time constraint
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Author(s):  
Sujin Kim ◽  
Cheol E Han ◽  
Bokkyu Kim ◽  
Carolee J. Winstein ◽  
Nicolas Schweighofer

In neurotypical individuals, arm choice in reaching movements depends on expected biomechanical effort, expected success, and a handedness bias. Following a stroke, does arm choice change to account for the decreased motor performance, or does it follow a pre-injury habitual preference pattern? Participants with mild to moderate chronic stroke who were right-handed before stroke performed reaching movements in both spontaneous and forced-choice blocks, under no-time, medium-time, and fast-time constraint conditions designed to modulate reaching success. Mixed-effects logistic regression models of arm choice revealed that expected effort predicted choices. However, expected success only strongly predicted choice in left-hemiparetic individuals. In addition, reaction times decreased in left-hemiparetic individuals between the no-time and the fast-time constraint conditions but showed no changes in right-hemiparetic individuals. Finally, arm choice in the no-time constraint condition correlated with a clinical measure of spontaneous arm use for right-, but not for left-hemiparetic individuals. Our results are consistent with the view that right hemiparetic individuals show a habitual pattern of arm choice for reaching movements relatively independent of failures. In contrast, left hemiparetic individuals appear to choose their paretic left arm more optimally: that is, if a movement with the paretic arm is predicted to be not successful in the upcoming movement, the non-paretic right arm is chosen instead.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
V Kalpana ◽  
Divyendu Kumar Mishra ◽  
K. Chanthirasekaran ◽  
Anandakumar Haldorai ◽  
Srigitha. S. Nath ◽  
...  

Abstract The increasing data demand in recent years has resulted in a considerable rise in heterogeneous cellular network energy usage. Advances in heterogeneous cellular networks with renewable energy supplied from base stations offer the cellular communications sector interesting options. Rising energy consumption, fuelled by huge growth in user count as well as usage of data, has emerged as the most pressing challenge for operators in fulfilling cost-cutting and environmental-impact objectives. The use of minimum power relay stations or base stations in conventional microcells is intended to lower cellular network's total energy usage. We examine the reasons, difficulties, and techniques for addressing the energy cost reduction issue for such renewable heterogeneous networks in this paper. Because of the variety of renewable energy as well as mobile traffic, then the issue related to a reduction in energy cost necessitates both spatial and temporal resource allotment optimization. In this paper, we proposed a new technique for reducing the energy consumption cost using the optimal time constraint algorithmic approach. We demonstrate that the proposed method has time as well as space complexity. Experimental simulations on actual databases with synthetic costs are used to confirm the usefulness and efficacy of our method.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ryoji Onagawa ◽  
Kazutoshi Kudo

AbstractIn goal-directed behavior, individuals are often required to plan and execute a movement with multiple competing reach targets simultaneously. The time constraint assigned to the target is an important factor that affect the initial movement planning, but the adjustments made to the starting behavior considering the time constraints specific to each target have not yet been clarified. The current study examined how humans adjusted their motor planning for double potential targets with independent time constraints under a go-before-you-know situation. The results revealed that the initial movements were modulated depending on the time constraints for potential targets. However, under tight time constraints, the performance in the double-target condition was lower than the single-target condition, which was a control condition implemented to estimate performance when one target is ignored. These results indicate that the initial movement for multiple potential targets with independent time constraints can be modified, but the planning is suboptimal.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ryoji Onagawa ◽  
Kazutoshi Kudo

