matrix gla protein
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Margot P. J. Visser ◽  
Anton S. M. Dofferhoff ◽  
Jody M. W. van den Ouweland ◽  
Henny van Daal ◽  
Cornelis Kramers ◽  

BackgroundPathology during COVID-19 infection arises partly from an excessive inflammatory response with a key role for interleukin (IL)-6. Both vitamin D and K have been proposed as potential modulators of this process.MethodsWe assessed vitamin D and K status by measuring circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and desphospho-uncarboxylated Matrix Gla-Protein (dp-ucMGP), respectively in 135 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in relation to inflammatory response, elastic fiber degradation and clinical outcomes.ResultsComparing good and poor disease outcomes of COVID-19 patients, vitamin 25(OH)D levels were not significantly different. IL-6 levels, however, were significantly higher in patients with poor outcome, compared to patients with good outcome (30.3 vs. 153.0 pg/mL; p < 0.0001). Dp-ucMGP levels as biomarker of extrahepatic vitamin K status was associated with IL-6 levels (r = 0.35; p < 0.0001). In contrast, 25(OH)D levels were only borderline statistically significant correlated with IL-6 (r = −0.14; p <0.050). A significant association was also found between IL-6 and elastic fiber degradation. Contrary to vitamin K status, 25(OH)D did not correlate with elastic fiber degradation.ConclusionsDp-ucMGP associates with IL-6 as a central component of the destructive inflammatory processes in COVID-19. An intervention trial may provide insight whether vitamin K administration, either or not in combination with vitamin D, improves clinical outcome of COVID-19.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 798
Suvoshree Ghosh ◽  
Johannes Oldenburg ◽  
Katrin J. Czogalla-Nitsche

Vitamin K dependent coagulation factor deficiency type 1 (VKCFD1) is a rare hereditary bleeding disorder caused by mutations in γ-Glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX) gene. The GGCX enzyme catalyzes the γ-carboxylation of 15 different vitamin K dependent (VKD) proteins, which have function in blood coagulation, calcification, and cell signaling. Therefore, in addition to bleedings, some VKCFD1 patients develop diverse non-hemorrhagic phenotypes such as skin hyper-laxity, skeletal dysmorphologies, and/or cardiac defects. Recent studies showed that GGCX mutations differentially effect γ-carboxylation of VKD proteins, where clotting factors are sufficiently γ-carboxylated, but not certain non-hemostatic VKD proteins. This could be one reason for the development of diverse phenotypes. The major manifestation of non-hemorrhagic phenotypes in VKCFD1 patients are mineralization defects. Therefore, the mechanism of regulation of calcification by specific VKD proteins as matrix Gla protein (MGP) and Gla-rich protein (GRP) in physiological and pathological conditions is of high interest. This will also help to understand the patho-mechanism of VKCFD1 phenotypes and to deduce new treatment strategies. In the present review article, we have summarized the recent findings on the function of GRP and MGP and how these proteins influence the development of non-hemorrhagic phenotypes in VKCFD1 patients.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 262
Anna Stępień ◽  
Małgorzata Koziarska-Rościszewska ◽  
Jacek Rysz ◽  
Mariusz Stępień

Vitamin K (VK) plays many important functions in the body. The most important of them include the contribution in calcium homeostasis and anticoagulation. Vascular calcification (VC) is one of the most important mechanisms of renal pathology. The most potent inhibitor of this process—matrix Gla protein (MGP) is VK-dependent. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, both non-dialysed and hemodialysed, often have VK deficiency. Elevated uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (ucMGP) levels indirectly reflected VK deficiency and are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular events in these patients. It has been suggested that VK intake may reduce the VC and related cardiovascular risk. Vitamin K intake has been suggested to reduce VC and the associated cardiovascular risk. The role and possibility of VK supplementation as well as the impact of anticoagulation therapy on VK deficiency in CKD patients is discussed.

Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 82
Andreea Crintea ◽  
Alina Gabriela Dutu ◽  
Anne-Marie Constantin ◽  
Zsolt Fekete ◽  
Gabriel Samasca ◽  

Background: Vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs) and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are involved in lung cancer progression. Therefore, we aimed to study the serum concentration of Matrix Gla protein (MGP), Growth Arrest-specific 6 (Gas6), and EGFR before and after the first cycle of chemotherapy and to investigate how MGP, Gas6, and EGFR are modified after one cycle of chemotherapy. Methods: We performed an observational study on twenty patients diagnosed with lung cancer, by assessing the serum concentration of vitaminK1 (VitK1), MGP, Gas6, and EGFR using the ELISA technique before and after three weeks of the first cycle of chemotherapy. Patients were evaluated using RECIST 1.1 criteria. Results: Serum levels of MGP, Gas6, EGFR, and VK1 before and after treatment were not changed significantly. Regarding the pre-treatment correlation of the MGP values, we found a strong positive relationship between MGP and VK1 pre-treatment values (r = 0.821, 95%CI 0.523; 0.954, p < 0.001). Furthermore, there was a moderately negative correlation between VK1 and EGFR pre-treatment values, with the relationship between them being marginally significant (r = −0.430, 95%CI −0.772; 0.001, p = 0.058). Post-treatment, we found a strong positive relationship between MGP and VK1 post-treatment values (r = 0.758, 95%CI 0.436; 0.900, p < 0.001). We also found a moderate positive relationship between Gas6 and EGFR post-treatment values, but the correlation was only marginally significant (r = 0.442, p = 0.051).

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (24) ◽  
pp. 5896
Simona R. Gheorghe ◽  
Cees Vermeer ◽  
Gabriel Olteanu ◽  
Ciprian N. Silaghi ◽  
Alexandra M. Crăciun

Matrix Gla protein (MGP), a local inhibitor of tissue mineralization, is associated with vascular calcification. Depending on the carboxylation and phosphorylation status, MGP has active conformations, e.g., carboxylated MGP (cMGP) and phosphorylated MGP (pMGP), but also inactive conformations, e.g., uncarboxylated MGP (ucMGP) and dephosphorylated MGP (dpMGP). Our purpose was to assess the presence of all MGP conformations in healthy veins (HV) and varicose veins (VV), concurrently with the analysis of circulating total MGP (tMGP) before and after the surgical stripping of VV. We collected samples from the great saphenous vein, considered as control group, and tissue from VV, designated as VV group. Plasma levels of tMGP were significantly decreased after the surgical removal of the VV (before 59.5 ± 17.2 vs. after 38.1 ± 11.3, p < 0.001). By using immunohistochemistry staining, we identified local cMGP and pMGP in the control and VV groups, both without calcification, while ucMGP and dpMGP were absent. cMGP was observed in the nucleus and cytoplasm and pMGP in the nucleus of cells belonging to the tunica media, tunica intima and vasa vasorum. Therefore, the active conformations of MGP (cMGP and pMGP) are prevalent in HV and VV without calcification, affirming their anti-calcifying role in veins.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Yoana Dimitrova Kiselova-Kaneva ◽  
Neshe Nazifova-Tasinova ◽  
Deyana Vankova ◽  
Miglena Nikolova ◽  
Milena Pasheva ◽  

Abstract Objectives Matrix Gla protein (MGP) is a calcification inhibitor that plays a role in preventing soft tissue calcification and local mineralization of the vascular wall. The present study aimed to assess the expression of MGP in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC) in adult patients with CVD pathologies and its association with the presence and severity of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) and conventional CVD risk factors. Methods MGP expression was measured in 87 individuals using real time qPCR. Subgrouping was performed according etiologic and metabolic CVD risk factors. Results A clear trend for a decreased MGP expression was observed in all subgroups with high CVD risk. This decrease was significant in abdominally obese hypertensive individuals and in those with dyslipidemia. MGP expression was significantly lower in patients representing high Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. A positive correlation between MGP expression and smoking status in patients with coronary calcium and in the CVD group was established. Atrial hypertension duration correlated negatively with MGP expression in the group without coronary calcium deposits. Conclusions The current study supports the hypothesis that MGP expression in PBMC probably reflects CVD pathology and is related to lipid metabolism dysregulation.

Rajeev Malhotra ◽  
Christopher J. Nicholson ◽  
Dongyu Wang ◽  
Vijeta Bhambhani ◽  
Samantha Paniagua ◽  

