e3 ubiquitin ligase
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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. e1010204
Jiacheng Lin ◽  
Limin Yin ◽  
Xia-Zhen Xu ◽  
He-Chen Sun ◽  
Zhi-Hua Huang ◽  

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) functions in multiple steps of the viral life cycle. Heteroaryldihydropyrimidine compounds (HAPs) such as Bay41-4109 are capsid protein allosteric modulators that accelerate HBc degradation and inhibit the virion secretion of HBV, specifically by misleading HBc assembly into aberrant non-capsid polymers. However, the subsequent cellular fates of these HAP-induced aberrant non-capsid polymers are not well understood. Here, we discovered that that the chaperone-binding E3 ubiquitin ligase protein STUB1 is required for the removal of Bay41-4109-induced aberrant non-capsid polymers from HepAD38 cells. Specifically, STUB1 recruits BAG3 to transport Bay41-4109-induced aberrant non-capsid polymers to the perinuclear region of cells, thereby initiating p62-mediated macroautophagy and lysosomal degradation. We also demonstrate that elevating the STUB1 level enhances the inhibitory effect of Bay41-4109 on the production of HBeAg and HBV virions in HepAD38 cells, in HBV-infected HepG2-NTCP cells, and in HBV transgenic mice. STUB1 overexpression also facilitates the inhibition of Bay41-4109 on the cccDNA formation in de novo infection of HBV. Understanding these molecular details paves the way for applying HAPs as a potentially curative regimen (or a component of a combination treatment) for eradicating HBV from hepatocytes of chronic infection patients.

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 246
Martina Mascaro ◽  
Inês Lages ◽  
Germana Meroni

TRIM36 is a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family of RING-containing proteins, also known as Haprin, which was first discovered for its abundance in testis and found to be implicated in the spermatozoa acrosome reaction. TRIM36 is a microtubule-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays a role in cytoskeletal organization, and according to data gathered in different species, coordinates growth speed and stability, acting on the microtubules’ plus end, and impacting on cell cycle progression. TRIM36 is also crucial for early developmental processes, in Xenopus, where it is needed for dorso-ventral axis formation, but also in humans as bi-allelic mutations in the TRIM36 gene cause a form of severe neural tube closure defect, called anencephaly. Here, we review TRIM36-related mechanisms implicated in such composite physiological and pathological processes.

Yanzhao Zhang ◽  
Seiya Ozono ◽  
Takuya Tada ◽  
Minoru Tobiume ◽  
Masanori Kameoka ◽  

A member of the MARCH E3 ubiquitin ligase family, MARCH8, downregulates many different kinds of host transmembrane proteins, resulting in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. On the other hands, MARCH8 acts as an antiviral factor when it binds to and downregulates HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein and vesicular stomatitis virus G-glycoprotein that are viral transmembrane proteins.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Manami Hiraiwa ◽  
Kazuya Fukasawa ◽  
Takashi Iezaki ◽  
Hemragul Sabit ◽  
Tetsuhiro Horie ◽  

AbstractGlioma stem cells (GSCs) contribute to the pathogenesis of glioblastoma, the most malignant form of glioma. The implication and underlying mechanisms of SMAD specific E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2 (SMURF2) on the GSC phenotypes remain unknown. We previously demonstrated that SMURF2 phosphorylation at Thr249 (SMURF2Thr249) activates its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Here, we demonstrate that SMURF2Thr249 phosphorylation plays an essential role in maintaining GSC stemness and tumorigenicity. SMURF2 silencing augmented the self-renewal potential and tumorigenicity of patient-derived GSCs. The SMURF2Thr249 phosphorylation level was low in human glioblastoma pathology specimens. Introduction of the SMURF2T249A mutant resulted in increased stemness and tumorigenicity of GSCs, recapitulating the SMURF2 silencing. Moreover, the inactivation of SMURF2Thr249 phosphorylation increases TGF-β receptor (TGFBR) protein stability. Indeed, TGFBR1 knockdown markedly counteracted the GSC phenotypes by SMURF2T249A mutant. These findings highlight the importance of SMURF2Thr249 phosphorylation in maintaining GSC phenotypes, thereby demonstrating a potential target for GSC-directed therapy.

