Surface Velocity
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2022 ◽  
Vol 933 ◽  
Author(s):  
Arash Hajisharifi ◽  
Cristian Marchioli ◽  
Alfredo Soldati

The capture of neutrally buoyant, sub-Kolmogorov particles at the interface of deformable drops in turbulent flow and the subsequent evolution of particle surface distribution are investigated. Direct numerical simulation of turbulence, phase-field modelling of the drop interface dynamics and Lagrangian particle tracking are used. Particle distribution is obtained considering excluded-volume interactions, i.e. by enforcing particle collisions. Particles are initially dispersed in the carrier flow and are driven in time towards the surface of the drops by jet-like turbulent fluid motions. Once captured by the interfacial forces, particles disperse on the surface. Excluded-volume interactions bring particles into long-term trapping regions where the average surface velocity divergence sampled by the particles is zero. These regions correlate well with portions of the interface characterized by higher-than-mean curvature, indicating that modifications of the surface tension induced by the presence of very small particles will be stronger in the highly convex regions of the interface.


2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 46
Author(s):  
Malek Abid ◽  
Christian Kharif ◽  
Hung-Chu Hsu ◽  
Yang-Yih Chen

The theory of surface wave generation, in viscous flows, is modified by replacing the linear-logarithmic shear velocity profile, in the air, with a model which links smoothly the linear and logarithmic layers through the buffer layer. This profile includes the effects of air flow turbulence using a damped mixing-length model. In the water, an exponential shear velocity profile is used. It is shown that this modified and coupled shear-velocity profile gives a better agreement with experimental data than the coupled linear-logarithmic, non smooth profile, (in the air)–exponential profile (in the water), widely used in the literature. We also give new insights on retrograde modes that are Doppler shifted by the surface velocity at the air-sea interface, namely on the threshold value of the surface current for the occurrence of a second unstable mode.


2022 ◽  
pp. 127404
Author(s):  
Farhad Bahmanpouri ◽  
Silvia Barbetta ◽  
Carlo Gualtieri ◽  
Marco Ianniruberto ◽  
Naziano Filizola ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 933 ◽  
Author(s):  
Satoshi Taguchi ◽  
Tetsuro Tsuji

The flow around a spinning sphere moving in a rarefied gas is considered in the following situation: (i) the translational velocity of the sphere is small (i.e. the Mach number is small); (ii) the Knudsen number, the ratio of the molecular mean free path to the sphere radius, is of the order of unity (the case with small Knudsen numbers is also discussed); and (iii) the ratio between the equatorial surface velocity and the translational velocity of the sphere is of the order of unity. The behaviour of the gas, particularly the transverse force acting on the sphere, is investigated through an asymptotic analysis of the Boltzmann equation for small Mach numbers. It is shown that the transverse force is expressed as $\boldsymbol{F}_L = {\rm \pi}\rho a^3 (\boldsymbol{\varOmega} \times \boldsymbol{v}) \bar{h}_L$ , where $\rho$ is the density of the surrounding gas, a is the radius of the sphere, $\boldsymbol {\varOmega }$ is its angular velocity, $\boldsymbol {v}$ is its velocity and $\bar {h}_L$ is a numerical factor that depends on the Knudsen number. Then, $\bar {h}_L$ is obtained numerically based on the Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook model of the Boltzmann equation for a wide range of Knudsen number. It is shown that $\bar {h}_L$ varies with the Knudsen number monotonically from 1 (the continuum limit) to $-\tfrac {2}{3}$ (the free molecular limit), vanishing at an intermediate Knudsen number. The present analysis is intended to clarify the transition of the transverse force, which is previously known to have different signs in the continuum and the free molecular limits.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Author(s):  
Yin Fu ◽  
Qiao Liu ◽  
Guoxiang Liu ◽  
Bo Zhang ◽  
Rui Zhang ◽  
...  

Abstract Most glaciers on the Tibetan Plateau have experienced continuous mass losses in response to global warming. However, the seasonal dynamics of glaciers on the southeastern Tibetan Plateau have rarely been reported in terms of glacier surface elevation and velocity. This paper presents a first attempt to explore the seasonal dynamics of the debris-covered Dagongba Glacier within the southeastern Tibetan Plateau. We use the multitemporal unoccupied aerial vehicle images collected over the lower ablation zone on 8 June and 17 October 2018, and 13 May 2019, and then perform an analysis concerning climatic fluctuations. The results reveal that the mean surface elevation decrease of the Dagongba Glacier during the warm season ( $2.81\pm 0.44$ m) was remarkably higher than the cold season ( $0.72\pm 0.45$ m). Particularly notable glacier surface elevation changes were found around supraglacial lakes and ice cliffs where ice ablation rates were $\sim$ 3 times higher than the average. In addition, a larger longitudinal decline of glacier surface velocity was observed in the warm season than that in the cold season. In terms of further comparative analysis, the Dagongba Glacier experienced a decrease in surface velocity between 1982–83 and 2018–19, with a decrease in the warm season possibly twice as large as that in the cold season.


