clinical intervention
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2022 ◽  
pp. 146470012110595
Author(s):  
Elizabeth Reed ◽  
Tanya Kant

We consider what genealogical links, kinship and sociality are promised through the marketing of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs). Using a mixed method of formal analysis of Facebook's algorithmic architectures and textual analysis of twenty-eight adverts for egg donation drawn from the Facebook Ad Library, we analyse the ways in which the figure of the ‘fertile woman’ is constituted both within the text and at the level of Facebook's targeted advertising systems. We critically examine the ways in which ART clinics address those women whose eggs they wish to harvest and exchange, in combination with the ways in which Facebook's architecture identifies, and sorts those women deemed of ‘relevance’ to the commercial ART industry. We find that women variously appear in these adverts as empowered consumers, generous girlfriends, potential mothers and essentialised bodies who provide free-floating eggs. The genealogical and fertility possibility offered through ART is represented with banal ambiguity wherein potentially disruptive forms of biogenetic relatedness and arrangements of kinship are derisked by an overarching narrative of simplicity and sameness which excludes men, messy genealogies and explicitly queer forms of kinship. This rationalisation is supported by the simplicity and certainty of the Facebook targeted advertising algorithm which produces a coherent audience and interpellates users as fertile subjects whose choices are both biologically determined and only available through clinical intervention.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 590
Author(s):  
Ambra Costa ◽  
Rodolfo Quarto ◽  
Sveva Bollini

Since the first evidence that stem cells can provide pro-resolving effects via paracrine secretion of soluble factors, growing interest has been addressed to define the most ideal cell source for clinical translation. Leftover or clinical waste samples of human amniotic fluid obtained following prenatal screening, clinical intervention, or during scheduled caesarean section (C-section) delivery at term have been recently considered an appealing source of mesenchymal progenitors with peculiar regenerative capacity. Human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSC) have been demonstrated to support tissue recovery in several preclinical models of disease by exerting paracrine proliferative, anti-inflammatory and regenerative influence. Small extracellular vesicles (EVs) concentrated from the hAFSC secretome (the total soluble trophic factors secreted in the cell-conditioned medium, hAFSC-CM) recapitulate most of the beneficial cell effects. Independent studies in preclinical models of either adult disorders or severe diseases in newborns have suggested a regenerative role of hAFSC-EVs. EVs can be eventually concentrated from amniotic fluid (hAF) to offer useful prenatal information, as recently suggested. In this review, we focus on the most significant aspects of EVs obtained from either hAFSC and hAF and consider the current challenges for their clinical translation, including isolation, characterization and quantification methods.


2022 ◽  
Vol 67 (4) ◽  
pp. 214-221
Author(s):  
Lv Zhiping ◽  
Wang Fang ◽  
Yu Chuanting

The objective of this research was to study the correlation between PPARγ, Aβ1-42, miR-155 and the occurrence and development of diabetes. For this purpose, 52 patients with diabetes who were hospitalized from September 2019 to May 2021 were selected as the research objects. They were grouped according to the severity of the disease, which was pre-diabetes (n=16), mild (n=25), and moderate (n=16). =11), another 20 healthy subjects were taken as the control group, and the levels of PPARγ, Aβ1-42, miR-155 in each group were measured, and the correlation between changes in the levels of various indicators and the occurrence and development of diabetes was explored. Results showed that comparison of age, gender, course of disease, BMI, living habits, comorbidities, and high-density lipoprotein among the groups of diabetic patients (P>0.05); the levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density cholesterol decreased with the development of diabetes (P<0.05) ); Compared with the healthy group, the levels of PPARγ and miR-155 were significantly reduced, and the levels of Aβ1-42 were significantly increased (P<0.05); compared with the prediabetes, the levels of mild and moderate PPARγ and miR-155 showed a downward trend, and Aβ1 -42 level showed an upward trend (P<0.05); PPARγ and miR-155 levels were negatively correlated with pre-diabetes, mild, and moderate; Aβ1-42 was positively correlated with pre-diabetes, mild, and moderate (P<0.05) ; PPARγ, Aβ1-42, miR-155 levels can effectively predict the occurrence and development of diabetes, and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the detection of diabetes by various indicators, positive predictive value and negative predictive value are significantly higher. It is concluded that PPARγ, Aβ1-42, miR-155 are closely related to the occurrence and development of diabetes, and there are many influencing factors of diabetes. Clinical intervention measures can be taken according to specific conditions.


