Nano-particles of metals can be routinely synthesized. The cereal seeds treatment with the particles can improve early growth and crop production. Moreover, the treatment is robust and economical.
Metal (Fe0, Cu0, Co0), zinc oxide (ZnO) and chitosan-stabilized silver nano-particles were synthesized and applied to cereal seeds. The germination rate, early plant development and inhibition effects on pathogenic fungi were quantified.
It was found that all nano-particles had a positive effect on the development of healthy cereal seedlings. In particular, the length of the above-ground part of the seedlings was increased by 8–22%. The highest inhibition effect was observed on Helminthosporium teres with the application of Co0 and chitosan-Ag. Pre-sowing treatment with metal nano-particles reduced the number of infected grains by two times for wheat and 3.6 times for barley. The application also increases the chlorophylls and carotenoids in both uninfected and infected seedlings.
The results demonstrated a robust application of nano-particles in improving cereal production.
The agricultural industry utilizes antibiotic growth promoters to promote livestock growth and health. However, the World Health Organization has raised concerns over the ongoing spread of antibiotic resistance transmission in the populace, leading to its subsequent ban in several countries, especially in the European Union. These restrictions have translated into an increase in pathogenic outbreaks in the agricultural industry, highlighting the need for an economically viable, non-toxic, and renewable alternative to antibiotics in livestock. Probiotics inhibit pathogen growth, promote a beneficial microbiota, regulate the immune response of its host, enhance feed conversion to nutrients, and form biofilms that block further infection. Commonly used lactic acid bacteria probiotics are vulnerable to the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal system, leading to novel research using spore-forming bacteria from the genus Bacillus. However, the exact mechanisms behind Bacillus probiotics remain unexplored. This review tackles this issue, by reporting antimicrobial compounds produced from Bacillus strains, their proposed mechanisms of action, and any gaps in the mechanism studies of these compounds. Lastly, this paper explores omics approaches to clarify the mechanisms behind Bacillus probiotics.
The Histological Control Plan has been introduced in Italy in 2008 as an indirect monitoring tool of illicit administration of sexual hormones and corticosteroids in bovine. Analysis of 2008-2016 results permitted to draw a new plan targeting risk category. This work presents the results of the histopathological monitoring plan that was carried out from 2017 to 2019. The overall prevalence of samples suspected of treatment with corticosteroid was 11.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.6-17.8] in 2017; 10.2% (95% CI 6.6-16.9) in 2018 and 8.9% (95% CI 4.6-15.4) in 2019. The overall prevalence of samples suspected of treatment with sexual hormones was 2.3 % (95% CI 0.5-6.6) in 2017; 6.2% (95% CI 2.7-11.8) in 2018 and 12.4% (95% CI 7.4- 19.1) in 2019. Although not targeting and measuring specific molecules, this strategy allows to verify the trend of illicit treatments and identify farms to be submitted to further check.
Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) are commonly used within poultry production to improve feed conversion, bird growth, and reduce morbidity and mortality from clinical and subclinical diseases. Due to the association between AGP usage and rising antimicrobial resistance, the industry has explored new strategies including the use of probiotics and other microbial-based interventions to promote the development of a healthy microbiome in birds and mitigate against infections associated with food safety and food security. While previous studies have largely focused on the ability of probiotics to protect against Clostridium perfringens and Salmonella enterica, much less is known concerning their impact on Campylobacter jejuni, a near commensal of the chicken gut microbiome that nevertheless is a major cause of food poisoning in humans.
Here we compare the efficacy of four microbial interventions (two single strain probiotics, the bacterium—Pediococcus acidilactici, and the yeast—Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii; and two complex, competitive exclusion, consortia—Aviguard and CEL) to bacitracin, a commonly used AGP, to modulate chicken gut microbiota and subsequently impact C. jejuni infection in poultry. Cecal samples were harvested at 30- and 39-days post hatch to assess Campylobacter burden and examine their impact on the gut microbiota. While the different treatments did not significantly decrease C. jejuni burden relative to the untreated controls, both complex consortia resulted in significant decreases relative to treatment with bacitracin. Analysis of 16S rDNA profiles revealed a distinct microbial signature associated with each microbial intervention. For example, treatment with Aviguard and CEL increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidaceae and Rikenellaceae respectively. Furthermore, Aviguard promoted a less complex microbial community compared to other treatments.
