Mitochondrial Proteins
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Science ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 375 (6577) ◽  
Xianhe Li ◽  
Julian Straub ◽  
Tânia Catarina Medeiros ◽  
Chahat Mehra ◽  
Fabian den Brave ◽  

Mitochondria shed their SPOTs Outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) function is essential for cellular health. How mitochondria respond to naturally occurring OMM stress is unknown. Li et al . show that, upon infection with the human parasite Toxoplasma gondii , mitochondria shed large structures positive for OMM (SPOTs). SPOT formation required the parasite effector TgMAF1 and its interaction with the host mitochondrial receptor TOM70 and translocase SAM50. TOM70-dependent SPOT formation mediated a depletion of mitochondrial proteins and optimal parasite growth. SPOT-like structures also formed after OMM perturbations independently of infection. Thus, membrane remodeling is a feature of cellular responses to OMM stress that Toxoplasma hijacks during infection. —SMH

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 217
Zhenjiang Ding ◽  
Qichao Wei ◽  
Chunmei Liu ◽  
Hong Zhang ◽  
Feng Huang

Rigor mortis occurs in a relatively early postmortem period and is a complex biochemical process in the conversion of muscle to meat. Understanding the quality changes and biomarkers during rigor mortis can provide a theoretical basis for maintaining and improving meat quality. Herein, a tandem mass tag proteomic method is used to investigate the effects of differentially expressed proteins on the meat quality of cattle Longissimus lumborum muscle postmortem (0, 6, and 24 h). The pH, total sulfhydryl content and sarcomere length decrease significantly during storage. In contrast, meat color values (L*, a*, and b*) and the myofibril fragmentation index increase significantly. Altogether, 147 differentially expressed proteins are identified, most being categorized as metabolic enzymes, mitochondrial proteins, necroptosis and ferroptosis proteins and structural proteins. The results also reveal additional proteins that are potentially involved in rigor mortis, such as cardiac phospholamban, acetyl-coenzyme A acyltransferase, and ankyrin repeat domain 2. The current results provide proteomic insights into the changes in meat quality during rigor mortis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Edward J. Goetzl ◽  
Holden T. Maecker ◽  
Yael Rosenberg-Hasson ◽  
Lorrin M. Koran

The retention of the heavy metal, gadolinium, after a Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agent-assisted MRI may lead to a symptom cluster termed Gadolinium Deposition Disease. Little is known of the disorder’s underlying pathophysiology, but a recent study reported abnormally elevated serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to normal controls. As a calcium channel blocker in cellular plasma and mitochondrial membranes, gadolinium also interferes with mitochondrial function. We applied to sera from nine Gadolinium Deposition Disease and two Gadolinium Storage Condition patients newly developed methods allowing isolation of plasma neuron-derived extracellular vesicles that contain reproducibly quantifiable levels of mitochondrial proteins of all major classes. Patients’ levels of five mitochondrial functional proteins were statistically significantly lower and of two significantly higher than the levels in normal controls. The patterns of differences between study patients and controls for mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial proteins encompassing neuronal energy generation, metabolic regulation, ion fluxes, and survival differed from those seen for patients with first episode psychosis and those with Major Depressive Disorder compared to their controls. These findings suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction due to retained gadolinium may play a role in causing Gadolinium Deposition Disease. Larger samples of both GDD and GSC patients are needed to allow not only testing the repeatability of our findings, but also investigation of relationships of specific mitochondrial protein deficiencies or excesses and concurrent cytokine, genetic, or other factors to GDD’s neurological and cognitive symptoms. Studies of neuronal mitochondrial proteins as diagnostic markers or indicators of treatment effectiveness are also warranted.

BMC Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Mickaële Hémono ◽  
Alexandre Haller ◽  
Johana Chicher ◽  
Anne-Marie Duchêne ◽  
Richard Patryk Ngondo

