR482b in tomato infected by B. cinerea, and results showed that miR482b primary transcripts (pri-miR482b) were up-regulated in B. cinerea-infected leaves, but the mature miR482b was down-regulated. Subsequently, we used rapid amplification cDNA end method to amplify the full-length of pri-miR482b. Result showed that the pri-miR482b had two isoforms, with the longer one (consisting 300 bp) having an extra fragment of 53 bp in the 3’-end compared with the shorter one. In vitro Dicer assay indicated that the longer isoform pri-miR482b-x1 had higher efficiency in the post-transcriptional splicing of miRNA than the shorter isoform pri-miR482b-x2. In addition, the transcription level of mature miR482b was much higher in transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing pri-miR482b-x1 than that in OE pri-miR482b-x2 Arabidopsis. These results confirmed that this extra 53 bp in pri-miR482b-x1 might play a key role in the miR482b biogenesis of post-transcription processing. Conclusions Extra 53 bp in pri-miR482b-x1 enhanced miR482b biogenesis, which elevated the transcription level of miR482b. This study clarified the response of miR482 to B. cinerea infection in tomato, thereby helping us further understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate the expression levels of other miRNAs.

Fatemeh Safari ◽  
Reza Atarodi ◽  
Hamid Reza Jamshidi

Background and Aims: Long-term surge of heart loads causes cell hypertrophy. Left ventricular hypertrophy is an adaptive response of the heart to pathological stimuli such as hypertension. B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family members play an essential role in this process regulation. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of thymol on the transcription level of Bcl-2 family factors in the rat model of left ventricular hypertrophy. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: 1- Control 2-Untreated hypertrophy (H), 3 and 4 groups which received 25 and 50 mg/kg/day of thymol (H + Tym25 and H + Tym50 groups, respectively). Hypertrophy was induced by abdominal aortic banding, and the real time polymerase chain reaction technique was used for gene expression. Results: Data showed that in the H group, the mRNA level of the BAD was increased significantly (p ˂ 0.001). However, the transcription level of BAX was increased in the H and H+Tym25 compared with the control group. In the H + Tym50 group, BAX mRNA level decreased significantly compared to the H group (p ˂ 0.05). Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that the expression rates of the antiapoptotic factor, Bcl-2, was significantly increased in the H group (p < 0.01) and thymol-treated hypertrophy groups (p < 0.001). Interestingly, the upregulation of Bcl-2 mRNA was statistically significant in the H+Tym50 group compared with H and H + Tym25 groups (p < 0.01). The results showed that thymol could protect heart hypertrophied by increasing the expression of anti-apoptotic factors.

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