Depending upon the individual needs of the producer, our results illustrate the potential of each microbial interventions to serve flock-specific requirements.
The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance genes in pathogenic microorganisms have resulted in many countries restricting the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed. The combined use of essential oils and organic acids can help maintain intestinal health, improve animal growth performance, and alleviate the negative effects of banned antibiotics for certain economically important animals. Although the modes of action for the combined dietary supplementation of essential oils and organic acids such as thymol-citric acid (EOA1) and thymol-butyric acid (EOA2) remain unclear, it is speculated that their activities are achieved through beneficial modulation of gastrointestinal microbial communities and inhibition of pathogen growth. In this study, 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing was used to analyze the effects of treatment with EOA1 and EOA2 on the jejunal, cecal, and fecal microbial communities of Cobb broilers while also evaluating effects over different broiler ages. The intestinal microbial communities of broilers developed with increasing age, and Lactobacillus gradually came to dominate the intestinal communities of treated broilers. Further, the microbial communities of feces were more complex than those of the jejuna and ceca. We systematically elucidate that the longitudinal changes in the intestinal microbial communities of Cobb broiler chickens at different ages. Meanwhile, we found that the addition of EOA1 or EOA2 to the diet: (1) inhibited the proliferation of Ralstonia pickettii and Alcaligenaceae in the jejuna on day 28, (2) promoted the colonization and growth of beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Clostridia, and Bacteroidia at various growth stages, and (3) enriched the abundance of certain microbiota functions, including biological pathways related to metabolism (e.g., enzyme families). Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate that EOA1 and EOA2 dietary supplementation can affect various microbial metabolic pathways related to the metabolism and absorption of nutrients via regulation of the intestinal microbial community structures of Cobb broilers.
ABSTRACT: This study describes the spontaneous and experimental salinomycin poisoning associated with the use of florfenicol and warns about the effects of the administration of antibiotics to animals that receive ionophores in the feed as growth promoters. A batch with 1,200 finishing pigs fed a diet containing 30ppm of salinomycin received florfenicol (60ppm via feed) to control respiratory diseases. Twenty-seven pigs had difficulty walking, tip-toe walking, muscle tremors, and anorexia seven days after the start of treatment. Twenty-two animals died, 10 recovered, and two were sent to the Laboratory of Animal Pathology of CAV-UDESC to be necropsied. The experimental reproduction of the disease was carried out to clarify the possible influence of florfenicol on salinomycin poisoning using 12 pigs divided into four groups with three animals each, treated for 16 days with diets containing no additives (Group 1), 50ppm of salinomycin (Group 2), 40ppm of florfenicol (Group 3), and 50ppm of salinomycin and 40ppm of florfenicol (Group 4). Only animals in Group 4 became ill. The clinical disease was reproduced from the ingestion of 24.67mg/kg/LW of salinomycin and 19.74mg/kg/LW of florfenicol. Both natural and experimental salinomycin poisoning associated with the use of florfenicol caused a condition of myopathy characterized in histology by hyaline degeneration and floccular necrosis of skeletal fibers, with macrophage infiltrate, associated with the figures of regeneration in skeletal muscles and multifocal areas of the proliferation of fibroblasts, being more intense in the longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus muscles. Therefore, florfenicol can cause the accumulation of ionophore salinomycin in the animal organism, resulting in a condition of toxic myopathy.