Objective: Arterial stiffness is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. MGP (matrix Gla protein) is implicated in vascular calcification in animal models, and circulating levels of the uncarboxylated, inactive form of MGP (ucMGP) are associated with cardiovascular disease-related and all-cause mortality in human studies. However, the role of MGP in arterial stiffness is uncertain. Approach and Results: We examined the association of ucMGP levels with vascular calcification, arterial stiffness including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), and incident heart failure in community-dwelling adults from the Framingham Heart Study. To further investigate the link between MGP and arterial stiffness, we compared aortic PWV in age- and sex-matched young (4-month-old) and aged (10-month-old) wild-type and Mgp +/− mice. Among 7066 adults, we observed significant associations between higher levels of ucMGP and measures of arterial stiffness, including higher PWV and pulse pressure. Longitudinal analyses demonstrated an association between higher ucMGP levels and future increases in systolic blood pressure and incident heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Aortic PWV was increased in older, but not young, female Mgp +/− mice compared with wild-type mice, and this augmentation in PWV was associated with increased aortic elastin fiber fragmentation and collagen accumulation. Conclusions: This translational study demonstrates an association between ucMGP levels and arterial stiffness and future heart failure with preserved ejection fraction in a large observational study, findings that are substantiated by experimental studies showing that mice with Mgp heterozygosity develop arterial stiffness. Taken together, these complementary study designs suggest a potential role of therapeutically targeting MGP in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (11) ◽  
pp. 4101
Ulf Schött ◽  
Cecilia Augustsson ◽  
Luukas Lilover ◽  
Caroline Ulfsdotter Nilsson ◽  
Louise Walther-Sturesson ◽  

Growth arrest-specific gene 6 protein (Gas6) is avitamin K-dependent tissue bound protein. Gas6 has been shown to promote growth and therapy resistance among different types of cancer as well as thromboembolism. The aim of this prospective screening study:; Identifier: NTC3782025, was to evaluate the effects of intravenously administered vitamin K1 on Gas6 and its soluble (s)Axl receptor plasma levels in intensive care patients. Vitamin K1 was intravenously injected in non-warfarin treated patients with prolonged Owren prothrombin time international normalized ratio (PT-INR) > 1.2 and blood samples were retrieved before and 20–28 h after injection. Citrate plasma samples from 52 intensive care patients were analysed for different vitamin K dependent proteins. There was a significant, but small increase in median Gas6. Only one patient had a large increase in sAxl, but overall, no significant changes in sAxl Gas6 did not correlate to PT-INR, thrombin generation assay, coagulation factors II, VII, IX and X, but to protein S and decarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP). In conclusion, there was a small increase in Gas6 over 20–28 h. The pathophysiology and clinical importance of this remains to be investigated. To verify a true vitamin K effect, improvement of Gas6 carboxylation defects needs to be studied.

Open Heart ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. e001715
Essa Hariri ◽  
Nicholas Kassis ◽  
Jean-Pierre Iskandar ◽  
Leon J Schurgers ◽  
Anas Saad ◽  

Vitamin K2 serves an important role in cardiovascular health through regulation of calcium homeostasis. Its effects on the cardiovascular system are mediated through activation of the anti-calcific protein known as matrix Gla protein. In its inactive form, this protein is associated with various markers of cardiovascular disease including increased arterial stiffness, vascular and valvular calcification, insulin resistance and heart failure indices which ultimately increase cardiovascular mortality. Supplementation of vitamin K2 has been strongly associated with improved cardiovascular outcomes through its modification of systemic calcification and arterial stiffness. Although its direct effects on delaying the progression of vascular and valvular calcification is currently the subject of multiple randomised clinical trials, prior reports suggest potential improved survival among cardiac patients with vitamin K2 supplementation. Strengthened by its affordability and Food and Drug Adminstration (FDA)-proven safety, vitamin K2 supplementation is a viable and promising option to improve cardiovascular outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Otto Mayer ◽  
Jan Bruthans ◽  
Jitka Seidlerová ◽  
Julius Gelžinský ◽  
Radek Kučera ◽  

Aim: We explored whether matrix Gla protein (MGP, natural calcification inhibitor) and sclerostin (glycoprotein responsible for osteoblast differentiation) interact in terms of mortality risk in coronary patients. Methods: 945 patients after myocardial infarction and/or coronary revascularization were followed in a prospective study. All-cause death, fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular events and heart failure hospitalizations were registered. Results: Either high desphospho-uncarboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP) or high sclerostin were independently associated with 5-year all-cause/cardiovascular mortality. However, we observed an additional mortality risk in the coincidence of both factors. Concomitantly high dp-ucMGP (≥884 pmol/l) plus sclerostin (≥589 ng/l) were associated with increased all-cause mortality risk compared with ‘normal’ concentration s of both factors (HRR 3.71 [95% CI: 2.07–6.62, p < 0.0001]), or if only one biomarker has been increased. A similar pattern was observed for fatal, but not for nonfatal cardiovascular events. Conclusion: Concomitantly high MGP and sclerostin indicate increased mortality risk, which probably reflects their role in cardiovascular calcifications.

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