mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis
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Taylor L. T. Wherry ◽  
Rohana Dassanayake ◽  
Eduardo Casas ◽  
Shankumar Mooyottu ◽  
John P. Bannantine ◽  

Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative agent of ruminant enteritis, targets intestinal macrophages. During infection, macrophages contribute to mucosal inflammation and development of granulomas in the small intestine which worsens as disease progression occurs. Vitamin D3 is an immunomodulatory steroid hormone with beneficial roles in host-pathogen interactions. Few studies have investigated immunologic roles of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in cattle, particularly cattle infected with MAP. This study examined the effects of exogenous vitamin D3 on immune responses of monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs) isolated from dairy cattle naturally infected with MAP. MDMs were pre-treated with ± 100 ng/ml 25(OH)D3 or ± 4 ng/ml 1,25(OH)2D3, then incubated 24 hrs with live MAP in the presence of their respective pre-treatment concentrations. Following treatment with either vitamin D3 analog, phagocytosis of MAP by MDMs was significantly greater in clinically infected animals, with a greater amount of live and dead bacteria. Clinical cows had significantly less CD40 surface expression on MDMs compared to subclinical cows and noninfected controls. 1,25(OH)2D3 also significantly increased nitrite production in MAP infected cows. 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment played a key role in upregulating secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-12 while downregulating IL-10, IL-6, and IFN-γ. 1,25(OH)2D3 also negatively regulated transcripts of CYP24A1, CYP27B1, DEFB7, NOS2, and IL10. Results from this study demonstrate that vitamin D3 compounds, but mainly 1,25(OH)2D3, modulate both pro- and anti-inflammatory immune responses in dairy cattle infected with MAP, impacting the bacterial viability within the macrophage.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Sepideh Hosseiniporgham ◽  
Lucio Rebechesu ◽  
Pierangela Pintore ◽  
Stefano Lollai ◽  
Maria Dattena ◽  

AbstractParatuberculosis is an incurable gastroenteritis among ruminants that is promoted by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), an acid-fast mycobacterium. To accelerate the detection of viable pathogen, a conventional (peptide mediated magnetic separation: PMS) and novel (phage-bead qPCR: PBQ) phage based assay was optimized. A superior limit of detection (LOD) of 10 MAP per 10 mL milk was suggested for PBQ compared to 100 cells/10 mL for PMS-phage assay. Via PBQ, viable MAP was found in 48.78% out 41 unpasteurized sheep and goat milk samples. Sheep milk samples (n = 29) that were tested by PMS-phage assay contained no viable MAP. The absence of viable MAP in milk collected from 21 of the recent sheep animals was also confirmed by PBQ after a 2-week gap. Although, the two phage assays comparably detected no viable MAP in the milk samples, MAP DNA and antibodies against MAP were recognized in milk and sera of some of these animals within two instances of sampling representing that some sheep animals were MAP shedders. In conclusion, PBQ and PMS-phage could be promising methods for the assessment of MAP viability in milk samples. However, PBQ was privileged over the PMS-phage assay due to the lower LOD, rapidity, higher sensitivity, lack of need to M. smegmatis and consequent virucidal treatment that are essential in PMS-phage assay for making lawn and inactivation of exogenous mycobacteriophages respectively.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Roberto Damián Moyano ◽  
Magali Andrea Romero ◽  
María Alejandra Colombatti Olivieri ◽  
María Fiorella Alvarado Pinedo ◽  
Gabriel Eduardo Traveria ◽  

Bovine paratuberculosis (PTB) is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). The optimization of detection tests specific for MAP is crucial to improve PTB control. In this work, we aimed to develop and validate a diagnostic tool based on an ELISA to specifically detect anti-MAP antibodies from bovine serum samples. For that purpose, we designed a recombinant polyprotein containing four specific antigens from MAP and optimized the ELISA. The validation consisted of the assessment of 10 sera from PTB-infected and healthy bovines with different OD values. The diagnostic performance of the polyprotein-ELISA was evaluated by testing 130 bovine serum samples (47 healthy, 48 MAP-infected, and 35 M. bovis-infected bovines). The ELISA using the polyprotein yielded an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.9912 (95% CI, 0.9758–1.007; P  < 0.0001). Moreover, for this ELISA, the cut-off selected from the ROC curve based on the point with a sensitivity of 95.56% (95% CI, 0.8485–0.9946) and specificity of 97.92 (95% CI, 0.8893–0.9995) was 0.3328. Similar results were obtained with an ELISA using the commercial Paratuberculosis Protoplasmatic Antigen (PPA). However, the ELISA with the polyprotein antigen showed a better performance against sera from animals infected with Mycobacterium bovis compared to the ELISA with PPA: lower cross-reactivity (2.85% versus 25.71%). These results demonstrate a very low cross-reactivity of the polyprotein with antibodies present in serum samples from animals infected with M. bovis. The designed polyprotein and the validated ELISA could be very useful for the specific identification of MAP-infected animals in herds.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 12
Sanaa M. Idris ◽  
Kamal H. Eltom ◽  
Julius B. Okuni ◽  
Lonzy Ojok ◽  
Wisal A. Elmagzoub ◽  

