Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences
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Published By Springer Science And Business Media LLC


Gayathri Devi Pilli ◽  
Karthikeyan Elumalai ◽  
Vijey Aanandhi Muthukumar ◽  
Palani Shanmuga Sundaram

Abstract Background This is an objective critique to give an in-depth description of Nano suspensions. This article is attempting to address the issue of whether or not Nano science is realistic with respect to price, with regards to item costs being added to the endeavor and Lipotropic drugs have proven to be rewarding and Lipo-immunotherapy has proven to be beneficial. In modern times, drug marketing and promotion have become crucial to efficient commercializing of successful molecules, pharmaceutical companies often work to increase the chances of promoting successful drugs, these included cardiovascular drugs because of their widespread usage. Main body Nano suspension is a Nano metric Colloidal Suspension system i.e., Nano suspensions, in the solid form reaches the bloodstream and Nanoparticle colloids readily available to the target cells. All research on Nanostructures is focused on the four primary dimensions, composition, homogeneity, heterogeneity, elasticity, and agglomeration. Researchers are devising ways to deliver medication and other substances to a damaged cell and diseased region, as well as diagnose the body to pinpoint disease and defects, by way of Nanotechnology. Short conclusions The vital analysis of Nano science experiment on Nano suspension is working to achieve the goal of reducing product cost by using Nanotechnology in product development, as it wants to examine the probability of development by utilizing Nanotechnology. The usage of the top-limited technology allows the development of cardiovascular drugs classified under the biopharmaceutical classification system (Class II and Class IV) to use two approaches namely top-down and bottom-up methods.

Mohamed Hazman

Abstract Background Real-time PCR system is a valuable scientific mainstream needed for quantifying specific gene expression. Nevertheless, compared with conventional PCR, the real-time PCR system is extremely expensive and not affordable for limited or mid-budget research laboratories. Here, a novel, doable and low-cost recipe (referred to as gel express) is developed to quantify gene expression using conventional RT-PCR assay. The novelty of the gel express method is based on replacing crossing point (CP) values with integrated density (IntDen) values of PCR amplicon bands in real-time PCR regular mathematical formulas. Results In this work, gene expression profiles of two different rice stress-marker genes (OsCYP94C2a and OsLOX8) were quantified in response to mechanical wounding at different time points (0, 30, 60, and 150 min). In the gel express method, the free software ImageJ was employed to measure integrated density (IntDen) values of PCR amplicon bands in agarose gel images. IntDen values were then used instead of crossing point (CP) values according to the following modified formula: [EIntDen(ref)/EIntDen(target)]sample ÷ [EIntDen(ref)/EIntDen(target)]control. Gene relative expression profiles (dynamic expression pattern) quantified by gel express method in both genes were highly comparable with real-time RT-PCR. R2 values were 0.9976 and 0.9975 in OsCYP94C2a and OsLOX, respectively. PCR amplification efficiency (E) for all studied genes could be calculated depending on IntDen values through experimentally designed calibration curves. PCR amplification efficiencies with all studied genes obtained by gel express were all in the accepted range. For better-visualized PCR amplicons thus detectable biological effects between treatments, the number of PCR cycles applied in gel express method (IntCyc) was experimentally estimated to be 29 cycles. Conclusions Gel express is a novel, cost-effective and feasible recipe for quantifying gene relative expression in conventional RT-PCR. The expression pattern quantified by gel express is highly comparable and fits the expression data revealed by the used real-time PCR system.

Amal R. Tantawy

Abstract Background This research paper contributes to presenting a proposed framework for the formal and structural specifications of parametric digital architecture in order to increase knowledge and know-how in this field closely to specialists and those interested in it through the research methodology, which is divided first into the theoretical background to include a presentation of the definition of digital architecture and the most important pioneers of digital architecture, digital building materials and construction mechanisms parametric digital and what are the most important computer software used in parametric digital architecture in terms of design and construction implementation and identifying the most important digital specifications and characteristics that were mentioned in previous studies in this field and what are the unconventional digital esthetic values, then comes the role of the applied study in formulating a comprehensive matrix of parametric design modern and its impact on the development of traditional architectural models in digital architecture. Results The research study found that both (unrealistic shape) and (typical interaction) ranked first with the highest percentage reaching 100% in all study cases. The ratio of the volume of each to the total volume of all elements of morphological characteristics and non-traditional esthetic values was 8%, the most important characteristic of buildings in parametric digital architecture, in most of them, is the lack of realism to a very significant degree, and we always find a clear increase in the interaction, vitality and dynamism of buildings with the surrounding environment. Conclusions The most important characteristic of buildings in parametric digital architecture, in most of them, is the lack of realism to a very significant degree, and we always find a clear increase in the interaction, vitality and dynamism of buildings with the surrounding environment. While we conclude that the least characteristic of the parametric digital buildings is the simulation of nature or the tendency to everything that is traditional, as well it is often inclined to everything strange and unfamiliar.

