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2021 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 130-131
Author(s):  
Victor E. Nava

Malignant lymphoproliferative disorders in the spleen may be primary (usually designated as splenic lymphoma) or secondary (due to progression of nodal or extra nodal lymphoid neoplasms) and represent an underestimated cause of splenomegaly, partially due to the decreasing frequency of splenectomy in our era of personalized molecular medicine [...]


Metabolites ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 15
Author(s):  
Olga Kiseleva ◽  
Ilya Kurbatov ◽  
Ekaterina Ilgisonis ◽  
Ekaterina Poverennaya

Metabolomics uses advanced analytical chemistry methods to analyze metabolites in biological samples. The most intensively studied samples are blood and its liquid components: plasma and serum. Armed with advanced equipment and progressive software solutions, the scientific community has shown that small molecules’ roles in living systems are not limited to traditional “building blocks” or “just fuel” for cellular energy. As a result, the conclusions based on studying the metabolome are finding practical reflection in molecular medicine and a better understanding of fundamental biochemical processes in living systems. This review is not a detailed protocol of metabolomic analysis. However, it should support the reader with information about the achievements in the whole process of metabolic exploration of human plasma and serum using mass spectrometry combined with gas chromatography.


2021 ◽  
Vol 22 ◽  
Author(s):  
Vandana Golhani ◽  
Suman Kumar Ray ◽  
Sukhes Mukherjee

: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are proficient in regulating gene expression post-transcriptionally. Considering the recent trend in exploiting non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) as cancer therapeutics, the potential use of miRNAs and lncRNAs as biomarkers and novel therapeutic agents against angiogenesis is an important scientific aspect. An estimated 70% of the genome is actively transcribed, only 2% of which codes for known protein-coding genes. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a large and diverse class of RNAs > 200 nucleotides in length, and not translated into protein, and are of utmost importance and it governs the expression of genes in a temporal, spatial, and cell context-dependent manner. Angiogenesis is an essential process for organ morphogenesis and growth during development, and it is relevant during the repair of wounded tissue in adults. It is coordinated by an equilibrium of pro-and anti-angiogenic factors; nevertheless, when affected, it promotes several diseases, including breast cancer. Signaling pathways involved here are tightly controlled systems that regulate the appropriate timing of gene expression required for the differentiation of cells down a particular lineage essential for proper tissue development. Lately, scientific reports are indicating that ncRNAs, such as miRNAs, and lncRNAs, play critical roles in angiogenesis related to breast cancer. The specific roles of various miRNAs and lncRNAs in regulating angiogenesis in breast cancer, with particular focus on the downstream targets and signaling pathways regulated by these ncRNAs with molecular medicine perspective, are highlighted in this write-up.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Angela H. Beckett ◽  
Kate F. Cook ◽  
Samuel C. Robson

Since December 2019, the world has found itself rocked by the emergence of a highly contagious novel coronavirus disease, COVID-19, caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2. The global scientific community has rapidly come together to understand the virus and identify potential treatments and vaccine strategies to minimise the impact on public health. Key to this has been the use of cutting-edge technological advances in DNA and RNA sequencing, allowing identification of changes in the viral genome sequence as the infection spreads. This approach has allowed a widespread ‘genomic epidemiology’ approach to infection control, whereby viral transmission (e.g. in healthcare settings) can be detected not only by epidemiological assessment, but also by identifying similarities between viral sub-types among individuals. The UK has been at the forefront of this response, with researchers collaborating with public health agencies and NHS Trusts across the UK to form the COVID-19 Genomics UK (COG-UK) Consortium. Genomic surveillance at this scale has provided critical insight into the virulence and transmission of the virus, enabling near real-time monitoring of variants of concern and informing infection control measures on local, national and global scales. In the future, next-generation sequencing technologies, such as nanopore sequencing, are likely to become ubiquitous in diagnostic and healthcare settings, marking the transition to a new era of molecular medicine.


2021 ◽  
Vol 47 ◽  
Author(s):  
Okan Aydoğan ◽  
Gizem Kayan-Tekaüt

Background: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) is one of the most important indexes that medical journals aspire to be covered by. Currently, SCIE indexes 14,840 peer-reviewed journals across 178 disciplines. Among these journals are 3445 medical journals, divided into more than 40 subject categories. Objectives: To reveal the impact and contribution of medical journals from Balkan countries through the Journal Impact Factor of those journals, the number of articles published by them, and the number of times those articles have been cited. Methods: Balkan countries are countries that fall or fully or partly within the Balkan peninsula. All medical journals from those countries listed in the SCIE were ranked based on cumulative citations between 2000 and 2020. Among them, the top 50 journals in terms of cumulative citations were chosen for the study, which analysed the data on 129,259 research articles and reviews that covered 27 different subject categories within the broad field of medicine. The countries were Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, and Turkey Results: The top 50 journals included those published from eight Balkan countries. Turkey had the most journals (21) in the Web of Science (WoS) and Greece had 13 but, when ranked in terms of the number of journals in WoS per million people, Croatia topped the list, with 1.22 journals per million of its population, followed by Greece (1.21 journals). The top-cited journals were Anticancer Research (206,226 citations), International Journal of Oncology (171,654), Oncology Reports (157,467), Molecular Medicine Reports (82,009), and Oncology Letters (69,161). Oncology was the most cited subject category and Croatia, the country with maximum interaction with other Balkan countries, that is, papers in Croatian journals cited journals published from the maximum number of Balkan counties. Conclusion: The study provides insights into the last two decades of progress in academic publishing and in the performances of medical journals published from Balkan countries.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 ◽  
Author(s):  
Suman Kumar Ray ◽  
Sukhes Mukherjee

