saturation difference
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2019 ◽  
Vol 97 (Supplement_2) ◽  
pp. 232-232
Ella E Akin ◽  
Anna K Johnson ◽  
Cassandra Jass ◽  
Jason W Ross ◽  
Suzanne T Millman ◽  

Abstract During the grow-finish phase of production some pigs become non-ambulatory and/or die requiring the need to provide caretakers with handling tools to move them safely. The goal of this study was to identify handling tools suitable for moving non-ambulatory grow-finish pig cadavers. Five caretakers on a commercial grow-finish site were asked to move three commercial crossbred (PIC) genetic line pig cadavers (59 kg, 91 kg and 98 kg), using three handling tools (sked - SKED; deer sled - SLED; modified deer sled - MDS). Outcomes included latency to move cadaver from home-pen to hospital pen, differences in caretaker heart rate (bpm) and oxygen saturation (%), and caretakers’ subjective effort score (1 = very difficult to 5 = very easy). Data were analyzed using mixed model methods for parametric data with fixed effects of caretaker, cadaver and handling tool. PDIFF was used to separate means. Caretakers differed for latency, heart rate and oxygen saturation difference (P < 0.01). The smallest cadaver was associated with shortest latency (P < 0.01) and least caretaker oxygen saturation difference (P < 0.001). The MDS was associated with shortest latency (P < 0.01), and lower heart rate differences than the SKED (P = 0.01). Oxygen saturation did not differ for handling tool. Interestingly, caretakers scored SKED and SLED as easiest for moving all cadavers. In conclusion, the MDS did not have any restraints, so when moving the cadavers they would slide off, and legs and heads became impeded in the alley gates preventing smooth transition. Therefore, the SKED and SLED would be recommended as practical handling tools to move grow-finish pig cadavers on-farm.

2018 ◽  
Vol 5 (3) ◽  
pp. 847
Shweta Gautam ◽  
Gunvant Singh Eske ◽  
Avyact Agrawal

Background: All newborns are cyanotic immediately after birth. Gradually within next few minutes of life this saturation increases and reaches target level in approximately 10 minutes. But the saturation range differs on the basis of amount of stress a neonate develops while being delivered out of mother’s womb.Methods: A total of 215 term healthy neonates were included out of which 131 were delivered vaginally and 84 were delivered via cesarean section (elective or emergency). Relevant antenatal history was taken and noted. Pulse oximetry readings were recorded continuously by using Masimo rad 5 pulse oximeter with signal extraction technology (SET) for first 10 minutes of life in all neonates.Results: At 1min of life spo2 of vaginal delivered babies was 70%(66% -73%) compared to cesarean delivered babies being 62%(57%-69%) with a highly significant p value (<0.001). Similarly, at 5 min the SpO2 was 89 % (85%-91%) and 80% (78%-82%) in normal vaginal delivered and cesarean section babies respectively. At 10 min of life when SpO2 measured in both groups the saturation difference was less but still significant.Conclusions: all neonates at birth are cyanotic and have a lower saturation which increases gradually with time. Ceserian delivered neonates have a low saturation range as compared to vaginal delivered newborn.

2017 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
Afif Muhamad Nizar ◽  
Dwi Susi Haryati

Abstract : Saturation Of Oxygen, Suction, Coma Patients. Decreas consciousness and coma is very deep response. Comatose patients often experience problems mainly due to accumulation of secretions that coma patients decreased cough reflex. So that the patient needs to be done to free the airway suctioning of secretions. A phenomenon that occurs in the ICU Hospital Dr. Moewardi almost comatose patients conducted periodically suction approximately every 2 hours.The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of suction on oxygen saturation in patients with coma in the ICU Hospital Dr. Moewardi Surakarta 2015. This type of research is quasy experimental research design is a one-group pretest-posttest design and analysis using paired samples T-test.Based on the results of the Shapiro-Wilk normality test can be concluded that the data tedistribusi normal. So using a paired samples T test with significance value (p) was 0.000, which is the value of p <0.05. This means that there is an average difference of oxygen saturation value before the suction action after the suction action. Oxygen saturation difference is -1.79, meaning that oxygen saturation values prior to suction smaller than the value of the oxygen saturation after the suction.

