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2022 ◽  
pp. 118-123
Author(s):  
E. M. Chapanova ◽  
M. A. Ikonnikova ◽  
G. G. Ikonnikov ◽  
S. N. Ermolev ◽  
O. O. Yanushevich ◽  
...  

Introduction. Currently, dentists are increasingly detecting changes in the temporomandibular joint in patients with chronic inflammatory periodontal disease.Aim of the study. To carry out a comprehensive dynamic assessment of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) condition and the registration of regional blood flow using two-dimensional ultrasound scanning to improve the efficiency of diagnostics of inflammatory periodontal diseases.Materials and methods. The study included 2 groups of patients: group 1 (control) consisted of 20 volunteers aged 20–25; Group 2 consisted of 52 people aged 25–45 years with moderate chronic periodontitis. For TMJ ultrasound and Doppler ultrasound, a portable ultrasound scanner LogicScan  128 with an HL-10  linear ultrasound transducer  with an operating frequency of 5     to 12 MHz was used.Results and discussion. During ultrasound examination of the temporomandibular joint and measuring the size of the joint space in patients with moderate chronic periodontitis in a state of relative physiological rest, the following  values were obtained:   in the anterior region – 2.3 ± 0.5 mm; in the upper section – 1.6 ± 0.6 mm; in the posterior section – 1.8 ± 0.3 mm. We also measured the area of the temporomandibular joint disc in various positions. According to ultrasound data, an increase in the size of the joint space from 12.2 to 16.1% and an increase in the area of the articular disc by 17.1 to 36.7% were found in patients with chronic periodontitis. When assessing the trajectory of the articular track, motion delay and joint wedging are determined. In addition, in the color Doppler mapping (CDM) mode, the speed and index indicators of Doppler ultrasonography of the external carotid and temporal arteries were calculated.Conclusions. Modern diagnostic methods of ultrasound and Doppler mapping, assessing the hemodynamics and functional state of the TMJ, allow early diagnosis of changes in order to prevent the development of TMJ disorders in patients with chronic inflammatory periodontal diseases.


Robotica ◽  
2022 ◽  
pp. 1-16
Author(s):  
Peng Zhang ◽  
Junxia Zhang

Abstract In order to assist patients with lower limb disabilities in normal walking, a new trajectory learning scheme of limb exoskeleton robot based on dynamic movement primitives (DMP) combined with reinforcement learning (RL) was proposed. The developed exoskeleton robot has six degrees of freedom (DOFs). The hip and knee of each artificial leg can provide two electric-powered DOFs for flexion/extension. And two passive-installed DOFs of the ankle were used to achieve the motion of inversion/eversion and plantarflexion/dorsiflexion. The five-point segmented gait planning strategy is proposed to generate gait trajectories. The gait Zero Moment Point stability margin is used as a parameter to construct a stability criteria to ensure the stability of human-exoskeleton system. Based on the segmented gait trajectory planning formation strategy, the multiple-DMP sequences were proposed to model the generation trajectories. Meanwhile, in order to eliminate the effect of uncertainties in joint space, the RL was adopted to learn the trajectories. The experiment demonstrated that the proposed scheme can effectively remove interferences and uncertainties.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Alexander Pfeil ◽  
Marcus Heinz ◽  
Tobias Hoffmann ◽  
Tobias Weise ◽  
Diane Renz ◽  
...  

Abstract Background:Up to now, there is only limited information available on a possible relationship between clinical characteristics and the mineralization of metacarpal bones and finger joint space distance (JSD) in patients with psoriasis arthritis (PsA). Computerized digital imaging techniques like digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) and computer-aided joint space analysis (CAJSA) have significantly improved the structural analysis of hand radiographs and facilitate the recognition of radiographic damage. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical features which potentially influence periarticular mineralization of the metacarpal bones and finger JSD in PsA-patients. Methods:201 patients with PsA underwent computerized measurements of the metacarpal bone mineral density (BMD) with DXR and JSD of all finger joints by CAJSA. DXR-BMD and JSD were compared with clinical features such as age and sex, disease duration, C-reactive protein (CRP) as well as treatment with prednisone and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs).Results:A longer disease duration and an elevated CRP value were associated with a significant reduction of DXR-BMD, whereas JSD-parameters were not affected by both parameters. DXR-BMD was significantly reduced in the prednisone group (-6.6%), but prednisone showed no impact on finger JSD. Patients under the treatment with bDMARDs presented significant lower DXR-BMD (-9.1%), JSDMCP (-16.8%), and JSDPIP (-12.4%) values. Conclusion:Metacarpal BMD was influenced by inflammatory activity, prednisone use, and DMARDs. In contrast, finger JSD showed only a change compared to baseline therapy. Therefore, metacarpal BMD as well as finger JSD represent radiographic destruction under different aspects.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qiongwen Hu ◽  
Xue Zhong ◽  
Hua Tian ◽  
Pu Liao

ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of denosumab treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).MethodsThe Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant clinical studies. Studies that assessed the efficacy of denosumab in patients with RA were identified. The primary endpoints were the percent changes in bone mineral density (BMD), and the changes in modified total Sharp score (mTSS), modified Sharp erosion score and joint space narrowing (JSN) score. Pooled analyses were calculated using random-effect models.ResultsAfter searching the literature and performing further detailed assessments, 10 studies with a total of 1758 patients were included in the quantitative analysis. Pooled analyses showed that denosumab treatment significantly increased the percent changes in lumbar spine BMD [mean difference (MD): 5.12, confidence intervals (CI): 4.15 to 6.09], total hip BMD (MD: 2.72, 95% CI: 1.80 to 3.64) and femoral neck BMD (MD: 2.20, 95% CI: 0.94 to 3.46) compared with controls. Moreover, denosumab treatment significantly decreased the changes in mTSS (MD: -0.63, 95% CI: -0.86 to -0.41) and modified Sharp erosion score (MD: -0.62, 95% CI: -0.88 to -0.35). Subgroup analysis indicated that denosumab was superior to bisphosphonates for the improvement of BMD and the mitigation of joint destruction.ConclusionDenosumab treatment was associated with increased BMD and alleviated progression of joint destruction in RA patients, even when compared with bisphosphonates.


Author(s):  
Keemya V. Orlova ◽  

Introduction. In 2021, Russia and Mongolia are celebrating the 100th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations. In fact, this year is remarkable for a number of anniversaries: the 100th anniversary of the formation of the Mongolian People’s Party, the first political party in Mongolia; the 100th anniversary of the national democratic revolution; the 100th anniversary of the organization of the Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Army; the 100th anniversary of the Scientific Committee, which served as the prototype of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences; the 60th anniversary of the UN membership of Mongolian People’s Republic; and the 40th anniversary of the joint space flight of the Russian-Mongolian space crew. These anniversaries are closely related to a significant event in the history of the two countries — the Agreement between the Government of the RSFSR and the People’s Government of Mongolia on the establishment of friendly relations signed on 5 November 1921, which laid the legal basis for bilateral relations. It is certainly beyond the scope of this article to cover every significant and remarkable event and date in Soviet / Russian-Mongolian relations, but it intends to highlight the most important events in Russian-Mongolian relations in the 20th and early 21st centuries. The article aims to focus on the principal stages and most important dates and events, as well as to underline the role and relevance of the documents of key importance in the history of these relations. Materials. The study is based on archival records, published materials, and scientific literature. Conclusions. Over the past century, the relations between the countries, whose histories are full of dramatic events (revolutionary upheavals, World War II, the collapse of the Soviet Union), have seen both high and low points: friendship and special relations of allies, which changed to a certain degree of distancing from each other; then, rejection of the previous ideologized attitudes and renewal of traditional cooperation, leading to a current comprehensive strategic partnership. However, there has always been an understanding that there is a special closeness of the countries for historical, geopolitical, and cultural factors in play. A hundred years is a sufficiently long period to conclude that the key principles of Russian-Mongolian relations established by the 1921 Agreement have stood the test of time. Presently, there is a new stage to these relations based on both parties’ interests in promoting their comprehensive strategic partnership.


Author(s):  
Khai Cheong Wong ◽  
Merrill Lee ◽  
Lincoln Liow ◽  
Ngai-Nung Lo ◽  
Seng-Jin Yeo ◽  
...  

Abstract Introduction Patients without bone-on-bone osteoarthritis are excluded from mobile-bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty due to higher revision rates and poorer outcomes. However, we do not know if the same indication applies to fixed-bearing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty implants. Our study aims to compare functional outcomes and revision rates in patients with and without bone-on-bone arthritis undergoing fixed-bearing medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Materials and Methods We reviewed 153 fixed-bearing medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasties in a single institution. Patients were divided into four groups based on joint space remaining measured on preoperative radiographs. Group 1 included knees with bone-on-bone contact; group 2 included knees with less than 2 mm joint space; group 3 included knees with 2 to 4 mm joint space; group 4 included knees with more than 4 mm joint space. Patients were followed up for 10 years postoperatively and assessed using the Oxford Knee Score, the Functional Score and Knee Score from the Knee Society Clinical Rating Score, and the Short Form 36 Health Survey. Results There was no difference in terms of demographic data and preoperative scores. Postoperative Knee Society Functional Score was found to be lower in group 1 as compared with the other groups. There was no difference between the four groups of patients in terms of Knee Society Knee Score, Oxford Knee Score, and Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary Scores from the Short Form 36 Health Survey. There was no difference in terms of survivorship free from all-cause revision at a minimum of 10 years' follow-up. Conclusion Symptomatic patients with varying degrees of arthritis on preoperative radiographs had comparable clinical outcomes. We conclude that symptomatic patients with clinical and radiographic evidence of medial compartment osteoarthritis of any grade can benefit from a fixed-bearing medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.


