Susceptibility Test
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2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Mojtaba Ahmadinejad ◽  
Sanaz Mohammadzadeh ◽  
Haleh Pak ◽  
Seyedehhamideh Hashemiyazdi ◽  
Ali Soltanian ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 73-82
Author(s):  
Seong-Ja Jang ◽  
Mi-Jin Hwang ◽  
Chung-Hun Lee ◽  
Hyeon-Ju Lee ◽  
Tae-Sun Shim ◽  
...  

Purpose: This study aims to examine the quality of tuberculosis (TB) care after the 1<sup>st</sup> to 3<sup>rd</sup> national quality assessment (QA) program for TB healthcare service in Korea was conducted.Methods: We analyzed Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service (HIRA) claims data of new TB patients during the period of January to June from 2018-2020. The new TB patients were defined as TB patients reported to Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency (KCDA). The unit of analysis was the patient. Chi-square tests were used to analyze the differences in indicator value according to the types of medical facilities. The QA indicators of TB care were divided into 3 areas consisting of the following 7 quality indicators: 4 indicators of diagnosis test (the rate of acid-fast bacilli smear, the rate of acid-fast bacilli culture, the rate of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-polymerase chain reaction, drug susceptibility test), 1 compliance of treatment guideline, and 2 indicators of care management of TB patients (encounter rate, day of therapy).Results: The QA program for TB care was conducted among 8,246 patients from 534 facilities in 2020. The value of the 7 quality indicators was shown to increase as a result of the QA program. The indicators of the diagnostic test were all higher than 95%, with the exception of the drug susceptibility test which was 84.8%. Both indicators for care management of TB patients were 88.5%.Conclusion: The quality of TB care has been improving with the implementation of the QA program. In order to continue to improve the quality of TB care, it will be necessary to disclose the results of the QA program in medical facilities in the future.


2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (4) ◽  
pp. 164-171
Author(s):  
Hyeon-Yeong Ju ◽  
Mi-Ra Son ◽  
Jin-Won Kim

In August 2020, 377 anthracnose strains were isolated from anthracnose-infected peppers collected from 25 farms in Sunchang-gun, Jeollabuk-do. Inhibition rate of mycelial growth of 11 pepper anthracnose fungicides registered in Korea was investigated for 62 strains selected by region and the degree of susceptibility to each fungicide was investigated. As a result of the fungicide susceptibility test of anthracnose to the fungicide, no resistant strains were observed in fluazinam, prochloraz manganese, and benomyl, but resistant strains appeared in at least three areas for other fungicides, and all strains in all regions were resistant to dithianon. Through this, it was confirmed that the fungicide resistance was expressed in the strain group due to the continuous treatment of the fungicide in some areas. By region, resistant strains to seven pesticides appeared in Sunchang-eup and Paldeok-myeon, and resistant strains to six pesticides appeared in Geumgwa-myeon, Bokheung-myeon, Ssangchi-myeon, Yudeung-myeon, and Pungsan-myeon. There was no significant correlation between fungicide registration time and emergence of resistant strains.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 101-112
Author(s):  
Arlina Azka ◽  
Fardhiasih Dwi Astuti

Abstract. The use of household insecticides is an alternative solution to prevent mosquito bites.Most of the household insecticides sold in Indonesia have pyrethroid active ingredients, permethrin,which is available in the aerosol formulation. Inappropriate use of household insecticides can reducemosquito susceptibility. The objectives of this study are to describe the use of household insecticidesand susceptibility of Aedes sp. against permethrin in Sorosutan Yogyakarta. This study used a crosssectionalsurvey design. This study was conducted in December 2018–April 2019 in 354 householdsin Sorosutan which were randomly selected based on proportional sampling. Interviews about thehousehold insecticides were conducted with the owner or resident of the house. The susceptibilitytests used impregnated paper with permethrin 0.75%. The survey results showed that 25.14% ofthe houses use household insecticides. The insecticide used were aerosol, electric mosquito repellents,and mosquito coils containing active ingredients of the pyrethroid group, namely dimefl uthrin,transfl uthrin, prallethrin, cypermethrin, and metofl uthrin. The susceptibility test results showed adecrease in mosquito susceptibility where the population of Aedes sp. in Sorosutan has been resistantagainst permethrin. The continuous use of insecticides with pyrethroid active ingredients can developmosquito resistance against permethrin because all pyrethroids have the same mode of action. Thisstudy concludes that only a small proportion (25,14%) of the households used insecticides with theactive ingredients used mainly in the pyrethroid group (dimefl uthrin, transfl uthrin, prallethrin,cypermethrin, and metofl uthrin) and the population of Aedes sp. in Sorosutan has been resistant topermethrin.


