Casein Kinase
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2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (1) ◽  
Stefanie Ruhs ◽  
Bruno Griesler ◽  
Ralf Huebschmann ◽  
Katharina Stroedecke ◽  
Nicole Straetz ◽  

2021 ◽  
Xiao-Dong Fang ◽  
Qiang Gao ◽  
Ying Zang ◽  
Ji-Hui Qiao ◽  
Dong-Min Gao ◽  

Liquid–liquid phase separation (LLPS) plays important roles in forming cellular membraneless organelles. However, how host factors regulate LLPS of viral proteins during negative-sense RNA (NSR) virus infections is largely unknown. Here, we used Barley yellow striate mosaic virus (BYSMV) as a model to demonstrate regulation of host casein kinase 1 in phase separation and infection of NSR viruses. We first found that the BYSMV phosphoprotein (P) formed spherical granules with liquid properties and recruited viral nucleotide (N) and polymerase (L) proteins in vivo. Moreover, the P-formed granules were tethered to the ER/actin network for trafficking and fusion. BYSMV P alone formed droplets and incorporated the N protein and genomic RNA in vitro. Interestingly, phase separation of BYSMV P was inhibited by host casein kinase 1 (CK1)-dependent phosphorylation of an intrinsically disordered P protein region. Genetic assays demonstrated that the unphosphorylated mutant of BYSMV P exhibited condensed phase, which promoted virus replication through concentrating the N, L proteins, and genome RNA into viroplasms. Whereas, the phosphorylation-mimic mutant existed in diffuse phase state leading to enhanced virus transcription. Collectively, our results demonstrate that host CK1 modulates phase separation of viral P protein and virus infection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Kazunori Sano ◽  
Yasushi Iwasaki ◽  
Yuta Yamashita ◽  
Keiichi Irie ◽  
Masato Hosokawa ◽  

AbstractSerine 129 (S129) phosphorylation of α-synuclein (αSyn) is a central feature of Lewy body (LB) disease pathology. Although the neighboring tyrosine residues Y125, Y133, and Y136 are also phosphorylation sites, little is known regarding potential roles of phosphorylation cross-talk between these sites and its involvement in the pathogenesis of LB disease. Here, we found that αSyn aggregates are predominantly phosphorylated at Y136 in the Lewy body dementia brain, which is mediated by unexpected kinase activity of Casein kinase 2 (CK2). Aggregate formation with S129 and Y136 phosphorylation of recombinant αSyn (r-αSyn) were induced by CK2 but abolished by replacement of S129 with alanine (S129A) in vitro. Mutation of Y136 to alanine (Y136A) promoted aggregate formation and S129 phosphorylation of r-αSyn by CK2 in vitro. Introduction of Y136A r-αSyn oligomers into cultured cells exhibited increased levels of aggregates with S129 phosphorylation compared to wild-type r-αSyn oligomers. In addition, aggregate formation with S129 phosphorylation induced by introduction of wild-type r-αSyn oligomers was significantly attenuated by CK2 inhibition, which resulted in an unexpected increase in Y136 phosphorylation in cultured cells. Our findings suggest the involvement of CK2-related αSyn Y136 phosphorylation in the pathogenesis of LB disease and its potential as a therapeutic target.

