proteolytic cleavage
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2022 ◽  
pp. 2103396
Guiqin Chen ◽  
Eun Hee Ahn ◽  
Seong Su Kang ◽  
Yiyuan Xia ◽  
Xia Liu ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 54
Eva Nagyová ◽  
Lucie Němcová ◽  
Antonella Camaioni

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is an essential structure with biological activities. It has been shown that the ECM influences gene expression via cytoskeletal components and the gene expression is dependent upon cell interactions with molecules and hormones. The development of ovarian follicles is a hormone dependent process. The surge in the luteinizing hormone triggers ovulatory changes in oocyte microenvironment. In this review, we discuss how proteolytic cleavage affects formation of cumulus ECM following hormonal stimulation; in particular, how the specific proteasome inhibitor MG132 affects gonadotropin-induced cytoskeletal structure, the organization of cumulus ECM, steroidogenesis, and nuclear maturation. We found that after the inhibition of proteolytic cleavage, gonadotropin-stimulated oocyte–cumulus complexes (OCCs) were without any signs of cumulus expansion; they remained compact with preserved cytoskeletal F-actin-rich transzonal projections through the oocyte investments. Concomitantly, a significant decrease was detected in progesterone secretion and in the expression of gonadotropin-stimulated cumulus expansion–related transcripts, such as HAS2 and TNFAIP6. In agreement, the covalent binding between hyaluronan and the heavy chains of serum-derived the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor, essential for the organization of cumulus ECM, was missing.

2021 ◽  
Christoph Klenk ◽  
Leif Hommers ◽  
Martin J. Lohse

Parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R) is a member of the class B family of G protein-coupled receptors, which are characterized by a large extracellular domain required for ligand binding. We have previously shown that the extracellular domain of PTH1R is subject to metalloproteinase cleavage in vivo that is regulated by ligand-induced receptor trafficking and leads to impaired stability of PTH1R. In this work, we localize the cleavage site in the first loop of the extracellular domain using amino-terminal protein sequencing of purified receptor and by mutagenesis studies. We further show, that a receptor mutant not susceptible to proteolytic cleavage exhibits reduced signaling to Gs and increased activation of Gq/11 compared to wild-type PTH1R. These findings indicate that the extracellular domain modulates PTH1R signaling specificity.

DNA Repair ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 103260
Saman Khan ◽  
William Cvammen ◽  
Nadeen Anabtawi ◽  
Jun-Hyuk Choi ◽  
Michael G. Kemp

2021 ◽  
Yuxing Xia ◽  
Grace M. Lloyd ◽  
Benoit I. Giasson

Abstract CNS pathological inclusions comprising τ or α-synuclein (αSyn) define a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases, and these can often present concurrently in the same individuals. The aggregation of both proteins is clearly associated with neurodegeneration and the deleterious properties of each protein is further supported by mutations in each gene (MAPT and SNCA, respectively) resulting in disease. The initiating events in most sporadic neurodegenerative diseases are still unclear but growing evidence suggests that the aberrant proteolytic cleavage of τ and αSyn results in products that can be toxic and/or initiate aggregation that can further spread by a prion-like mechanism. The accumulation of some of these cleavage products can further potentiate the progression of protein aggregation transmission and lead to their accumulation in peripheral biofluids such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood. The future development of new tools to detect specific τ and αSyn abnormal cleavage products in peripheral biofluids could be useful biomarkers and better understand of the role of unique proteolytic activities could yield therapeutic interventions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Wanqiu Li ◽  
Linlin Wang ◽  
Bradley M. Wierbowski ◽  
Mo Lu ◽  
Feitong Dong ◽  

AbstractThe membrane protein Dispatched (Disp), which belongs to the RND family of small molecule transporters, is essential for Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, by catalyzing the extracellular release of palmitate- and cholesterol-modified Hh ligands from producing cells. Disp function requires Furin-mediated proteolytic cleavage of its extracellular domain, but how this activates Disp remains obscure. Here, we employ cryo-electron microscopy to determine atomic structures of human Disp1 (hDisp1), before and after cleavage, and in complex with lipid-modified Sonic hedgehog (Shh) ligand. These structures, together with biochemical data, reveal that proteolytic cleavage opens the extracellular domain of hDisp1, removing steric hindrance to Shh binding. Structure-guided functional experiments demonstrate the role of hDisp1–Shh interactions in ligand release. Our results clarify the mechanisms of hDisp1 activation and Shh morphogen release, and highlight how a unique proteolytic cleavage event enabled acquisition of a protein substrate by a member of a family of small molecule transporters.

Microbiology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 167 (11) ◽  
Rujuan Dai ◽  
Mingmei Yang ◽  
Jing Zhao ◽  
Xiao Liu ◽  
Yajun Zhou ◽  

Two variants of extracellular β-glucosidase (BGL2) were purified from the stipe and pilei of Coprinopsis cinerea. In the stipe, BGL2 was a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular mass of approximately 220 kDa, representing a mature full-length peptide of BGL2. However, in the pilei, the apparent molecular mass of BGL2 was only approximately 120 kDa, consisting of the 60 kDa N-terminal fragment and 55 kDa C-terminal fragment. The hydrolytic activities of BGL2 purified from the pilei were higher than those of BGL2 purified from the stipe. No mRNA splice variants of bgl2 were detected. Therefore, the different variants of BGL2 in the stipe and pilei were not formed by differential RNA splicing. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed that full-length BGL2 could be cleaved by endogenous proteases from pilei or commercial trypsin at a similar site to form an oligomeric protein consisting of the N-terminal fragment and C-terminal fragment similar to BGL2 from pilei. The hydrolytic activity of BGL2 increased after cleavage by those proteases in vitro. We conclude that the 120 kDa variant of BGL2 in the pilei of C. cinerea is formed by posttranslational proteolytic cleavage. Posttranslational proteolytic cleavage is an efficient way to regulate the activity of BGL2 to adapt to the needs of different physiological functions in the elongation stipe and expansion pilei of C. cinerea.

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (22) ◽  
pp. 7485
Kevin K. Ng ◽  
Zachary E. Reinert ◽  
Jeroen Corver ◽  
Danica Resurreccion ◽  
Paul J. Hensbergen ◽  

Current assays for Clostridioides difficile in nonhospital settings are outsourced and time-intensive, resulting in both delayed diagnosis and quarantining of infected individuals. We designed a more rapid point-of-care assay featuring a “turn-on” bioluminescent readout of a C. difficile-specific protease, PPEP-1. NanoLuc, a bright and stable luciferase, was “caged” with a PPEP-1-responsive peptide tail that inhibited luminescence. Upon proteolytic cleavage, the peptide was released and NanoLuc activity was restored, providing a visible readout. The bioluminescent sensor detected PPEP-1 concentrations as low as 10 nM. Sensor uncaging was achieved within minutes, and signal was captured using a digital camera. Importantly, the sensor was also functional at ambient temperature and compatible with fecal material, suggesting that it can be readily deployed in a variety of settings.

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