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2022 ◽  
Gabriela Nemţoi ◽  

Established as a personal right, the right to free speech implies obligations and duties, which may generate possible restrictions. Freedom of expression works correctly in a legal framework when it comes to a legitimate aim in a state law. Article 10, paragraph 2, of the Convention explains the conditions under which the right to freedom of expression is justified by the need to protect certain public interests (such as those relating to national security, the territorial space of the state, public order, the prevention of crimes, the protection of health and social morals, the guarantee of authority and the impartiality of the judiciary) but also to protect certain private interests, such as reputation and the rights of others. persons or the need to prevent the publication of secret information. This paragraph basically authorizes states to take certain measures to protect those interests, which materialize through rules and normative rules of the right to conscience, opinion and freedom of expression States enjoy a margin of appreciation for establishing the need for such reactions in a state governed by the rule of law, but in the end it is also up to the European Court of Human Rights to rule on the compatibility of interference with the provisions of the Convention, assessing on a case-by-case basis if the interference arises as a result of the urgent social issues and whether it is fair.

Omalpe Somananda

Human development is at the center of social work to intervene in diverse problems affecting humanity. Community work is a direct method of community development that attempts to serve many people at a macro level. A community case study documents a local experience about delivering services to meet an identified need. This paper aims to illustrate three examples of community case studies that were developed while working with three diverse communities in Sri Lanka. The first community case study describes efforts to efforts to promote social harmony through child engagement in a rural community with ethnoreligious diversity in the Polonnaruwa District. The second community case study documents prioritizing several problems faced by an urban, underserved community located close to the Kolonnawa Garbage dump in the Colombo District. The third case study is on women's engagement in community development and harmony in a peri-urban community in the Gampaha District. The paper provides evidence for the effectiveness of community work in addressing diverse social issues in communities.

Анна М. Орел

This paper examines the mechanisms of human and intellectual capital transformations, as well as their development patterns in a company to ensure its growth and expansion together with building the company competitive edge in the context of knowledge economy. In particular, the study provides insights into the fundamental principles of corporate management, along with revealing the specifics of the interaction between human and intellectual driving factors and economic tools of corporate management. A special focus is put towards a social function of corporate management in resolving socioeconomic conflicts in the area of public production and its critical significance in tackling a vast range of social issues. Based on the findings, the study offers a conceptual and methodological approach to building and implementing strategies for promoting and boosting human capital to respond to modern economic development trends and challenges. Apart from that, the study identified the need to pay more attention to expanding the research in every area of economic thought and re-think the implications of economic policies being currently realized. It is also noted that corporate management systems in different countries demonstrate great variability, in particular, there are significant differences in the area of corporate ownership and control patterns. The paper presents an overview of various types of corporate management systems which can be distinguished by the nature of their ownership and control paradigm, as well as by diversity in terms of shareholder rights. Thus, some management systems are characterized by a wide range of ownership forms while others tend to concentrate ownership rights or control functions as much as possible. A conclusion is made that there is still no single corporate management model in the world, and each country has developed its own range of tools and mechanisms to overcome corporate problems and challenges arising from the ownership dispersal or control issues. It is argued that the transition to a knowledge economy and increasing the human factor involvement in corporate management have become a distinctive feature of modern phase of enterprise management maturity in most developed economies, and the use of intellectual capital and talent management are viewed as a primary tool in ensuring company high efficiency and competitiveness. The findings reveal that the latest approaches to the research problem, transformations in the company capital structure design, with a key focus on the role of intellectual capital as its crucial element, have contributed to radical changes in contemporary industrial relations. Given the growing significance of a company management concept which is considered a system where a human potential is an exceptional driving force in business development, it is concluded that in view of these changes, all outdated methods of the current operational management should be revised and, accordingly, new standards for business activity and performance practices have to be created.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (12) ◽  
pp. 54-61
Jack Bbabbi Mukulu ◽  
Abubaker Qutieshat

Informal financial services (IFSs) provide various types of investment avenues for both rural and urban populations in Zambia. This paper is a critical review of the sustainability of various informal investment typologies Zambians has been using and adopting to increase their financial resources and solve their livelihoods and social issues in the process. An evaluation of why people and organizations opt for specific financial services that come in the form of savings and lending groups will be discussed in detail to understand if they have been meeting people's expectations. The paper derives its data from various studies in the past 10 years that emanates from Zambia and Sub-Saharan Africa. While the sustainability of various typologies of informal financial services is broad, they are measured through risks associated, savings policies adopted, group loan guarantees and flexibility, interest and transactional expenses enforcement, income-generating, wealth creation and any social capital investment. The research reveals that limited studies have looked at various typologies of savings and lending groups, including evaluating their sustainability. This study helps in decision making for anyone or organization who would want to join or start a savings group in Zambia and key parameters to follow.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 68-71
Rana Fatima ◽  
Rakesh Kumar ◽  
Amitesh Goud ◽  
Srikanth Muddhasani ◽  
Satish Reddy ◽  

Abstract The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is rising in rural areas. Screening of high risk cases, early detection and referral by the physicians reduces the prevalence of kidney disease in the population. Hereditary disorders, Glomerular diseases, Obstructive nephropathies are common causes in CKD in rural areas. Kidney biopsy is an essential diagnostic tool in to diagnose glomerular diseases. This prospective study done at tertiary care teaching hospital between 2017 and 2020 to understand the profile of glomerular diseases in rural area. Forty patients were included in the Study. Primary glomerular disease (PGD) was present in 26 patients and Secondary glomerular disease (SGD) in 10 and primary tubulointerstitial pathology in 4 patients. The most common Secondary glomerular disease was lupus. Glomerular diseases are amenable to immunomodulatory therapy leading to change in clinical outcome of the disease. However, Kidney biopsy is underutilized particularly in elderly patients, hypertensive nephropathy patients, suspected non diabetic kidney disease and lupus patients. Financial and social issues play dominant role in the treatment plan of chronic diseases in rural areas. Regional registry of kidney biopsy of urban and rural areas separately helps in paving a way of understanding the profile of glomerular diseases and its prevention.