2022 ◽  
Vol 28 ◽  
pp. 107602962110680
Author(s):  
Yigeng Cao ◽  
Mingyang Wang ◽  
Biao Shen ◽  
Fei Zhao ◽  
Rongli Zhang ◽  
...  

Secondary failure of platelet recovery (SFPR) is a life-threatening complication that may affect up to 20% of patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In this study, to evaluate the efficacy of recombinant human thrombopoietin (rhTPO), we retrospectively analyzed 29 patients who received continuous rhTPO for the treatment of SFPR. Overall response and complete response were observed in 24 (82.8%) patients and 10 (34.5%) patients, at a median time of 21.5 days (range, 3-41 days) and 39.5 days (range, 7-53 days) after initiation of rhTPO treatment, respectively. Among the responders, the probability of keeping overall response and complete response at 1 year after response was 77.3% and 80.0%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, higher CD34+ cells (≥3 × 106/kg) infused during HSCT (HR: 7.22, 95% CI: 1.53-34.04, P = 0.01) and decreased ferritin after rhTPO treatment (HR: 6.16, 95% CI: 1.18-32.15, P = 0.03) were indicated to associate with complete response to rhTPO. Importantly, rhTPO was well tolerated in all patients without side effects urging withdrawal and clinical intervention. The results of this study suggest that rhTPO may be a safe and effective treatment for SFPR.


Author(s):  
Antonio Buño ◽  
Paloma Oliver

Abstract Point-of-care-testing (POCT) facilitates rapid availability of results that allows prompt clinical decision making. These results must be reliable and the whole process must not compromise its quality. Blood gas analyzers are one of the most used methods for POCT tests in Emergency Departments (ED) and in critical patients. Whole blood is the preferred sample, and we must be aware that hemolysis can occur. These devices cannot detect the presence of hemolysis in the sample, and because of the characteristics of the sample, we cannot visually detect it either. Hemolysis can alter the result of different parameters, including potassium with abnormal high results or masking low levels (hypokalemia) when reporting normal concentrations. Severe hyperkalemia is associated with the risk of potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmia and demands emergency clinical intervention. Hemolysis can be considered the most frequent cause of pseudohyperkalemia (spurious hyperkalemia) or pseudonormokalemia and can be accompanied by a wrong diagnosis and an ensuing inappropriate clinical decision making. A complete review of the potential causes of falsely elevated potassium concentrations in blood is presented in this article. POCT programs properly led and organized by the clinical laboratory can help to prevent errors and their impact on patient care.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0261528
Author(s):  
Min Zhang ◽  
Chong Wang ◽  
Annette O’Connor

Multidrug resistance (MDR) has been a significant threat to public health and effective treatment of bacterial infections. Current identification of MDR is primarily based upon the large proportions of isolates resistant to multiple antibiotics simultaneously, and therefore is a belated evaluation. For bacteria with MDR, we expect to see strong correlations in both the quantitative minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the binary susceptibility as classified by the pre-determined breakpoints. Being able to detect correlations from these two perspectives allows us to find multidrug resistant bacteria proactively. In this paper, we provide a Bayesian framework that estimates the resistance level jointly for antibiotics belonging to different classes with a Gaussian mixture model, where the correlation in the latent MIC can be inferred from the Gaussian parameters and the correlation in binary susceptibility can be inferred from the mixing weights. By augmenting the laboratory measurement with the latent MIC variable to account for the censored data, and by adopting the latent class variable to represent the MIC components, our model was shown to be accurate and robust compared with the current assessment of correlations. Applying the model to Salmonella heidelberg samples isolated from human participants in National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) provides us with signs of joint resistance to Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid & Cephalothin and joint resistance to Ampicillin & Cephalothin. Large correlations estimated from our model could serve as a timely tool for early detection of MDR, and hence a signal for clinical intervention.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Alexander B Coley ◽  
Ashlyn N Stahly ◽  
Mohan V Kasukurthi ◽  
Addison A Barchie ◽  
Sam B Hutcheson ◽  
...  