AbstractGoal-directed movements often require choosing an option from multiple potential goals under time constraints. However, there are limited studies on how humans change their time spent on decision-making and movement patterns according to time constraints. Here, we examined how sensorimotor strategies are selected under time constraints when the target values are uncertain. In the double-target condition, the values were uncertain until the movement onset and presented immediately afterwards. The behavior in this condition was compared to the single-target condition, in relation to time constraints and target-separation-angles. The results showed that the participants frequently used the choice-reaction even under tight time constraints, and their performance was consistently lower than that in the single-target condition. Additionally, in the double-target condition, differences in the movement trajectory depending on the time constraint and target-separation angle were confirmed. Specifically, the longer the time constraint, the higher the frequency of the intermediate behavior (to initiate movement toward the intermediate direction of two targets) or the change-of-mind behavior (to change the aiming target during movement). Furthermore, the smaller the target-separation angle, the higher the frequency of intermediate behavior, but the frequency of change-of-mind was not affected by the target-separation angle. These results suggest that the participants initiated the movement at an incomplete value judgment stage in some trials. Furthermore, they seemed to select a strategy to utilize the information obtained during the movement, taking into account the time constraints and target-separation angle. Our results show a consistent cognitive bias in choosing a higher value when multiple alternatives have different values. Additionally, we also suggest flexibility and adaptability in the movement patterns in response to time constraints.


2021 ◽  
Vol 881 (1) ◽  
pp. 012007
Author(s):  
S R Tamariska ◽  
M J Siregar ◽  
A T Widya

Abstract The architect’s profession is very close to things related to design. The face of the metropolis, which is now entering the modern era, contrasts with the faces of lower strata towns that are unable to catch up. Because of this, local governments in Indonesia have launched several initiatives to improve settlements by including architects in the planning process. According to a case study completed in Semarang, one of the government’s efforts to improve settlements is the Kampung Tematik program. This program provides new collaboration between architect organizations, governments, and communities. In performance, the architect serves many clients, and there are several design negotiations. However, due to the large number of people engaged and the time constraint, the design eventually gained concept dispersion. What was envisioned or planned is not synonymous with what was constructed or implemented. This study aims to examine how architects engage with several clients during the Kampung Tematik program’s phases and have to deal with the design and build phase. Architects who work with the community need special skills to communicate with many clients. The concept of the collective agreement may be realized not just as an architect’s work but also as a collaborative all actors thought.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2066 (1) ◽  
pp. 012054
Author(s):  
Juan Xiao ◽  
Song Wang ◽  
Sheng Duan ◽  
Shanglin Li

Abstract Generally speaking, real-time system is considered to be able to influence the environment by receiving and processing data, and returning calculation results rapid enough, so as to control the environment. In computer science, real-time system describes the software and hardware system affected by time constraints, and its correctness relies on the logical correctness of the function and the time when the result is generated. According to the main characteristics of real-time operating system, such as time constraint, predictability and reliability, it puts forward higher requirements for the time accuracy and reliability of real-time operating system. This paper first introduces the real-time system from its main characteristics, related concepts and scheduling algorithm. Then five classical graph based task models of real-time system are introduced. Finally, this paper introduces the directed graph realtime task model from two aspects of definition and semantics. As an extension of realtime system task model, directed graph real-time task model is considered to be able to provide real-time systems with stronger expressive power and support the formal study of time constraint problems.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yuanying Gan ◽  
Chuntong Liu ◽  
Hongcai Li ◽  
Zhongye Liu

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (17) ◽  
Author(s):  
Nur Amira Aina Zulkifli ◽  
Shazmin Shareena Ab. Azis ◽  
Nor Syafiqah Syahirah Saliman ◽  
Nurul Hana Adi Maimun

Property tax is a main source of local authority and contributes to nation’s development. Local Government Act 1976 (Act 171) has authorized local authority as the responsible party in levying property tax. Based on pilot study, there is an urgency in conducting property tax reassessment due to the lack of manpower in valuation department. Besides, it was found that the outsource solution by appointing private valuation firm also failed to complete the reassessment within dateline. Hence, this study is conducted to scrutinize the most significant factors that cause failure in completing reassessment work among private valuation firm appointed by local authority. Questionnaires were distributed among local authority within Iskandar region to rank the most important factors that cause the failure. The results shows that workload increase, and time constraint is the most prominent factors that cause failure in completing the reassessment work. This paper is significant for local authority in handling the problem regarding reassessment work among appointed valuation firm.


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