2022 ◽  
Takumi Saito

In the era of globalization, biological invasions are one of the most serious social issues. Thus, managing its impact is an urgent task. It is essential to control non-native species before they become established. However, it is insufficient to address establishment debt, which occurs when a non-native species has been introduced into an area but has not yet been established in the wild. In particular, unintentionally introduced or contaminated organisms of the aquatic ornamental pet trade are referred to as “hitchhikers” and have not received much attention in the context of establishment debt. To understand the nature of establishment debt, including that of aquatic hitchhikers, I propose the monitoring of non-native species inhabiting artificial isolated waters, such as indoor aquariums, and the construction of a database using environmental DNA metabarcoding. This idea would be an effective non-regulatory management approach when implemented broadly, at the country level. Furthermore, implementation of this strategy in combination with border biosecurity and field monitoring may promote accurate prioritization, rapid species identification, and effective invasion pathway assessment.

10.2196/30286 ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. e30286
Adesoji Ademiluyi ◽  
Chuqin Li ◽  
Albert Park

Background The growth of social networking has created a paradigm in which many forms of personal communication are being replaced by internet communication technologies, such as social media. This has led to social issues, such as cyberbullying. In response, researchers are investigating cyberbullying to determine its implications in various life sectors. Objective This manuscript reviews the methods, results, and limitations of the current cyberbullying research and discusses the physical and mental repercussions of cyberbullying and social exclusion as well as methods of predicting and counteracting these events. On the basis of the findings, we discuss future research directions. Methods Using ScienceDirect, ACM Digital Library, and PubMed, 34 research articles were used in this review. A review was conducted using the selected articles with the goal of understanding the current landscape of cyberbullying research. Results Studies have analyzed correlations between depressive and suicidal ideations in subjects as well as relationships in the social, educational, and financial status of the perpetrators. Studies have explored detection methods for monitoring cyberbullying. Automated detection has yet to become effective and accurate; however, several factors, such as personal background and physical appearance, have been identified to correlate with the likelihood that a person becomes a survivor or perpetrator of web-based cybervictimization. Social support is currently common in recovery efforts but may require diversification for specific applications in web-based incidents. Conclusions Relations between social status, age, gender, and behaviors have been discovered that offer new insights into the origins and likeliness of cyberbullying events. Rehabilitation from such events is possible; however, automatic detection is not yet a viable solution for prevention of cyberbullying incidents. Effects such as social exclusion and suicidal ideations are closely tied to incidents of cyberbullying and require further study across various social and demographical populations. New studies should be conducted to explore the experiences of survivors and perpetrators and identify causal links. The breadth of research includes demographics from China, Canada, Taiwan, Iran, the United States, and Namibia. Wider ranges of national populations should be considered in future studies for accurate assessments, given global internet communication technology activity. The studies emphasize the need for formal classification terminology. With formal classification, researchers will have a more definite scope, allowing specific research on a single definable topic rather than on general bullying events and symptoms. Of all the studies, 2 used a longitudinal design for their research methodology. The low number of longitudinal studies leaves gaps between causation and correlation, and further research is required to understand the effects of cyberbullying. Research addressing ongoing victimization is required for the various forms of cyberbullying; social support offers the most effective current standard for prevention.

Children ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 66
Marijana Neuberg ◽  
Ines Banfić ◽  
Tina Cikač ◽  
Rosana Ribić ◽  
Sanja Zember ◽  

This study aimed to concurrently determine the perceived knowledge, attitudes and perspectives of childcare professionals working in kindergartens towards pediculosis capitis, a common ectoparasitic disease also known as head lice, as well as gain insights into procedures and control measures that are implemented in an outbreak setting. We used a qualitative approach with a problem-centered, semi-structured and three-part interview technique conducted in selected kindergartens of Varaždin and Međimurje counties of the Republic of Croatia. Based on a purposive (deliberate) sampling method, the study included both childcare professionals and on-site health coordinators aged between 21 and 56 years of age. Five main themes were put forth as a result of the conducted thematic analysis: prevention and control measures for managing head lice, information and knowledge, social issues, psychological issues and disease perception. Each of these themes also had specific emerging categories based on participants’ responses. Even though all respondents confirmed that the disease is continuously monitored only a few of them mentioned that a scalp examination was an inherent part of disease surveillance within the kindergarten community. Moreover, we found that information on pediculosis capitis is available to both parents and childcare professionals, but with a questionable uptake. Additionally, the majority of the respondents reported that parents tend to hide the infestation in their children due to shame and/or to avoid social stigma, and thus often fail to inform kindergarten teachers and health coordinators about the problem. In conclusion, our findings have implications for further practice and the introduction of tailored public health measures for the most vulnerable populations, most notably kindergarten children.

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