We have identified 38 specifically excised, differentially expressed snoRNA fragments (sdRNAs) in TCGA prostate cancer (PCa) patient samples as compared to normal prostate controls. SnoRNA-derived fragments sdRNA-D19b and -A24 emerged among the most differentially expressed and were selected for further experimentation. We found that overexpression of either sdRNA significantly increased PC3 (a well-established model of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)) cell proliferation, and that sdRNA-D19b overexpression also markedly increased the rate of PC3 cell migration. In addition, both sdRNAs provided drug-specific resistances with sdRNA-D19b levels correlating with paclitaxel resistance and sdRNA-24A conferring dasatinib resistance. In silico and in vitro analyses revealed that two established PCa tumor suppressor genes, CD44 and CDK12, represent targets for sdRNA-D19b and sdRNA-A24 respectively. This outlines a biologically coherent mechanism by which sdRNAs downregulate tumor suppressors in AR- PCa to enhance proliferative and metastatic capabilities and to encourage chemotherapeutic resistance. Aggressive proliferation, rampant metastasis, and recalcitrance to chemotherapy are core characteristics of CRPC that synergize to produce a pathology that ranks 2nd in cancer-related deaths for men. This study defines sdRNA-D19b and -A24 as contributors to AR- PCa potentially providing novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets of use in PCa clinical intervention.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Junxiang Wang ◽  
Hao Feng ◽  
Chi Zhang ◽  
Shan Zhong ◽  
Lu Wang ◽  
...  

The establishment of a hyperacute rejection (HAR) model of ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi-KTx) in nonhuman primates is of great significance for the study of the relevant clinical pathophysiological processes and related interventions in ABOi-KTx. In this study, blood group B cynomolgus monkeys were presensitized with synthetic blood group A-antigen conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (A-KLH) to boost circulating anti-A antibody levels. The serum anti-A antibody levels were measured by flow cytometry using type A human reagent red blood cells (RBCs) or monkey primary renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) as target cells. ABOi-KTx was performed in type B monkeys using type A monkeys as donors. After 14 days of A-KLH sensitization, 12 of 16 (75%) type B monkeys had significantly elevated anti-A antibody levels. We found that in order to avoid irregular results in the detection of blood group antibodies by flow cytometry, it was more effective to use RTECs rather than RBCs as target cells. In the absence of presensitization, ABOi-KTx in three monkeys with relatively high levels of natural anti-A antibodies did not produce HAR. However, when four Type B monkeys with significantly increased anti-A antibodies after presensitization were randomly selected as recipients for ABOi-KTx, the allografts in all four monkeys developed HAR with typical pathologic characteristics. Thus, we have successfully established a monkey model of HAR in ABOi-KTx via blood group antigen presensitization, which will be helpful for the further study of rejection, accommodation, and clinical intervention in ABOi-KTx.


2021 ◽  
pp. 088626052110479
Author(s):  
Selime R. Salim ◽  
Lee R. Eshelman ◽  
Terri L. Messman

Bisexual women experience higher rates of sexual victimization and mental health problems compared to heterosexual and lesbian women. Bisexual women also receive more unsupportive or overtly negative reactions when they disclose experiences of sexual victimization. The current study aimed to examine the interaction of negative social reactions and binegativity (i.e., experiences of stigma due to bisexual identity) in predicting posttraumatic stress, depression, and hazardous drinking among bisexual women. The sample consisted of 161 young adult bisexual women (ages 18–35) who disclosed a sexual victimization experience to at least one person. Moderation analyses were conducted via the PROCESS macro for SPSS. “Turning against” reactions to disclosure (e.g., victim blame and avoidance of the victim) predicted increased posttraumatic stress and hazardous drinking in the presence of binegativity. In addition, reactions to disclosure that acknowledged the experience but were unsupportive predicted increased drinking in the context of binegativity. Depression was not associated with either type of negative reactions, regardless of binegativity. Thus, findings suggest that binegativity in combination with negative responses to disclosure of sexual victimization are important factors in specific types of distress related to sexual violence among bisexual women. Implications for research, clinical intervention, and policy are discussed.


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