2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (6) ◽  
pp. 117-123
Author(s):  
I. B. Belyaeva ◽  
V. I. Mazurov ◽  
E. A. Trofimov

The review presents an analysis of the therapeutic effect in osteoarthritis (OA) of the original complex injectable drug Alflutop (bioactive concentrate of small marine fish), which is one of the most widely used symptomatic slow acting drugs (SYSADOA) in Russia. It stimulates the proliferation of chondrocytes, activates the synthesis of the extracellular matrix by modulating transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), inhibits hyaluronidase, oxidative stress and the activity of extracellular expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes – interleukin (IL) 1β, IL6 and IL8 in vitro.The results of prospective clinical studies are presented, which demonstrate the ability of Alflutop to slow down the X-ray progression of OA of the knee joints (inhibit the narrowing of the joint space, the growth of osteophytes and increase the intra-articular concentration of hyaluronic acid), as well as restore the mobility of the hip joints when it is locally introduced into the zone of pathological changes in the articular lip of the acetabulum. Combined therapy with Alflutop leads to activation of reparative processes and significant clinical improvement in patients with post-traumatic OA, and also slows down the progression of chondrodegeneration according to magnetic resonance imaging. The new Alflutop administration regimen for knee OA (2 ml every other day, №10) can increase patient adherence to therapy.The results of clinical studies presented in the review prove the structural-modifying effect of Alflutop in OA of various localization and substantiate its widespread use in this disease in rheumatological, traumatological and orthopedic practice.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fatemeh Badiee ◽  
Alireza Fatemi ◽  
Reza Zahedpasha ◽  
Hadi Gharib ◽  
Mohammadhassan Jokar ◽  
...  

Abstract Aim Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by vascular and fibrosing involvement of the skin and internal organs. In this study we determined the prevalence and characteristics of radiological hands and feet involvements in Iranian SSc patients identified disease–phenotype associations. Methods 43 SSc patients (41 women and 2 men), with a median age of 44.79 years (ranges 26 to 70 years) and a mean disease duration of 11.78 years (ranges 2 to 28 years) were studied in this cross-sectional study. Results 42 patients had radiological changes both in hands and feet. Only one patient had changes just in hand. The most frequent changes that we found in hand was Juxta-articular Osteoporosis (93%), Acro-osteolysis (58.2%), Joint Space Narrowing (55.8%). The prevalence of joint space narrowing or acro-osteolysis were higher in subjects with active skin involvement (modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS)>14) (16/21 v 4/16 for patients with inactive skin involvement (mRSS<14); p = 0.002). The most frequent changes that we found in foot were Juxta-articular Osteoporosis (93%), Acro-osteolysis (46.5%), Joint Space Narrowing (58.1%), subluxation (44.2%). The presence of anti-ccp antibody was detected in 4 (9.3%), while positive rheumatoid factor was found in 13 (30.2%) of SSc patients. Conclusion This study corroborates that an arthropathy is common in SSc patients. The introduction of the specific radiological involvements of SSc needs to be confirmed by further studies. in order to define the appropriate prognosis and treatment of patients.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (24) ◽  
pp. 11712
Author(s):  
Michal Dobiš ◽  
Martin Dekan ◽  
Adam Sojka ◽  
Peter Beňo ◽  
František Duchoň

This paper presents novel extensions of the Stochastic Optimization Motion Planning (STOMP), which considers cartesian path constraints. It potentially has high usage in many autonomous applications with robotic arms, where preservation or minimization of tool-point rotation is required. The original STOMP algorithm is unable to use the cartesian path constraints in a trajectory generation because it works only in robot joint space. Therefore, the designed solution, described in this paper, extends the most important parts of the algorithm to take into account cartesian constraints. The new sampling noise generator generates trajectory samples in cartesian space, while the new cost function evaluates them and minimizes traversed distance and rotation change of the tool-point in the resulting trajectory. These improvements are verified with simple experiments and the solution is compared with the original STOMP. Results of the experiments show that the implementation satisfies the cartesian constraints requirements.


2021 ◽  
pp. 089875642110665
Author(s):  
Lenin A. Villamizar-Martinez ◽  
Cristian M. Villegas ◽  
Marco A. Gioso ◽  
Carina Outi Baroni ◽  
Silvana M. Unruh ◽  
...  

Radiographic assessment of the temporomandibular joint in the domestic cat using conventional radiographic views can be challenging due to superimposition of overlying structures and the complex anatomy of the skull. The use of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and cone beam computed tomography to assess the temporomandibular joint in the cat has increased, but these modalities are not always available in general veterinary practices. Conventional radiography is still commonly used for first line assessment of the temporomandibular joint. The aim of this preliminary study was to determine optimal angle of obliquity of lateroventral-laterodorsal and laterorostral-laterocaudal (nose up lateral oblique) oblique radiographic views in the assessment of the temporomandibular joints in five feline mesaticephalic dry skulls. Visibility of the mandibular head, mandibular fossa, retroarticular process, and temporomandibular joint space were evaluated and scored by two veterinary radiologists. The results of this study identified that the dependent temporomandibular joint anatomy was best seen on the latero-10°-ventral-laterodorsal, latero-15°-ventral-laterodorsal, and latero-20°-ventral-laterodorsal, oblique views, and opposite lateral oblique views at these angulations may be helpful in characterization of this anatomy in clinical patients. The results also indicate that the laterorostral-laterocaudal (nose up lateral oblique) oblique view did not allow adequate discrimination of all TMJ anatomy at any angle, and is not recommended.


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