Asmaa K. Abdelghany ◽  
Akram M. El-Kashlan ◽  
Hosny H. Emeash ◽  
Fatma Khalil

Abstract Background Animal models are used to provide an adequate investigation of brain-behaviour, physiological and path physiological relationships to give insight into human behaviour and the underlying processes of drugs affecting the nervous system. Scopolamine; SCO (alkaloid l-(2)-scopolamine [l-(2)-hyoscine]) has a competitive inhibitory effect on muscarinic receptors for acetylcholine. Thus, this study was designated to investigate the effect of long-term SCO treatment on locomotor, exploratory and anxiety-like behaviours of rats using open field test. Results The long-term SCO treatment induced a prominent increase in locomotion (hyperactivity) and exploratory behaviour of rats. In addition, anxiety-like behavioural patterns showed a non-significant difference in SCO treated compared to control. Serotonin level was significantly decreased in the scopolamine treated group in comparison with the control group. Conclusions Data suggested that long-term SCO treatment resulted in marked neurobehavioural alterations in a rat as an animal model.

Kayode Adewole ◽  
Adebayo Ishola ◽  
Ige Olaoye

Abstract Background Cancer is responsible for high morbidity and mortality globally. Because the overexpression of histone deacetylases (HDACs) is one of the molecular mechanisms associated with the development and progression of some diseases such as cancer, studies are now considering inhibition of HDAC as a strategy for the treatment of cancer. In this study, a receptor-based in silico screening was exploited to identify potential HDAC inhibitors among the compounds isolated from Cajanus cajan, since reports have earlier confirmed the antiproliferative properties of compounds isolated from this plant. Results Cajanus cajan-derived phytochemicals were docked with selected HDACs, with givinostat as the reference HDAC inhibitor, using AutodockVina and Discovery Studio Visualizer, BIOVIA, 2020. Furthermore, absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) drug-likeness analysis was done using the Swiss online ADME web tool. From the results obtained, 4 compounds; betulinic acid, genistin, orientin and vitexin, were identified as potential inhibitors of the selected HDACs, while only 3 compounds (betulinic acid, genistin and vitexin) passed the filter of drug-likeness. The molecular dynamic result revealed the best level of flexibility on HDAC1 and HDAC3 compared to the wild-type HDACs and moderate flexibility of HDAC7 and HDAC8. Conclusions The results of molecular docking, pharmacokinetics and molecular dynamics revealed that betulinic acid might be a suitable HDAC inhibitor worthy of further investigation in order to be used for regulating conditions associated with overexpression of HDACs. This knowledge can be used to guide experimental investigation on Cajanus cajan-derived compounds as potential HDAC inhibitors.

Malaisamy Arunkumar ◽  
Murugan Mahalakshmi ◽  
Vairamuthu Ashokkumar ◽  
Manikka Kubendran Aravind ◽  
Sathaiah Gunaseelan ◽  

Abstract Background Salmonella belongs to the Enterobacteriaceae family, a gram-negative, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, motile, and pathogenic bacteria that transmit through unhygienic conditions. It is estimated that 21 million new infections arise every year, resulting in approximately 200,000 deaths. It is more prevalent among children, the old aged, and immunocompromised individuals. The frequent usage of classical antimicrobials has begun the increasing emergence of various drug-resistant pathogenic bacterial strains. Hence, this study was intended to evaluate the bioactive seaweed sulfated polysaccharides (SSPs) against the ompF (outer membrane porin F) protein target of Salmonella typhi. SSP is the sulfated compound with a wide range of biological activities, such as anti-microbial, anti-allergy, anti-cancer, anti-coagulant, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidant, and anti-viral. Results In this study, eleven compounds were targeted against S. typhi OmpF by the molecular docking approach and were compared with two commercially available typhoid medications. The SSP showed good binding affinity compared to commercial drugs, particularly carrageenan/MIV-150, carrageenan lambda, fucoidan, and 3-phenyllactate, ranked as top antagonists against OmpF. Further, pharmacokinetics and toxicology (ADMET) studies corroborated that SSP possessed drug-likeness and highly progressed in all parameters. Conclusions AutoDockTools and Schrodinger's QikProp module results suggest that SSP could be a promising drug for extensively drug-resistant (XDR) S. typhi. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on in silico analysis of SSP against S. typhi OmpF, thus implying the capabilities of SSPs especially compounds like carrageenans, as a potential anti-microbial agent against Salmonella typhi infections. Eventually, advanced studies could corroborate SSPs to the next level of application in the crisis of XDR microbial diseases. Graphical Abstract

Yasmen A. Mohamed ◽  
Mohamed Hussien Meabed ◽  
Khadiga Mohamed Abougaba ◽  
Fatma Ali Sayed ◽  
Nermeen N. Welson ◽  