The use of antibiotics in animal production are widely used for disease treatment, health protection, and as growth promoters. Common antibiotics used in veterinary medicine are excreted and eliminated through the sewage system, contaminating water and soil with negative effects on agricultural activities. This systematic review focuses on the trend of research works on antibiotic residues, evaluating antibiotics used in livestock production and their excretion in animal products and in environmental matrices such as water and soil. Our database was composed of 165 articles, reporting the concentration of antibiotic residues found in the environment, livestock (cow, sheep, pig, horse, chicken, rabbit, goat), aquatic and terrestrial animal tissues, animal products (milk and eggs), wastewater, and soil. The documents were obtained from Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Europe, and Oceania. A descriptive analysis of antibiotic residues found worldwide was analyzed according to each of the variables used such as antibiotic family, name, concentration (% and mg/kg or ppm), and country and continent where the residue was found. The descriptive analysis was carried out using the “describe” function of psych package and pirate plots were drawn. According to our study, the main antibiotics used worldwide in animal production are sulfonamides, tetracyclines, quinolones, penicillin, and cephalosporins. At present, despite the trends of increased regulations on the use of antibiotics worldwide, antibiotics are still utilized in food animal production, and are present in water and soil, then, there is still the misuse of antibiotics in many countries. We need to become aware that antibiotic contamination is a global problem, and we are challenged to reduce and improve their use.
The quality control of herbal medicines has become a major concern to health authorities, health care providers and the manufacturing industries at every stage of production. The standardization of raw drugs and formulations with the help of modern analytical tools increase their scope, acceptance and scientific validity. The safety and efficacy of herbal medicines largely depend on their quality. Neelibhringadi keratailam is an excellent hair growth promoting oil widely prescribed and marketed in Kerala. All the ingredients in the formulation are best hair growth promoters. The knowledge of hair products, their mode of action, efficacy and ingredients has become more relevant today. Neelibhringadi keratailam manufactured by GMP certified Ayurvedic companies in Kerala was assessed by evaluating and comparing the physico chemical parameters of market samples of Neelibhringadi keratailam with that of prepared Neelibhringadi keratailam. Physico chemical parameters such as Acid value (AV), Iodine value (IV), Refractive index (RI) Saponification value (SV), Specific gravity (SG), Weight per milliliter, HPTLC, ICP-MS and microbial contamination of market samples were evaluated and compared with those of prepared sample. Neelibhringadi keram was prepared and its physicochemical analysis was done and compared with market samples. Analysis of the market samples showed significant variation in physicochemical analytical parameters, colour and consistency from the prepared samples.
PurposeThe objective of this study is to assess whether pro-health herbal probiotics, ascorbic acid and allicin added to the finishing diets of hybrid pig influenced the intramuscular fat (IMF) content in longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle, the fatty acid profile and lipid quality indices, as it has an impact on human health.Design/methodology/approachAfter 80 days of equal fattening, the pigs were divided into the control group (CT, n = 30 received commercially allowed and applicable antibiotics) and the experimental group (EX, n = 30), which until 95 days of rearing were supplied with fermented herbs extract (FHE Multikraft® Austria) with probiotics Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, L-ascorbic acid and extract of garlic (10% allicin). After slaughter, crude fat content and fatty acid profile were determined in LL muscle samples, and on that basis lipid indices were calculated.FindingsSupplementation with FHE, probiotics, L-ascorbic acid and allicin has significantly impacted the crude fat content in the meat and the percentage of fatty acids content: tricosanoic (C23:0), heptadecanoid (C17:1 n-7), eicosanic (C22:1 11cis n-9) and eicosatrienoic (C20:3 11cis n-3), in comparison to CT group. Amongst lipid quality indices, IMF in LL of pigs from EX group, the C18:2 n-6/C18:3 n-3 ratio is characterised by a significantly higher value and thus is more beneficial to the health of the consumer.Originality/valueThe authors have indicated that using FHE, probiotic supplements with ascorbic acid and allicin in commercial fattening of pigs, as an alternative for antibiotic growth promoters (AGP), improves the fatty acid profile of the meat.