2011 ◽  
Vol 492 ◽  
pp. 362-365
Liang Zhang ◽  
Huai Xiu Lu ◽  
Long Quan Shao ◽  
Yuan Fu Yi ◽  
Bin Deng ◽  

Objective: To test specimens of soak-colored Vita In-Ceram YZ zirconia ceramics and the colorimetric data of staining solution colorimetric plate. Methods: five sets of specimens were prepared, soaking and coloring them with LL1 to LL5 staining solution for 2 min respectively. Specimens were sintered for 2 h at 1530°C, and grinded one side of the specimens to 1.5 mm in thickness. The colors of the specimens and staining solution colorimetric plate were tested by spectrophotometer in black background. The chromatic aberration between the specimens and colorimetric plate were calculated as well as measured the lightness difference, hue angle difference, and saturation difference. Results: the colorimetric data of the dyed specimens are L: 59.81 ~ 78.93; a: 0.36 ~ 9.36; b: 19.62 ~ 26.91. The color space of the specimens and staining solution colorimetric plate was similar and the chromatic aberration was 4.02-6.96 NBS units. The biggest difference between them was the hue angle difference, mean 7.38, followed by the saturation difference, mean 2.31; minimum lightness difference, mean 2.29. Conclusion: staining solution colorimetric plate was suitable to be colorimetric reference for the color-matching of the basic layer of the ceramic. Proper chromatic aberration leaves color revision space for the translucent porcelain veneer.

2004 ◽  
Vol 100 (6) ◽  
pp. 1469-1475 ◽  
David A. Benaron ◽  
Ilian H. Parachikov ◽  
Shai Friedland ◽  
Roy Soetikno ◽  
John Brock-Utne ◽  

Background The authors evaluated the ability of visible light spectroscopy (VLS) oximetry to detect hypoxemia and ischemia in human and animal subjects. Unlike near-infrared spectroscopy or pulse oximetry (SpO2), VLS tissue oximetry uses shallow-penetrating visible light to measure microvascular hemoglobin oxygen saturation (StO2) in small, thin tissue volumes. Methods In pigs, StO2 was measured in muscle and enteric mucosa during normoxia, hypoxemia (SpO2 = 40-96%), and ischemia (occlusion, arrest). In patients, StO2 was measured in skin, muscle, and oral/enteric mucosa during normoxia, hypoxemia (SpO2 = 60-99%), and ischemia (occlusion, compression, ventricular fibrillation). Results In pigs, normoxic StO2 was 71 +/- 4% (mean +/- SD), without differences between sites, and decreased during hypoxemia (muscle, 11 +/- 6%; P &lt; 0.001) and ischemia (colon, 31 +/- 11%; P &lt; 0.001). In patients, mean normoxic StO2 ranged from 68 to 77% at different sites (733 measures, 111 subjects); for each noninvasive site except skin, variance between subjects was low (e.g., colon, 69% +/- 4%, 40 subjects; buccal, 77% +/- 3%, 21 subjects). During hypoxemia, StO2 correlated with SpO2 (animals, r2 = 0.98; humans, r2 = 0.87). During ischemia, StO2 initially decreased at -1.3 +/- 0.2%/s and decreased to zero in 3-9 min (r2 = 0.94). Ischemia was distinguished from normoxia and hypoxemia by a widened pulse/VLS saturation difference (Delta &lt; 30% during normoxia or hypoxemia vs. Delta &gt; 35% during ischemia). Conclusions VLS oximetry provides a continuous, noninvasive, and localized measurement of the StO2, sensitive to hypoxemia, regional, and global ischemia. The reproducible and narrow StO2 normal range for oral/enteric mucosa supports use of this site as an accessible and reliable reference point for the VLS monitoring of systemic flow.

Perfusion ◽  
1998 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 45-51 ◽  
F Cavaliere

A nomogram providing the arterial mixed venous haemoglobin saturation difference (Sa-vO2) corresponding to normal oxygen consumption (VO2) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was produced. Normal VO2 during CPB (95.8 ± 20.1 ml/min/m2 at 37°C) was obtained from the literature. The nomogram computes the Sa-vO2 from the body surface, pump flow, blood haemoglobin and patient temperature; a table is also presented which supplies the Sa-vO2 ranges corresponding to VO2 mean ±1 and ±2SD. The nomogram was tested on 10 subjects undergoing CPB for myocardial revascularization. Sa-vO2 was determined by arterial and mixed venous blood oximetry 5, 20, and 35 min after the start of CPB. The measured Sa-vO2 was 27.1 ± 7.2% while Sa-vO2 obtained from the nomogram was 24.9 ± 4.0%, the difference was not statistically significant. Eighteen values (60%) were within the range corresponding to VO2 mean ±1SD. One value was lower than the Sa-vO2 value corresponding to VO2 mean - 2SD and was associated with the lowest value of blood haemoglobin. Two values were higher than the Sa-vO2 value corresponding to VO2 mean + 2SD and were associated with inadequate muscle relaxation. By comparing measured Sa-vO2 values with those obtained by the nomogram and the table, anaesthesiologists and perfusionists can easily detect patients presenting abnormally low or high VO2 values.

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