2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 13
Author(s):  
Paran Pourteimouri ◽  
Geert H. P. Campmans ◽  
Kathelijne M. Wijnberg ◽  
Suzanne J. M. H. Hulscher

The attractiveness of beaches to people has led, in many places, to the construction of buildings at the beach–dune interface. Buildings change the local airflow patterns which, in turn, alter the sediment transport pathways and magnitudes. This induces erosion and deposition patterns around the structures. In this study, a numerical model is developed using the open-source computational fluid dynamics solver OpenFOAM. First, the model is used to predict the airflow patterns around a single rectangular building. The model predictions are validated with wind-tunnel data, which show good agreements. Second, a reference beach building is introduced and then the building dimensions are increased in length, width and height, each up to three times the reference building dimension. The impact of each dimensional extent on the near-surface airflow patterns is investigated. The results show that the near-surface airflow patterns are least dependent on the length of the building in the wind direction and they depend most on the width of the building perpendicular to the wind direction. Third, the convergence of the third-order horizontal near-surface velocity field is calculated to interpret the impact of changes in airflow patterns on potential erosion and deposition patterns around the building. The numerical predictions are compared with the observed erosion and sedimentation patterns around scale models in the field. The comparisons show satisfactory agreements between numerical results and field measurements.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 52
Author(s):  
Daniele Bocchiola ◽  
Francesco Chirico ◽  
Andrea Soncini ◽  
Roberto Sergio Azzoni ◽  
Guglielmina Adele Diolaiuti ◽  
...  

We mapped flow velocity and calving rates of the iconic Perito Moreno Glacier (PMG), belonging to the Southern Patagonian Icefield (SPI) in the Argentinian Patagonia. We tracked PMG from 2001 to 2017, focusing mostly upon the latest images from 2016–2017. PMG delivers about ca. 106 m3 day−1 of ice in the Lago Argentino, and its front periodically reaches the Peninsula Magallanes. Therein, the PMG causes an ice-dam, clogging Brazo Rico channel, and lifting water level by about 10 m, until ice-dam failure, normally occurring in March. Here, we used 36 pairs of satellite images with a resolution of 10 m (SENTINEL2, visible, 9 pairs of images) and 15 m (LANDSAT imagery, panchromatic, 27 pairs of images) to calculate surface velocity (VS). We used Orientation Correlation technique, implemented via the ImGRAFT® TemplateMatch tool. Calving rates were then calculated with two methods, namely, (i) M1, by ice flow through the glacier front, and (ii) M2, by ice flow at 7.5 km upstream of the front minus ablation losses. Surface velocity ranged from about 4 m day−1 in the accumulation area to about 2 m day−1 in the calving front, but it is variable seasonally with maxima in the summer (December–January–February). Calving rate (CRM) ranges from 7.72 × 105 ± 32% to 8.76 × 105 ± 31% m3 day−1, in line with recent studies, also with maxima in the summer. We found slightly lower flow velocity and calving rates than previously published values, but our estimates cover a different period, and a generally large uncertainty in flow assessment suggests a recent overall stability of the glacier.


2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Author(s):  
Lucas K. Zoet ◽  
Neal R. Iverson ◽  
Lauren Andrews ◽  
Christian Helanow

Abstract Glacier slip is usually described using steady-state sliding laws that relate drag, slip velocity and effective pressure, but where subglacial conditions vary rapidly transient effects may influence slip dynamics. Here we use results from a set of laboratory experiments to examine the transient response of glacier slip over a hard bed to velocity perturbations. The drag and cavity evolution from lab experiments are used to parameterize a rate-and-state drag model that is applied to observations of surface velocity and ice-bed separation from the Greenland ice sheet. The drag model successfully predicts observed lags between changes in ice-bed separation and sliding speed. These lags result from the time (or displacement) required for cavities to evolve from one steady-state condition to another. In comparing drag estimates resulting from applying rate-and-state and steady-state slip laws to transient data, we find the peaks in drag are out of phase. This suggests that in locations where subglacial conditions vary on timescales shorter than those needed for cavity adjustment transient slip processes control basal drag.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 14
Author(s):  
Zifeng Hu ◽  
Lan Li ◽  
Jun Zhao ◽  
Dongxiao Wang

Mapping surface currents with high spatiotemporal resolution over a wide coverage is crucial for understanding ocean dynamics and associated biogeochemical processes. The most widely used algorithm for estimating surface velocities from sequential satellite observations is the maximum cross-correlation (MCC) method. However, many unrealistic vectors still exist, despite the utilization of various filtering techniques. In this study, an objective method has been developed through the combination of MCC and multivariate optimum interpolation (MOI) analysis under a continuity constraint. The MCC method, with and without MOI, is applied to sequences of simulated sea surface temperature (SST) fields with a 1/48° spatial resolution over the East China Sea continental shelf. Integration of MOI into MCC reduces the average absolute differences between the model’s ‘actual’ velocity and the SST-derived velocity by 19% in relative magnitude and 22% in direction, respectively. Application of the proposed method to Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) satellite observations produces good agreement between derived surface velocities and the Oregon State University (OSU) regional tidal model outputs. Our results demonstrate that the incorporation of MOI into MCC can provide a significant improvement in the reliability and accuracy of satellite-derived velocity fields.


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