2022 ◽  
Tao Liu ◽  
Lan Chen ◽  
Xiu-Yi Huang ◽  
Shuang Dai ◽  
Tao Ren ◽  

Abstract Background: E3 ubiquitin ligase mRNA plays an important role in mediating tumor microenvironment, and is involved in tumor initiation and progression. However, few studies have realized the value of E3 ubiquitin ligase-related lncRNAs in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD).Methods: Herein, we comprehensively evaluated the E3-ubiquitination patterns including multiple tumor-related molecular phenotypes in LUAD samples using lncRNA profiling from GEO and TCGA database, identified a survival-related risk signature consisting of E3-ubiquitin ligase-related lncRNAs via LASSO and multivariate stepwise Cox regression analysis. Based on the risk score calculated for each sample, LUAD patients were divided into high- and low-risk groups. The predictive value of the signature in overall survival was explored, and a nomogram integrating the risk signature and clinical characteristics was identified and tested. Results: A risk signature consisting of 7 specific E3-ubiquitin ligase-related lncRNAs was screened, and can be viewed as a reliable independent predictor of prognosis. We performed consensus clustering analysis and successfully identified 4 molecular subtypes significantly linked to the OS of LUAD, which validates the prognostic and predictive value of this signature to some extent. The ssGESA analysis revealed that the high-risk group was bound up closely with epithelial-mesenchymal transition, hypoxia, and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways, and had a worse outcome. Moreover, we created a nomogram consisting of pathological staging and risk score. Validation analysis demonstrated high conformity of nomogram predictive probability and actual overall survival in LUAD of TCGA and GEO datasets.Conclusion: The model consisting of specific E3-ubiquitin ligase-related lncRNAs contributes to predicting the prognosis of LUAD patients.

2022 ◽  
Antonio Cuevas-Navarro ◽  
Laura Rodriguez-Muñoz ◽  
Joaquim Grego-Bessa ◽  
Alice Cheng ◽  
Katherine A Rauen ◽  

RAS GTPases are highly conserved proteins involved in the regulation of mitogenic signaling. We have previously described a novel Cullin 3 RING E3 ubiquitin ligase complex formed by the substrate adaptor protein LZTR1 that binds, ubiquitinates, and promotes proteasomal degradation of the RAS GTPase RIT1. In addition, others have described that this complex is also responsible for the ubiquitination of canonical RAS GTPases. Here, we have analyzed the phenotypes of LZTR1 loss-of-function mutants in both fruit flies and mice and have demonstrated biochemical dependency on their RIT1 orthologs. Moreover, we show that LZTR1 is haplosufficient in mice and that embryonic lethality of the homozygous null allele can be rescued by deletion of RIT1.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 68
Tingwei Guo ◽  
Feng Kong ◽  
Carter Burton ◽  
Steven Scaglione ◽  
Blake Beagles ◽  

Plants use diverse strategies to defend themselves from biotic stresses in nature, which include the activation of defense gene expression and a variety of signal transduction pathways. Previous studies have shown that protein ubiquitination plays a critical role in plant defense responses, however the details of its function remain unclear. Our previous work has shown that increasing expression levels of ATL9, an E3 ubiquitin ligase in Arabidopsis thaliana, increased resistance to infection by the fungal pathogen, Golovinomyces cichoracearum. In this study, we demonstrate that the defense-related proteins PDF1.2, PCC1 and FBS1 directly interact with ATL9 and are targeted for degradation to the proteasome by ATL9. The expression levels of PDF1.2, PCC1 and FBS1 are decreased in T-DNA insertional mutants of atl9 and T-DNA insertional mutants of pdf1.2, pcc1 and fbs1 are more susceptible to fungal infection. In addition, callose is more heavily deposited at infection sites in the mutants of atl9, fbs1, pcc1 and pdf1.2. Overexpression of ATL9 and of mutants in fbs1, pcc1 and pdf1.2 showed increased levels of cell death during infection. Together these results indicate that ubiquitination, cell death and callose deposition may work together to enhance defense responses to fungal pathogens.

2022 ◽  
Grant Dewson ◽  
Alan Shuai Huang ◽  
Hui San Chin ◽  
Boris Reljic ◽  
Tirta M Djajawi ◽  

Intrinsic apoptosis is principally governed by the BCL-2 family of proteins, but some non-BCL-2 proteins are also critical to control this process. To identify novel apoptosis regulators, we performed a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 library screen, and identified the mitochondrial E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCHF5/MITOL/RNF153 as an important regulator of BAK apoptotic function. Deleting MARCHF5 in diverse cell lines dependent on BAK conferred profound resistance to BH3-mimetic drugs. The loss of MARCHF5 or its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity surprisingly drove BAK to adopt an activated conformation, with resistance to BH3-mimetics afforded by the formation of inhibitory complexes with pro-survival proteins MCL-1 and BCL-XL. Importantly, these changes to BAK conformation and pro-survival association occurred independently of BH3-only proteins and influence on pro-survival proteins. This study identifies a new mechanism by which MARCHF5 regulates apoptotic cell death and provides new insight into how cancer cells respond to BH3-mimetic drugs. These data also highlight the emerging role of ubiquitin signalling in apoptosis that may be exploited therapeutically.

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