Paratuberculosis (PTB) is a contagious and chronic enteric disease of ruminants and many non-ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), and is characterised by diarrhoea and progressive emaciation with consequent serious economic losses due to death, early culling, and reduced productivity. In addition, indirect economic losses may arise from trade restrictions. Besides being a production limiting disease, PTB is a potential zoonosis; MAP has been isolated from Crohn’s disease patients and was associated with other human diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, Type 1 diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats may be globally distributed though information on the prevalence and economic impact in many developing countries seem to be scanty. Goats are more susceptible to infection than sheep and both species are likely to develop the clinical disease. Ingestion of feed and water contaminated with faeces of MAP-positive animals is the common route of infection, which then spreads horizontally and vertically. In African countries, PTB has been described as a “neglected disease”, and in small ruminants, which support the livelihood of people in rural areas and poor communities, the disease was rarely reported. Prevention and control of small ruminants’ PTB is difficult because diagnostic assays demonstrate poor sensitivity early in the disease process, in addition to the difficulties in identifying subclinically infected animals. Further studies are needed to provide more insight on molecular epidemiology, transmission, and impact on other animals or humans, socio-economic aspects, prevention and control of small ruminant PTB.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Eveline M. Ibeagha-Awemu ◽  
Nathalie Bissonnette ◽  
Suraj Bhattarai ◽  
Mengqi Wang ◽  
Pier-Luc Dudemaine ◽  

Johne’s Disease (JD), caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis (MAP), is an incurable disease of ruminants and other animal species and is characterized by an imbalance of gut immunity. The role of MAP infection on the epigenetic modeling of gut immunity during the progression of JD is still unknown. This study investigated the DNA methylation patterns in ileal (IL) and ileal lymph node (ILLN) tissues from cows diagnosed with persistent subclinical MAP infection over a one to 4 years period. DNA samples from IL and ILLN tissues from cows negative (MAPneg) (n = 3) or positive for MAP infection (MAPinf) (n = 4) were subjected to whole genome bisulfite sequencing. A total of 11,263 and 62,459 differentially methylated cytosines (DMCs), and 1259 and 8086 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) (FDR&lt;0.1) were found between MAPinf and MAPneg IL and ILLN tissues, respectively. The DMRs were found on 394 genes (denoted DMR genes) in the IL and on 1305 genes in the ILLN. DMR genes with hypermethylated promoters/5′UTR [3 (IL) and 88 (ILLN)] or hypomethylated promoters/5′UTR [10 (IL) and 25 (ILLN)] and having multiple functions including response to stimulus/immune response (BLK, BTC, CCL21, AVPR1A, CHRNG, GABRA4, TDGF1), cellular processes (H2AC20, TEX101, GLA, NCKAP5L, RBM27, SLC18A1, H2AC20BARHL2, NLGN3, SUV39H1, GABRA4, PPA1, UBE2D2) and metabolic processes (GSTO2, H2AC20, SUV39H1, PPA1, UBE2D2) are potential DNA methylation candidate genes of MAP infection. The ILLN DMR genes were enriched for more biological process (BP) gene ontology (GO) terms (n = 374), most of which were related to cellular processes (27.6%), biological regulation (16.6%), metabolic processes (15.4%) and response to stimulus/immune response (8.2%) compared to 75 BP GO terms (related to cellular processes, metabolic processes and transport, and system development) enriched for IL DMR genes. ILLN DMR genes were enriched for more pathways (n = 47) including 13 disease pathways compared with 36 enriched pathways, including 7 disease/immune pathways for IL DMR genes. In conclusion, the results show tissue specific responses to MAP infection with more epigenetic changes (DMCs and DMRs) in the ILLN than in the IL tissue, suggesting that the ILLN and immune processes were more responsive to regulation by methylation of DNA relative to IL tissue. Our data is the first to demonstrate a potential role for DNA methylation in the pathogenesis of MAP infection in dairy cattle.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 2623
Judah Ssekitoleko ◽  
Lonzy Ojok ◽  
Ahmed Abd El Wahed ◽  
Joseph Erume ◽  
Ahmad Amanzada ◽  

