mitochondrial proteins
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 952
Siarhei A. Dabravolski ◽  
Victoria A. Khotina ◽  
Vasily N. Sukhorukov ◽  
Vladislav A. Kalmykov ◽  
Liudmila M. Mikhaleva ◽  

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA) mutations are known to participate in the development and progression of some CVD. Moreover, specific types of mitochondria-mediated CVD have been discovered, such as MIEH (maternally inherited essential hypertension) and maternally inherited CHD (coronary heart disease). Maternally inherited mitochondrial CVD is caused by certain mutations in the mtDNA, which encode structural mitochondrial proteins and mitochondrial tRNA. In this review, we focus on recently identified mtDNA mutations associated with CVD (coronary artery disease and hypertension). Additionally, new data suggest the role of mtDNA mutations in Brugada syndrome and ischemic stroke, which before were considered only as a result of mutations in nuclear genes. Moreover, we discuss the molecular mechanisms of mtDNA involvement in the development of the disease.

Science ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 375 (6577) ◽  
Xianhe Li ◽  
Julian Straub ◽  
Tânia Catarina Medeiros ◽  
Chahat Mehra ◽  
Fabian den Brave ◽  

Mitochondria shed their SPOTs Outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) function is essential for cellular health. How mitochondria respond to naturally occurring OMM stress is unknown. Li et al . show that, upon infection with the human parasite Toxoplasma gondii , mitochondria shed large structures positive for OMM (SPOTs). SPOT formation required the parasite effector TgMAF1 and its interaction with the host mitochondrial receptor TOM70 and translocase SAM50. TOM70-dependent SPOT formation mediated a depletion of mitochondrial proteins and optimal parasite growth. SPOT-like structures also formed after OMM perturbations independently of infection. Thus, membrane remodeling is a feature of cellular responses to OMM stress that Toxoplasma hijacks during infection. —SMH

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Edward J. Goetzl ◽  
Holden T. Maecker ◽  
Yael Rosenberg-Hasson ◽  
Lorrin M. Koran

The retention of the heavy metal, gadolinium, after a Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agent-assisted MRI may lead to a symptom cluster termed Gadolinium Deposition Disease. Little is known of the disorder’s underlying pathophysiology, but a recent study reported abnormally elevated serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to normal controls. As a calcium channel blocker in cellular plasma and mitochondrial membranes, gadolinium also interferes with mitochondrial function. We applied to sera from nine Gadolinium Deposition Disease and two Gadolinium Storage Condition patients newly developed methods allowing isolation of plasma neuron-derived extracellular vesicles that contain reproducibly quantifiable levels of mitochondrial proteins of all major classes. Patients’ levels of five mitochondrial functional proteins were statistically significantly lower and of two significantly higher than the levels in normal controls. The patterns of differences between study patients and controls for mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial proteins encompassing neuronal energy generation, metabolic regulation, ion fluxes, and survival differed from those seen for patients with first episode psychosis and those with Major Depressive Disorder compared to their controls. These findings suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction due to retained gadolinium may play a role in causing Gadolinium Deposition Disease. Larger samples of both GDD and GSC patients are needed to allow not only testing the repeatability of our findings, but also investigation of relationships of specific mitochondrial protein deficiencies or excesses and concurrent cytokine, genetic, or other factors to GDD’s neurological and cognitive symptoms. Studies of neuronal mitochondrial proteins as diagnostic markers or indicators of treatment effectiveness are also warranted.

BMC Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Mickaële Hémono ◽  
Alexandre Haller ◽  
Johana Chicher ◽  
Anne-Marie Duchêne ◽  
Richard Patryk Ngondo