Abstract Background The uncontrolled long-term exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides is hazardous to health especially in children. The present study aimed to determine the acetyl cholinesterase enzyme serum level in exposure and non-exposure children groups, to explore other clinical and laboratory outcomes of organophosphorus pesticides exposure on children living in rural versus urban areas, and to establish the hemotoxic alterations as a result of the exposure. A ninety clinically free children—forty-five from rural areas and forty-five children from urban areas—were assessed, and the clinical and laboratory effects of their exposure to organophosphorus pesticides were evaluated via measuring acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity. Results Significant differences between the two areas of residence were found in weight %, visits to the field, eating vegetables without washing, presence of insecticides at home, and previous organophosphorus pesticides toxicity of the patients and their families. Eye, respiratory, cardiac, nervous, muscle, gastrointestinal, and urinary symptoms were more common in the rural residence group which shows more exposure to pesticides. The mean level of the AChE enzyme was less in the rural residence group than the other one, and it showed significant correlations with the anemia indicating parameters. A weak positive correlation was found with platelets count. Conclusions Chronic organophosphorus toxicity that is more prevalent in rural areas may result in many transient neglected symptoms, unrevealed acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) enzyme deficiency, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Acetyl cholinesterase enzyme serum level can be used as a screening test for organophosphorus pesticides exposure.

Mariam M. Magdy ◽  
Yasser Gaber ◽  
Mohamed Sebak ◽  
Ahmed F. Azmy ◽  
Sameh AbdelGhani

Abstract Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as anthracene are one of the most toxic contaminants to our environment. Microbial biodegradation of these xenobiotics is a cost-effective technological solution. The present study aimed to recover some bacterial isolates from Beni-Suef Governorate in Egypt with high capabilities of anthracene biodegradation. The selected isolates were molecularly characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the degree of anthracene biodegradation was monitored using optical density (OD) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), PCR amplification of some selected genes encoding biodegradation of PAHs was monitored, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis was applied for detecting the resulted metabolites. Result Three bacterial isolates were studied, the 16s rRNA sequences of the isolates showed homology of the first isolate to Brevibacillus sp. (94.58 %), the second isolates showed homology to Pseudomonas sp. (94.53%) and the third isolate showed homology to Methylocystis sp. (99.61 %), all isolates showed the ability to degrade anthracene. PCR amplification of some selected genes encoding biodegradation of PAHs revealed the presence of many biodegrading genes in the selected strains. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis of the metabolites resulted from anthracene biodegradation in the present study suggested that more than one biodegradation pathway was followed by the selected isolates. Conclusions The selected strains could represent a potential bioremediation tool in solving the PAHs problem in the Egyptian environment with a clean and cost-effective technique. Graphical Abstract

Vidya P. Sabale ◽  
Gunjan G. Gadge

Abstract Background The aim of the present research work was to fabricate a novel gastroretentive drug delivery system in the form of tablets using a combination of natural polymer and rice bran wax with an intention to control drug delivery and to enhance the gastric residence time of the model drug Famotidine in the gastrointestinal tract. Results The results of the preliminary trial batches prepared by using the hot melt granulation technique resulting in six different formulations showed good physicochemical characteristics and tablets conformed to the Pharmacopoeial specifications. Gastroretentive tablets containing natural polymer showed prolonged drug release comparable to Methocel. The optimized formulation (C3) using 32 factorial design showed FLT 27 ± 2.47 s, SI 92.68 ± 1.36% and % CDR 98.89 ± 0.39% at 12 h. The stability studies indicated the stability of the formulation during storage. Conclusions It was concluded that the release profile fitted best to zero-order equation with non-Fickian diffusion mechanism of drug release which demonstrates swelling-controlled drug release mechanism. Thus, the formulated tablets have the potential for improved release and gastroretentive properties. Graphical Abstract

Gamil S. G. Zeedan ◽  
Abeer M. Abdalhamed ◽  
Raafat M. Shaapan ◽  
Amira H. El-Namaky

Abstract Background This study was conducted to detect the presence of T. gondii in milk and blood samples using three different assays: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (LAMP). Whole blood, serum, and milk samples were collected from goats (n = 156), sheep (n = 261), and camels (n = 108) in different governorates in Egypt from December 2019 to February 2021 and screened by ELISA for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies before DNA extraction. The target T. gondii DNA gene was detected and evaluated using the LAMP assay compared to PCR. Results T. gondii antibodies were found in milk and serum samples at the rates of (29.26%) and (36.58%) in camels, (34.18%) and (35.89%) in sheep, and (33.7%) and (36.36%) in goats, respectively. Similar to PCR, the percentages of LAMP tests for the detection of the T. gondii DNA gene in milk and blood samples of camels, sheep, and goats were (4.8, 14.63), (6.83, 7.69), and (7.79, 9.09), respectively. LAMP's sensitivity for detecting T. gondii in milk and blood samples, which was identical to that of PCR, was 100%. Conclusions The findings clearly demonstrated that there were no variations in T. gondii detection capabilities in milk and blood samples from various animals using both PCR and LAMP tests. It provides a quick, precise, and sensitive method of detecting T. gondii in a variety of samples that may be used both in the field and in laboratory diagnosis.

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