To propose a solution for control of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections in animals as well as in humans, and develop effective prevention, diagnostic and treatment strategies, it is essential to understand the molecular mechanisms of MAP pathogenesis. In the present review, we discuss the mechanisms utilised by MAP to overcome the host defense system to achieve the virulence status. Putative MAP virulence genes are mentioned and their probable roles in view of other mycobacteria are discussed. This review provides information on MAP strain diversity, putative MAP virulence factors and highlights the knowledge gaps regarding MAP virulence mechanisms that may be important in control and prevention of paratuberculosis.

Chaitanya R.K. ◽  
Priyanka G. ◽  
Sreedevi B.

The efficiency and suitability of a MAP F57 based SYBR Green qPCR assay for the detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) using a set of known MAP positive (12) and MAP negative (23) DNA samples that were previously identified by conventional IS 900 PCR were assessed. These DNA samples were isolated in our previous study from faecal samples collected from cattle in the livestock farms under government sector with a previous history of Johne’s disease. The MAP F57 qPCR was able to identify all the positive samples accurately and rapidly with Cq values ranging from 20-29. The efficiency of qPCR using recombinant plasmid for standard curve was 0.991 and limit of detection was 10 MAP organisms per microlitre of DNA sample.

Abstract To better understand the epizootiology of caprine paratuberculosis in the North of Portugal, a cross-sectional study was conducted from 2014 to 2015. The seroprevalence and risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) seropositivity were evaluated. Antibodies against Map were determined by a commercial ELISA. In 936 sera tested from 56 goat herds, 120 (12.8%, 95% CI: 10.8–15.1%) goats and 34 (60.7%, 95% CI: 47.6–72.4%) herds were positive. Risk factors for seropositivity were investigated by logistic regression models. The odds of Map seropositivity were found to be higher for animals with clinical signs, OR = 5.1 (95% CI: 2.7–9.6%), animals belonging to herds with previous wasting disease, OR = 2.3 (95% CI: 1.1–4.8%), and accumulation of manure in the herd, OR = 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7–5.7%). The potential risk factors identified in this study support the current recommendations for the control of paratuberculosis in these and other animals.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Martina Cechova ◽  
Monika Beinhauerova ◽  
Vladimir Babak ◽  
Iva Slana ◽  
Petr Kralik

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) represents a slow-growing bacterium causing paratuberculosis, especially in domestic and wild ruminants. Until recently, the assessment of MAP viability relied mainly on cultivation, which is very time consuming and is unable to detect viable but non-culturable cells. Subsequently, viability PCR, a method combining sample treatment with the DNA-modifying agent ethidium monoazide (EMA) or propidium monoazide (PMA) and quantitative PCR (qPCR), was developed, enabling the selective detection of MAP cells with an intact cell membrane. However, this technology requires a laborious procedure involving the need to work in the dark and on ice. In our study, a method based on a combination of platinum compound treatment and qPCR, which does not require such a demanding procedure, was investigated to determine mycobacterial cell viability. The conditions of platinum compound treatment were optimized for the fast-growing mycobacterium M. smegmatis using live and heat-killed cells. The optimal conditions consisting of a single treatment with 100 μM cis-dichlorodiammine platinum(II) for 60 min at 5°C resulted in a difference in quantification cycle (Cq) values between live and dead membrane-compromised mycobacterial cells of about 6 Cq corresponding to about 2 log10 units. This optimized viability assay was eventually applied to MAP cells and demonstrated a better ability to distinguish between live and heat-killed mycobacteria as compared to PMA. The viability assay combining the Pt treatment with qPCR thereby proved to be a promising method for the enumeration of viable MAP cells in foodstuffs, environmental, and clinical samples which could replace the time-consuming cultivation or laborious procedures required when using PMA.

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