Abstract Background Mitochondria require thousands of proteins to fulfill their essential function in energy production and other fundamental biological processes. These proteins are mostly encoded by the nuclear genome, translated in the cytoplasm before being imported into the organelle. RNA binding proteins (RBPs) are central players in the regulation of this process by affecting mRNA translation, stability, or localization. CLUH is an RBP recognizing specifically mRNAs coding for mitochondrial proteins, but its precise molecular function and interacting partners remain undiscovered in mammals. Results Here we reveal for the first time CLUH interactome in mammalian cells. Using both co-IP and BioID proximity-labeling approaches, we identify novel molecular partners interacting stably or transiently with CLUH in HCT116 cells and mouse embryonic stem cells. We reveal stable RNA-independent interactions of CLUH with itself and with SPAG5 in cytosolic granular structures. More importantly, we uncover an unexpected proximity of CLUH to mitochondrial proteins and their cognate mRNAs in the cytosol. We show that this interaction occurs during the process of active translation and is dependent on CLUH TPR domain. Conclusions Overall, through the analysis of CLUH interactome, our study sheds a new light on CLUH molecular function by revealing new partners and by highlighting its link to the translation and subcellular localization of some mRNAs coding for mitochondrial proteins.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Yun Yang ◽  
Victor Tapias ◽  
Diana Acosta ◽  
Hui Xu ◽  
Huanlian Chen ◽  

AbstractAbnormalities in brain glucose metabolism and accumulation of abnormal protein deposits called plaques and tangles are neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but their relationship to disease pathogenesis and to each other remains unclear. Here we show that succinylation, a metabolism-associated post-translational protein modification (PTM), provides a potential link between abnormal metabolism and AD pathology. We quantified the lysine succinylomes and proteomes from brains of individuals with AD, and healthy controls. In AD, succinylation of multiple mitochondrial proteins declined, and succinylation of small number of cytosolic proteins increased. The largest increases occurred at critical sites of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and microtubule-associated tau. We show that in vitro, succinylation of APP disrupted its normal proteolytic processing thereby promoting Aβ accumulation and plaque formation and that succinylation of tau promoted its aggregation to tangles and impaired microtubule assembly. In transgenic mouse models of AD, elevated succinylation associated with soluble and insoluble APP derivatives and tau. These findings indicate that a metabolism-linked PTM may be associated with AD.

BMC Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Soyeon Lee ◽  
Dongkeun Park ◽  
Chunghun Lim ◽  
Jae-Ick Kim ◽  
Kyung-Tai Min

Abstract Background The establishment and maintenance of functional neural connections relies on appropriate distribution and localization of mitochondria in neurites, as these organelles provide essential energy and metabolites. In particular, mitochondria are transported to axons and support local energy production to maintain energy-demanding neuronal processes including axon branching, growth, and regeneration. Additionally, local protein synthesis is required for structural and functional changes in axons, with nuclear-encoded mitochondrial mRNAs having been found localized in axons. However, it remains unclear whether these mRNAs are locally translated and whether the potential translated mitochondrial proteins are involved in the regulation of mitochondrial functions in axons. Here, we aim to further understand the purpose of such compartmentalization by focusing on the role of mitochondrial initiation factor 3 (mtIF3), whose nuclear-encoded transcripts have been shown to be present in axonal growth cones. Results We demonstrate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) induces local translation of mtIF3 mRNA in axonal growth cones. Subsequently, mtIF3 protein is translocated into axonal mitochondria and promotes mitochondrial translation as assessed by our newly developed bimolecular fluorescence complementation sensor for the assembly of mitochondrial ribosomes. We further show that BDNF-induced axonal growth requires mtIF3-dependent mitochondrial translation in distal axons. Conclusion We describe a previously unknown function of mitochondrial initiation factor 3 (mtIF3) in axonal protein synthesis and development. These findings provide insight into the way neurons adaptively control mitochondrial physiology and axonal development via local mtIF3 translation.

2022 ◽  
Athena Lin ◽  
Paul Piehowski ◽  
Chia-Feng Tsai ◽  
Tatyana Makushok ◽  
Lian Yi ◽  

Many individual proteins have been identified as having defined positions relative to cell polarity axes, raising the question of what fraction of all proteins may have polarized localizations. We took advantage of the giant ciliate Stentor coeruleus to quantify the extent of polarized localization proteome-wide. This trumpet-shaped unicellular organism shows a clear morphological anterior-posterior axis defined by a circular array of cilia known as a membranellar band at one end, and a holdfast at the other end. Because individual Stentor cells are over a millimeter in length, we were able to cut the cells into three pieces along the anterior-posterior axis, followed by proteomic analysis of proteins enriched in each piece. We find that approximately 30% of all detected proteins show a polarized location relative to the anterior-posterior cell axis. Proteins with polarized enrichment include centrin-like proteins, calcium-regulated kinases, orthologs of SFI1 and GAS2, and proteases. At the organelle level, nuclear and mitochondrial proteins are enriched in the anterior half of the cell body, but not in the membranellar band itself, while ribosome related proteins are apparently uniformly distributed. RNAi of signaling proteins enriched in the membranellar band, which is the anterior-most structure in the cell, revealed a protein phosphatase 2 subunit b ortholog required for closure of the membranellar band into the ring shape characteristic of Stentor. These results suggest that a large fraction of the Stentor proteome has a polarized localization, and provide a protein-level framework for future analysis of pattern formation and regeneration in Stentor as well as defining a general strategy for subcellular spatial proteomics based on physical dissection of cells.