2021 ◽  
Alejandro Padilla

The large families of amastins from Leishmania donovani, L. infantum, L. major, L. braziliensis and Trypanosoma cruzi are strongly associated with the evolution of intracellular parasitism of rich cells in human MHC.1 molecules such as the macrophages, dendritic cells, and Langerhans cells by these parasites, recognize the MHC-1 molecules as host receptor. The internalization and transport of the paraste in the cytoplas of infected cell is facilitated by the MHC-1 recycle and endosome formation drag and transport the parasite in the cytoplasm of infected cell. The microbody amastins participate as coreceptor potency the infection, the tropism of L. major and L. braziliensis by the cells from the skin is facilitated by two molecular interactions, the first molecular interaction is faclitated by the amastins interact the human MHC-1 molecules, and the second molecular interaction is facilitated by the numerous microbody amastins; which also participate in the biogenesis of the small prasitophorous vcuole from L. major, and large parasitophorous vacuole from L. braziliensis. All amastins from these parasites developed deactivation domains, in different grade L. donovani develop an amastin surface coat specialized in deactivation of infected macrophages heavily glycosylated developed 38 amastins with 38 glycosylation Asp. N-Glycosylation sites and 45 N-glucosamina glycosylation sites, whereas L. infantum, L. major and L. braziliensis developed one half of glycosylated amastins in asparagine N-glycosylation sites, and T. cruzi did not developed none glycosylated amastin. The amastins surface coat from L. donovani is rich in phosphorylation sites, developed 45 amastins with 45 casein kinase II phosphorylations sites, and 48 amastins with 48 protein kinase phosphorylation sites. L. infantum, L. braziliensis, and T. cruzi developed 32, 42, and 8 amastins, with 94, 114, 21 casein kinase II phosphorylation sites; in similar way developed 35, 38, 11 amastins with 89, 78, and 22 protein kinase phosphorylation sites. The family of amastins from L. donovani develop 137 phosphoserines. and 128 phosphothreonine, L. major developed 14 phosphoserine and 4 phosphothreonine; L. infantum 1 phophoserine and 7 phosphothreonine; L. braziliensis did not developed phosphoserine and phosphothreonine and T. cruzi 4 phosphoserine and 4 phosphothreonine. The results show that amastin surface coat is equiped with numerous phosphorylations sites atractive for phosphohrylases from the infected host contribute with the dephosphorylation and deactivation of infectetd host cells. The amastins from L. major develop a membrane amastin with laminin G domain, which can interact with the collagen and heparin sulfate proteoglycan sites from the extracellular matrix of the skin tissue. Furthermore develop 14 amastins with tyrosine sulfation site, evade the activation of receptor of chemokines and the activation of the immune response by chemokines. There is an alternative mechanism of polarization of the immune response from protective TH1 to non protective TH2. The parasite nutrition is mediated by amastins that dissimilate the MHC-1 molecules and other subsets of proteins, the dissimilation products can be translocated through of the parasite cell membrane and employed as nutrient source.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (Supplement_6) ◽  
pp. vi82-vi82
Luz Ruiz ◽  
Nagi Ayad

Abstract Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor found in children. It is a cerebellar tumor that affects motor and cognitive processes such as coordination and movement. The standard of care is surgical removal, radiation, and chemotherapy. These treatments can be very damaging to the developing child, in that they can impair vision and walking, among other body functions. Due to this, new treatments are necessary. Treatment plans for children with medulloblastoma need to be tailored to the specific subtype that they have. Genetic studies have revealed that there are four subtypes of pediatric medulloblastoma: Group 3, Group 4, SHH, and WNT. Beyond these bulk-resolution subtypes, we hypothesize intratumor heterogeneity as a barrier to new effective treatments. I have mined single-cell RNA sequencing data to investigate cellular heterogeneity and predict compound response. I analyzed Medulloblastoma patient tumor data along with data obtained from a 10X Genomics Chromium single-cell RNA sequencing experiment performed in the laboratory from a Tg (Neurod-Smoothened*A1) mouse. We hypothesize that distinct cell populations within medulloblastoma should show different predicted compounds that would target them. We have ranked compound predictions to investigate whether compounds may selectively target any of these populations using transcriptional response signatures derived from the LINCS L1000 perturbagen-response dataset. We also hypothesize that Medulloblastoma tumors have distinct subtypes of cells that are preferentially sensitive to BET bromodomain, casein kinase, and ATM/ATR inhibitors. Our analysis identified ten transcriptionally distinct cell types across these medulloblastoma tumors as well as compounds predicted to target them in each transcriptional subtype. Furthermore, we identified bromodomain and casein kinase inhibitors as a potential combination therapy due to their predicted synergy at targeting all cell populations within medulloblastoma. Our studies show the importance of considering cellular heterogeneity when identifying new treatments for medulloblastoma and other brain cancers.

2021 ◽  
Houqing Yu ◽  
Roarke A Kamber ◽  
Vladimir Denic

Autophagy receptor (or adaptor) proteins facilitate lysosomal destruction of various organelles in response to cellular stress, including nutrient deprivation. To what extent membrane-resident autophagy receptors also respond to organelle-restricted cues to induce selective autophagy remains poorly understood. We find that latent activation of the yeast pexophagy receptor Atg36 by the casein kinase Hrr25 in rich media is repressed by the ATPase activity of Pex1/6, the catalytic subunits of the exportomer AAA+ transmembrane complex enabling protein import into peroxisomes. Quantitative proteomics of purified Pex3, an obligate Atg36 co-receptor, support a model in which exportomer represses Atg36 without assistance from additional membrane factors. Indeed, we reconstitute inhibition of Atg36 phosphorylation in vitro using soluble Pex1/6 and define an N-terminal unstructured region of Atg36 that enables regulation by binding to Pex1. Our findings uncover a mechanism by which a compartment-specific AAA+ complex mediating organelle biogenesis and protein quality control staves off induction of selective autophagy.

Juan Lazaro-Navarro ◽  
Helia Judith Pimentel-Gutiérrez ◽  
Anton Gauert ◽  
Anja I.H. Hagemann ◽  
Jassi Lena Eisenschmid ◽  

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