2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ming-Chih Yu ◽  
Ching-Sheng Hung ◽  
Chun-Kai Huang ◽  
Cheng-Hui Wang ◽  
Yu-Chih Liang ◽  
...  

Abstract Background With the advancement of next generation sequencing technologies (NGS), whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has been deployed to a wide range of clinical scenarios. Rapid and accurate classification of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) would be advantageous in reducing the amplification of additional drug resistance and disease transmission. Methods In this study, a long-read sequencing approach was subjected to the whole-genome sequencing of clinical MTB clones with susceptibility test profiles, including isoniazid (INH) susceptible clones (n = 10) and INH resistant clones (n = 42) isolated from clinical specimens. Non-synonymous variants within the katG or inhA gene associated with INH resistance was identified using Nanopore sequencing coupled with a corresponding analytical workflow. Results In total, 54 nucleotide variants within the katG gene and 39 variants within the inhA gene associated with INH resistance were identified. Consistency among the results of genotypic profiles, susceptibility test, and minimal inhibitory concentration, the high-INH resistance signature was estimated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve with the existence of Ser315Thr (AUC = 0.822) or Thr579Asn (AUC = 0.875). Conclusions Taken together, we curated lists of coding variants associated with differential INH resistance using Nanopore sequencing, which may constitute an emerging platform for rapid and accurate identification of drug-resistant MTB clones.


2021 ◽  
Vol 940 (1) ◽  
pp. 012043
Author(s):  
R Lutfiah ◽  
N L G R Juliasih ◽  
J Hendri ◽  
A Setiawan

Abstract The increasing resistance of pathogenic bacteria to various antibiotics worldwide has become a severe problem for medicine and human health. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of extract ethyl acetate (EtOAc) produced by sponge-derived fungi as an antibacterial agent. This study obtained nineteen fungal isolates from the marine sponges in Singaraja, Buleleng Bali, Indonesia. The pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus was obtained from patients at Abdul Moeloek Hospital, Bandar Lampung. The susceptibility test of Staphylococcus aureus was carried out on nine types of commercial antibiotics using the disk diffusion method. The solid-state fermentation (SSF) method on rice media carried the cultivation and co-cultivation of fungi. The bioactivity of the extract was tested against pathogenic bacteria S. aureus. The results of the susceptibility test to antibiotics showed S. aureus resistance to amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin. Showed that extracts A12RF, A05RF, C36RF had inhibitory activity against the growth of S. aureus at a concentration of 0,5mg/mL. These results indicate that co-cultivation can induce fungi to produce different secondary metabolites. This basic information is essential for further studies related to the production of fungal bioactive compounds through the co-cultivation stage in the SSF process.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-5
Author(s):  
Mojtaba Moosavian ◽  
Mahtab Khoshkholgh Sima ◽  
Nazanin Ahmad Khosravi ◽  
Effat Abbasi Montazeri

Antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Enterobacteriaceae are causative agents of global health problems. Bacterial infections due to multidrug resistance (MDR) may be mediated by the overexpression of efflux pumps. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of oqxA and oqxB genes as two encoding agents of efflux pumps and the determination of antibiotic resistance rate in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, 100 Enterobacteriaceae isolates collected from different clinical specimens of infectious patients, such as wounds, urine, blood, discharge, and abscesses except stool, were examined. Identification of the isolates was performed using standard biochemical tests such as TSI, citrate, urea, lysine, SIM, MR-VP, and gas production. The antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out by the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines, and finally, the oqxA and oqxB genes were detected by the PCR method. Among 100 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter gergoviae were the most common isolates with 71% and 20%, respectively. Also, the lowest isolates belonged to Enterobacter cloacae (3%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (1%). Out of 100 Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 37 isolates (37%) were positive for at least one of oqxA or oqxB genes, while both of these genes were detected among 12% of them. oqxAB genes were detected in 8 cases of 20 (40%) Enterobacter gergoviae and 4 cases of 71 (5.7%) E. coli isolates. The antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that all isolates (100%) were susceptible to imipenem, while the maximum resistance to piperacillin, ceftriaxone, and cefotaxime were 69%, 55%, and 55%, respectively. Also, the results of this study showed that antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae isolates caused by oqxAB genes is increasing among patients in Iran. Therefore, identification of resistant isolates and antibiotic monitoring programs are essential to prevent the spread of MDR isolates.


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