2022 ◽  
Amandine Guerin ◽  
Claire Angebault ◽  
Sandrina Kinet ◽  
Chantal Cazevieille ◽  
Manuel Rojo ◽  

Limb Expression 1 (LIX1) is a master regulator of digestive mesenchymal progenitor and GastroIntestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) cell proliferation by controlling the expression of the Hippo effectors YAP1/TAZ and KIT. However, the underlying mechanisms of these LIX1- mediated regulations and tumor promotion remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that LIX1 is S-palmitoylated on cysteine 84 and localized in mitochondria. LIX1 knock-down affects the mitochondrial ultrastructure, resulting in decreased respiration and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. This is sufficient to downregulate YAP1/TAZ and reprogram KIT- positive GIST cells towards the smooth muscle cell lineage with reduced proliferative and invasive capacities. Mechanistically, LIX1 knock-down impairs the stability of the mitochondrial proteins PHB2 and OPA1 that are found in complexes with mitochondrial- specific phospholipids and are required for cristae organization. Supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids counteracts the effects of LIX1 knock-down on mitochondrial morphology and ultrastructure, restores YAP1/TAZ signaling, and consequently KIT levels. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that LIX1 contributes to GIST aggressive potential by modulating YAP1/TAZ and KIT levels, a process that depends on mitochondrial remodeling. Our work brings new insights into the mechanisms that could be targeted in tumors in which YAP1 and TAZ are implicated.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Marcel G. Genge ◽  
Dejana Mokranjac

The vast majority of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nuclear genome and synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes as precursor proteins with specific mitochondrial targeting signals. Mitochondrial targeting signals are very diverse, however, about 70% of mitochondrial proteins carry cleavable, N-terminal extensions called presequences. These amphipathic helices with one positively charged and one hydrophobic surface target proteins to the mitochondrial matrix with the help of the TOM and TIM23 complexes in the outer and inner membranes, respectively. Translocation of proteins across the two mitochondrial membranes does not take place independently of each other. Rather, in the intermembrane space, where the two complexes meet, components of the TOM and TIM23 complexes form an intricate network of protein–protein interactions that mediates initially transfer of presequences and then of the entire precursor proteins from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane. In this Mini Review, we summarize our current understanding of how the TOM and TIM23 complexes cooperate with each other and highlight some of the future challenges and unresolved questions in the field.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Patrick Willems ◽  
Elvis Ndah ◽  
Veronique Jonckheere ◽  
Frank Van Breusegem ◽  
Petra Van Damme

Alternative translation initiation is a widespread event in biology that can shape multiple protein forms or proteoforms from a single gene. However, the respective contribution of alternative translation to protein complexity remains largely enigmatic. By complementary ribosome profiling and N-terminal proteomics (i.e., riboproteogenomics), we provide clear-cut evidence for ~90 N-terminal proteoform pairs shaped by (alternative) translation initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Next to several cases additionally confirmed by directed mutagenesis, identified alternative protein N-termini follow the enzymatic rules of co-translational N-terminal protein acetylation and initiator methionine removal. In contrast to other eukaryotic models, N-terminal acetylation in plants cannot generally be considered as a proxy of translation initiation because of its posttranslational occurrence on mature proteolytic neo-termini (N-termini) localized in the chloroplast stroma. Quantification of N-terminal acetylation revealed differing co- vs. posttranslational N-terminal acetylation patterns. Intriguingly, our data additionally hints to alternative translation initiation serving as a common mechanism to supply protein copies in multiple cellular compartments, as alternative translation sites are often in close proximity to cleavage sites of N-terminal transit sequences of nuclear-encoded chloroplastic and mitochondrial proteins. Overall, riboproteogenomics screening enables the identification of (differential localized) N-terminal proteoforms raised upon alternative translation.

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