: The mechanisms governing the development and progression of cancers are believed to be the consequence of hereditary deformities and epigenetic modifications. Accordingly, epigenetics has become an incredible and progressively explored field of research to discover better prevention and therapy for neoplasia, especially triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). It represents 15–20% of all invasive breast cancers and will, in general, have bellicose histological highlights and poor clinical outcomes. In the early phases of triple-negative breast carcinogenesis, epigenetic deregulation modifies chromatin structure and influences the plasticity of cells. It up-keeps the oncogenic reprogramming of malignant progenitor cells with the acquisition of unrestrained selfrenewal capacities. Genomic impulsiveness in TNBC prompts mutations, copy number variations, as well as genetic rearrangements, while epigenetic remodeling includes an amendment by DNA methylation, histone modification, and noncoding RNAs of gene expression profiles. It is currently evident that epigenetic mechanisms assume a significant part in the pathogenesis, maintenance, and therapeutic resistance of TNBC. Although TNBC is a heterogeneous malaise that is perplexing to describe and treat, the ongoing explosion of genetic and epigenetic research will help to expand these endeavors. Latest developments in transcriptome analysis have reformed our understanding of human diseases, including TNBC at the molecular medicine level. It is appealing to envision transcriptomic biomarkers to comprehend tumor behavior more readily regarding its cellular microenvironment. Understanding these essential biomarkers and molecular changes will propel our capability to treat TNBC adequately. This review will depict the different aspects of epigenetics and the landscape of transcriptomics in triple-negative breast carcinogenesis and their impending application for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment decision with the view of molecular medicine.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
AV Blagov

Breast cancer (BC) is a cancer with a high prevalence and mortality among women worldwide. With the current diagnostics methods, BC may remain undetected at its early stages, and the therapies developed for the disease are associated with severe side effects. Oncolytic viruses can be the basis of the new, effective BC treatment approaches. The viruses destroy tumor cells directly and launch the antitumor immune response; this dual action supports their efficacy. It is possible to make the oncolytic virus therapy more effective by designing genetically modified viruses that can target BC cells better and/or induce a stronger antitumor immune response. This review outlines the directions of development of oncolytic viruses in BC treatment, covers the optimal ways of delivering viruses to the tumor and the efficacy of their use in combination with other therapeutic agents (methods) and presents the prospects of using oncolytic viruses in antitumor vaccines.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (4) ◽  
pp. 901-913
Author(s):  
Erik Fink Eriksen ◽  
Osvandre Lech ◽  
Gilberto Yoshinobu Nakama ◽  
Denise M. O’Gorman

Modern advances in molecular medicine have led to the reframing of osteoarthritis as a metabolically active, inflammatory disorder with local and systemic contributing factors. According to the ‘inflammatory theory’ of osteoarthritis, immune response to an initial damage is the key trigger that leads to progressive joint destruction. Several intertwined pathways are known to induce and govern articular inflammation, cartilage matrix degradation, and subchondral bone changes. Effective treatments capable of halting or delaying the progression of osteoarthritis remain elusive. As a result, supplements such as glucosamine and chondroitin sulphate are commonly used despite the lack of scientific consensus. A novel option for adjunctive therapy of osteoarthritis is LithoLexal® Joint, a marine-derived, mineral-rich extract, that exhibited significant efficacy in clinical trials. LithoLexal® has a lattice microstructure containing a combination of bioactive rare minerals. Mechanistic research suggests that this novel treatment possesses various potential disease-modifying properties, such as suppression of nuclear factor kappa-B, interleukin 1β, tumor necrosis factor α, and cyclooxygenase-2. Accordingly, LithoLexal® Joint can be considered a disease-modifying adjunctive therapy (DMAT). LithoLexal® Joint monotherapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis has significantly improved symptoms and walking ability with higher efficacy than glucosamine. Preliminary evidence also suggests that LithoLexal® Joint may allow clinicians to reduce the dose of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in osteoarthritic patients by up to 50%. In conclusion, the multi-mineral complex, LithoLexal® Joint, appears to be a promising candidate for DMAT of osteoarthritis, which may narrow the existing gap in clinical practice.


Author(s):  
Shoumen Datta

Proposed SARS-CoV-2 surveillance tool using a mobile app for non-invasive monitoring of humans and animals. <p>Engineering a biomedical device as a low-cost, non-invasive, detection, and diagnostic platform for surveillance of infections in humans, and animals. The system embraces the IoT <i>“digital by design”</i> metaphor by incorporating elements of connectivity, data sharing and (secure) information arbitrage. Using an array of aptamers to bind viral targets may help in detection, diagnostics, and potentially prevention in case of SARS-CoV-2. The ADD tool may become part of a broader platform approach.</p>


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