Maximum Temperatures
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Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 191
Giorgia Fabbri ◽  
Matteo Gianesella ◽  
Rossella Tessari ◽  
Andrea Bassini ◽  
Massimo Morgante ◽  

Lameness represents one of the main causes of decreased productive performance and impaired animal welfare in the bovine industry. Young beef bulls are predisposed to develop diseases of the growing skeleton, especially growth plate lesions. Early diagnosis is indispensable for ensuring correct treatment, fast recovery and reduction losses. However, when dealing with beef cattle, this is not always possible. Fast and reliable diagnostic imaging techniques are necessary to improve dealing with lameness in beef animals. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential of thermographic imaging as a non-invasive tool for rapidly screening beef bulls for the presence of growth plate lesions. Here, 20 Charolais and Limousine beef bulls affected by growth plate lesions in one of the rear limbs were selected. IRT was performed on both hind limbs using a digital infrared camera (ThermaCam T420 Model, Flir Systems, Boston, MA, USA), prior to radiographic imaging and clinical examination. The temperature of healthy and affected limbs was measured in two regions: the area correspondent to the growth plate (AR01) and the whole area of the metatarsus (AR02). Growth plate lesions were found to increase the maximum, mean, and minimum temperatures in AR01; and the mean and maximum temperatures in AR02, therefore, indicating the potential of IRT as a reliable, practical tool for screening growth plate lesions in beef bulls.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (1) ◽  
Carla Andréa Delatorre ◽  
Vanessa de Freitas Duarte ◽  
Andriele Wairich ◽  
Guilherme Paim Fraga ◽  
Márcio Pacheco Ribeiro ◽  

ABSTRACT: Temperature affects plant development therefore phyllochron has been used as a predictor for developmental events to define the time for agricultural managing practices. This study aims to evaluate changes in phyllochron and thermal sum required for flowering by oat genotypes developed at different decades at three temperature regimes; the effect of high temperature on phytomere development; and identify the development stage at the moment of meristem transition to reproductive stage. Three environments were obtained by sowing in the fall, in the spring, and under constant temperature (17oC), always at inductive photoperiod. Despite changes in nominal values small differences were found among genotypes’ phyllochron. Adding specific optimal and maximum temperatures into the growing degree days’ calculation demonstrated phyllochron stability among environments. Plant cycle length and thermal sum correlated with the number of developed phytomeres. UFRGS 078030-2 plants flowered earlier, had a small number of phytomeres, and greater tolerance to elevated temperatures than the other genotypes. More recent genotypes transit to reproductive stage at an earlier Haun stage than older ones.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (01) ◽  
pp. 2-7
Hem Shrestha ◽  
Ajay Kumar Jha ◽  
Saroj Nepal ◽  
Aatmaram Tiwari ◽  
Kamana Bantawa ◽  

The Sky View Virtual Observatory was used for the systematic search of dust structures within the far-infrared loop G229-03. The source (object) responsible for the formation of the cavity of interest was detected by the Set of Identifications, Measurements, and Bibliography for Astronomical Data (SIMBAD) database. The total mass of the loop was 8.50031 × 1029 kg which is about 0.425 times the mass of the Sun at a distance of 1300 pc. The size of the cavity was 3.67° × 3.6°, whereas its core size was 0.531° × 0.255° located at R.A. (J2000) = 7h10m0.8s and Dec.(J2000) =15h55m30s. The minimum and maximum temperatures were between 20.24 ± 1.16 K and 18.63 ± 1.96 K respectively. In the core region, the average temperature was 19.53 K, approximately equal to Gaussian center 19.267 K with an offset temperature of 0.4 K showing that the core region of the cavity is dynamically stable. The Far-infrared loop was found to be located within a 1° radius around the high-velocity cloud HVC oriented by 45° to the plane of the sky. The inclination angle of the core of the loop was greater than 60° whereas the inclination angle for the larger structure was 13.71°. The Gaussian distribution of temperature was well fitted with the center of 19.267 K which shows that the cavity was in thermal equilibrium and the outer region with offset temperature of about 35 K suggesting that the loop was dynamically unstable possibly due to high-velocity cloud