Abstract Background Mitochondria require thousands of proteins to fulfill their essential function in energy production and other fundamental biological processes. These proteins are mostly encoded by the nuclear genome, translated in the cytoplasm before being imported into the organelle. RNA binding proteins (RBPs) are central players in the regulation of this process by affecting mRNA translation, stability, or localization. CLUH is an RBP recognizing specifically mRNAs coding for mitochondrial proteins, but its precise molecular function and interacting partners remain undiscovered in mammals. Results Here we reveal for the first time CLUH interactome in mammalian cells. Using both co-IP and BioID proximity-labeling approaches, we identify novel molecular partners interacting stably or transiently with CLUH in HCT116 cells and mouse embryonic stem cells. We reveal stable RNA-independent interactions of CLUH with itself and with SPAG5 in cytosolic granular structures. More importantly, we uncover an unexpected proximity of CLUH to mitochondrial proteins and their cognate mRNAs in the cytosol. We show that this interaction occurs during the process of active translation and is dependent on CLUH TPR domain. Conclusions Overall, through the analysis of CLUH interactome, our study sheds a new light on CLUH molecular function by revealing new partners and by highlighting its link to the translation and subcellular localization of some mRNAs coding for mitochondrial proteins.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Yun Yang ◽  
Victor Tapias ◽  
Diana Acosta ◽  
Hui Xu ◽  
Huanlian Chen ◽  

AbstractAbnormalities in brain glucose metabolism and accumulation of abnormal protein deposits called plaques and tangles are neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but their relationship to disease pathogenesis and to each other remains unclear. Here we show that succinylation, a metabolism-associated post-translational protein modification (PTM), provides a potential link between abnormal metabolism and AD pathology. We quantified the lysine succinylomes and proteomes from brains of individuals with AD, and healthy controls. In AD, succinylation of multiple mitochondrial proteins declined, and succinylation of small number of cytosolic proteins increased. The largest increases occurred at critical sites of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and microtubule-associated tau. We show that in vitro, succinylation of APP disrupted its normal proteolytic processing thereby promoting Aβ accumulation and plaque formation and that succinylation of tau promoted its aggregation to tangles and impaired microtubule assembly. In transgenic mouse models of AD, elevated succinylation associated with soluble and insoluble APP derivatives and tau. These findings indicate that a metabolism-linked PTM may be associated with AD.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Marcel G. Genge ◽  
Dejana Mokranjac

The vast majority of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nuclear genome and synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes as precursor proteins with specific mitochondrial targeting signals. Mitochondrial targeting signals are very diverse, however, about 70% of mitochondrial proteins carry cleavable, N-terminal extensions called presequences. These amphipathic helices with one positively charged and one hydrophobic surface target proteins to the mitochondrial matrix with the help of the TOM and TIM23 complexes in the outer and inner membranes, respectively. Translocation of proteins across the two mitochondrial membranes does not take place independently of each other. Rather, in the intermembrane space, where the two complexes meet, components of the TOM and TIM23 complexes form an intricate network of protein–protein interactions that mediates initially transfer of presequences and then of the entire precursor proteins from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane. In this Mini Review, we summarize our current understanding of how the TOM and TIM23 complexes cooperate with each other and highlight some of the future challenges and unresolved questions in the field.

2021 ◽  
Barbara Uszczynska-Ratajczak ◽  
Sreedevi Sugunan ◽  
Monika Kwiatkowska ◽  
Maciej Migdal ◽  
Silvia Carbonell-Sala ◽  

Most mitochondrial proteins are encoded by nuclear genes, synthetized in the cytosol and targeted into the organelle. The import of some, but not all, nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins begins with translation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) on the surface of mitochondria. To characterize the spatial organization of mitochondrial gene products in zebrafish (Danio rerio), we sequenced RNA from different cellular fractions. Our results confirmed the presence of nuclear-encoded mRNAs in the mitochondrial fraction, which in unperturbed conditions, are mainly transcripts encoding large proteins with specific properties, like transmembrane domains. To further explore the principles of mitochondrial protein compartmentalization in zebrafish, we quantified the transcriptomic changes for each subcellular fraction triggered by the chchd4a-/- mutation, causing the disorders in the mitochondrial protein import. Our results indicate that the proteostatic stress further restricts the population of transcripts on the mitochondrial surface, allowing only the largest and the most evolutionary conserved proteins to be synthetized there. We also show that many nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transcripts translated by the cytosolic ribosomes stay resistant to the global translation shutdown. Thus, vertebrates, in contrast to yeast, are not likely to employ localized translation to facilitate synthesis of mitochondrial proteins under proteostatic stress conditions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Pierre-Henri Clergeot ◽  
Åke Olson

The mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of Eukaryotes are inherited separately and consequently follow distinct evolutionary paths. Nevertheless, the encoding of many mitochondrial proteins by the nuclear genome shows the high level of integration they have reached, which makes mitonuclear genetic interactions all the more conceivable. For each species, natural selection has fostered the evolution of coadapted alleles in both genomes, but a population-wise divergence of such alleles could lead to important phenotypic variation, and, ultimately, to speciation. In this study in the Basidiomycete Heterobasidion parviporum, we have investigated the genetic basis of phenotypic variation among laboratory-designed heterokaryons carrying the same pair of haploid nuclei, but a different mitochondrial genome. Radial growth rate data of thirteen unrelated homokaryotic parents and of their heterokaryotic offspring were combined with SNP data extracted from parental genome sequences to identify nuclear and mitochondrial loci involved in mitonuclear interactions. Two nuclear loci encoding mitochondrial proteins appeared as best candidates to engage in a genetic interaction affecting radial growth rate with a non-conserved mitochondrial open reading frame of unknown function and not reported apart from the Russulales order of Basidiomycete fungi. We believe our approach could be useful to investigate several important traits of fungal biology where mitonuclear interactions play a role, including virulence of fungal pathogens.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Karin J. P. Rocha-Brito ◽  
Stefano Piatto Clerici ◽  
Helon Guimarães Cordeiro ◽  
Amanda Petrina Scotá Ferreira ◽  
Emanuella Maria Barreto Fonseca ◽  

Abstract Melanoma is a type of skin cancer with low survival rates after it has metastasized. In order to find molecular differences that could represent targets of quercetin in anti-melanoma activity, we have chosen SKMEL-103 and SKMEL-28 melanoma cells and human melanocytes as models. Firstly, we observed that quercetin was able in reducing SKMEL-103 cell viability, but not in SKMEL-28. Besides that, quercetin treatment caused inhibition of AXL in both cell lines, but upregulation of PIM-1 in SKMEL-28 and downregulation in SKMEL-103. Moreover, HIF-1 alpha expression decreased in both cell lines. Interestingly, quercetin was more effective against SKMEL-103 than kinases inhibitors, such as Imatinib, Temsirolimus, U0126, and Erlotinib. Interestingly, we observed that while the levels of succinate dehydrogenase and voltage-dependent anion channel increased in SKMEL-103, both proteins were downregulated in SKMEL-28 after quercetin’s treatment. Furthermore, AKT, AXL, PIM-1, ABL kinases were much more active and chaperones HSP90, HSP70 and GAPDH were highly expressed in SKMEL-103 cells in comparison with melanocytes. Our findings indicate, for the first time, that the efficacy of quercetin to kill melanoma cells depends on its ability in inhibiting tyrosine kinase and upregulating mitochondrial proteins, at least when SKMEL-103 and SKMEL-28 cells response were compared.

2021 ◽  
Imadeddin Hijazi ◽  
Emily Wang ◽  
Michelle Orozco ◽  
Sarah Pelton ◽  
Amy Chang

Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) occurs when cellular demand for protein folding exceeds the capacity of the organelle. Adaptation and cell survival in response to ERS requires a critical contribution by mitochondria and peroxisomes. During ERS response, mitochondrial respiration increases to ameliorate reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation; we now show in yeast that peroxisome abundance also increases to promote an adaptive response. In pox1▵ cells, defective in peroxisomal ß oxidation of fatty acids, respiratory response to ERS is impaired, and ROS accrues. However, respiratory response to ERS is rescued, and ROS production is mitigated in pox1▵ cells by overexpression of Mpc1, the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier that provides another source of acetyl CoA to fuel the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Using proteomics, select mitochondrial proteins were identified that undergo upregulation by ERS to remodel respiratory machinery. Several peroxisome-based proteins were also increased, corroborating the peroxisomal role in ERS adaptation. Finally, ERS stimulates assembly of respiratory complexes into higher order supercomplexes, underlying increased electron transfer efficiency. Our results highlight peroxisomal and mitochondrial support for ERS adaptation to favor cell survival.

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