V.V. Guryanov ◽  
A.K. Sungatullin

The spatio-temporal variability of the average values of temperature indices of climate extremity in the territory of the European part of Russia (ER) in 1980-2019 is presented. To calculate the extremeness indices, we used hourly data on the maximum and minimum temperatures obtained using the ERA5 reanalysis on a 1°´1° spatial grid. Statistical processing of the index values revealed an increase in the temperature indices TNX, TNN, TXN, TXX, associated with the minimum and maximum temperatures, with the exception of the north and southeast of the region. An increase in the number of sunny days and a decrease in the number of frosty days were also revealed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 42 (4) ◽  
pp. 361-366
F. K. AHMED ◽  

Using synoptic and climatological data for 27 years (1951-1977) of 16 stations of Bangladesh, temporal and spatial variations of the ab3olute maximum temperature of Bangladesh have been studied. Empirical probabilities for the interval 35.loC-40.o0C and 40,1° -45.0°C of absolute maximum temperature have been examined. Some correlation characteristics between some pairs of station for some selected months have been analysed. An attempt has been made to explain the cause of temporal and spatial variations of maximum and absolute maximum temperatures from the point of view of synoptic meteorology.  

2021 ◽  
Vol 52 (2) ◽  
pp. 351-356

In this paper an attempt is made to study the spatial variations of maximum temperature over Tamil Nadu. From the data of daily maximum temperature of eleven stations in Tamil Nadu for the first six months from 1981 to 1997, it is observed that there are two separate regions namely high maximum temperature region of interior stations and low maximum temperature region of coastal stations from January to May and the distinction disappears in June. Hill station Kodaikanal recorded less maximum temperature that Ootacamund from January to May and it reverses in June. During onset phase of southwest monsoon, maximum temperature decreases over Coimbatore, Pamban and Kanyakumari. In the presence of cyclonic storm over the Bay of Bengal the maximum temperatures are fallen during the period when the storm affects Tamil Nadu or Andhra coast in May and June whereas when the storms moves farther away from the coast maximum temperature over interior places decreases and increases over north coastal stations.

2021 ◽  
pp. 35-38
Louis K. Prom ◽  
Thomas Isakeit

The frequent rains coupled with cooler than normal maximum temperatures in the early part of the 2021 growing season created conditions for severe outbreaks of zonate leaf spot infection on sorghum plants in the experimental plots at the Texas A&M AgriLife Farm, Burleson County, Texas. As a result, the incidence of zonate leaf spot was recorded for 68 accessions planted in one of the field trials. In this study, 13 sorghum accessions, including TAM428, BTx635, PI330255, PI534157, PI570841, PI609251, PI570726, and PI267588 were free of zonate leaf spot infection, indicating that they were highly resistant to the disease. The lines identified in this study may possess genes for resistance which can be useful in breeding programs for introgression of the resistant genes to elite or parental lines.

Yuri Matheus Neves Silva ◽  
Helder Martins Silva ◽  
Raiany Dias De Andrade Silva ◽  
Eduardo Duarte Marques ◽  
Olga Venimar De Oliveira Gomes

The phenomenon of urban heat islands (UHI) is caused by the increase in temperatures of an urban area as a result of the development of human activities within that area, this phenomenon is usually studied in medium and large cities. This study aims to verify if the phenomenon of UHI occurs in the municipality of Três Rios – RJ, a small sized city. This study included the use of mobile transect, through pre-established data collection points/stations. Five data collection points were selected, from which one was included in a rural area, one in the Parque Natural Municipal (Urban Park, within the city), and three points within the urbanized area. The equipment used was the Brunton® / ADC PRO handheld weather station. The data collection period ranged from September 2018 until July 2019, which included the four seasons. Measurements were taken at 6:00, 12:00, 15:00, 18:00, and 21:00h, in alternate days during the study period. Considering the temperature measurements, two different indicators of thermal variability were used. Strong magnitude heat islands were detected, taking into consideration the relevant variation of maximum temperatures observed in the urban area when compared to the rural area. The results indicate the most affected populations to be the ones located within urban areas, mostly individuals under socioeconomic vulnerability. The results obtained can be used as support for the development of strategies to minimize the thermal discomfort to populations exposed to the influence of higher magnitude urban heat islands.

2021 ◽  
Vol 64 (2) ◽  
pp. 251-264

izs{k.kkRed izek.kksa ls HkweaMy ij lrg rkiekuksa esa m".k izo`fRr dk irk pyrk gSA bl 'kks/k i= esa eqacbZ ds vf/kdre vkSj U;wure rkiekuksa dh izo`fRr;ksa dks Li"V fd;k x;k gSA blesa ,d n’kd ls ysdj izfrnu rd ds fofHkUu dkfyd ekiØeksa ij rkieku izo`fRr;ksa dh tk¡p dh xbZ gSA fo"ke ?kVukvksa ds ?kfVr gksus dh vko`fRr esa izo`fRr;ksa ds fy, ekSle ds leku xq.kksa ds rRoksa dh Hkh tk¡p dh xbZ gSA lkekU;r% eqacbZ esa rkieku dh c<+rh gqbZ izo`fRr ikbZ xbZ gS ftlesa U;wure rkiekuksa dh vis{kk vf/kdre rkieku vf/kd ik;k x;k gS rFkk ;g 95 izfr’kr dh fo’oLrrk Lrj ij lkaf[;dh; :i  ls egRoiw.kZ gSA tk¡p dh varj&okf"kZd vkSj varjk ekSle ekuksa nksuksa ij ekWulwu iwoZ vkSj ekWulwu _rqvksa dh vis{kk 'khr _rq vkSj ekWulwuksRrj _rqvksa esa m".krk lfgr ekSleh fHkUurk Li"V :i  ls vf/kd ns[kh xbZ gSA pje rkieku ds fo’ys"k.k esa ekSleh fHkUurk Hkh Li"Vr% ns[kh xbZ gSA xeZ fnuksa vkSj xeZ jkrksa esa ?kVukvksa dh vko`fRr 'khr_rq vkSj ekWulwuksRrj _rqvksa dh vis{kk ekWulwu iwoZ vkSj ekWulwu _rqvksa esa vf/kd Li"V :i  ls ns[kh xbZ gSA lHkh _rqvksa esa nksuksa LVs’kuksa ij fnu vkSj jkr nksuksa ds le; ds rkiekuksa esa larqfyr m".k izo`fRr ikbZ xbZ gS gk¡ykfd ekWulwuksRrj _rq esa lkarkØqt esa ;g fHkUurk lkaf[;dh; :i ls ux.; ikbZ xbZ gSA Observational evidence points to a warming trend in surface temperatures over the globe. This paper focuses on the trends in Maximum and Minimum temperatures over Mumbai. The temperature trends were investigated at different temporal scales from decadal to daily. The seasonal series were also investigated for trends in frequency of occurrences of extreme events. In general an increasing trend is observed over Mumbai, with the increase in Maximum temperatures more than the Minimum temperatures and statistically significant at 95% confidence level.  A seasonal distinction is evident with the warming more in the Winter and Post Monsoon seasons as compared to the Pre Monsoon and Monsoon seasons at both the inter-annual and intra-seasonal scales of investigation. The seasonal distinction was also evident in the extreme temperature analysis. The frequency of occurrences in the hot days and hot nights were more pronounced in the Pre Monsoon and Monsoon seasons as compared to the Winter and Post Monsoon seasons. Symmetric warming trend was observed for both the daytime and nighttime temperatures at both the stations in all the seasons though the variations at Santacruz are statistically insignificant in the Post-Monsoon season

2021 ◽  
Vol 49 (1) ◽  
pp. 95-102
Y. E. A. RAJ

Forecasting schemes based on statistical techniques have been developed to forecast daily summer (March-May) maximum temperatures of Madras. A set of optimal number of predictors were chosen from a large number of parameters by employing stepwise forward screening. Separate forecasting schemes for Madras city and airport, with lead time of 24 and 9 hr were developed from the data of 12 years and tested in an independent sample of 4 years. Maximum temperature of the previous day, normal daily maximum temperature, temperature advection index and morning zonal wind at Madras at 900 hPa level were among the predictors selected. The schemes yielded good results providing 77-87% correct, forecasts with skill scores of 0.29-0.57.

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