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2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-26
Md Adnan Zaman ◽  
Rajeev Joshi ◽  
Srinivas Katkoori

For memristive crossbar arrays, currently, no high-level design validation and early space exploration tools exist in the literature. Such tools are essential to quickly verify the design functionality as well as compare design alternatives in terms of power and performance. In this work, we propose a VHDL-based framework that enables us to quickly perform behavioral simulation as well as estimate dynamic energy consumption and speed of any large memristive crossbar array. We propose a high-level (VHDL) model of a memristor based on which crossbar architectures can be modeled. The individual memristor model is embedded with power and delay numbers obtained from a detailed memristor model. We demonstrate the framework for MAGIC-style memristive crossbars. We validate the framework against detailed Verilog-A based model on fifteen combinational benchmarks. For the single row model, we obtained 153x simulation speedup over HSPICE, average estimation errors of 6.64% and 0% for dynamic energy consumption and cycle-time, respectively. For the transpose model, we obtained average estimation errors of 5.51% and 10.90% for dynamic energy consumption and cycle-time, respectively. We also extend our framework to support another prominent logic style and validate through a case study. The proposed framework can be easily extended to other emerging technologies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 684
Abdelaziz Abboudi ◽  
Sofiane Bououden ◽  
Mohammed Chadli ◽  
Ilyes Boulkaibet ◽  
Bilel Neji

In this paper, an observer-based robust fault-tolerant predictive control (ORFTPC) strategy is proposed for Linear Parameter-Varying (LPV) systems subject to input constraints and sensor failures. The main objective of this work is to establish a real observer based on a virtual observer to be used to estimate both states and sensor failures of the system. The proposed virtual observer is employed to improve the observation precision and reduce the impacts of the sensor faults and the external disturbances in the LPV systems. In addition, a real observer is proposed to overcome the virtual observer margins and to ensure that all states and sensor faults of the system are properly estimated, without the need for any fault isolation modules. The proposed solution demonstrates that, using both observers, a robust fault-tolerant predictive control is established via the Lyapunov function. Moreover, sufficient stability conditions are derived using the Lyapunov approach for the convergence of the proposed robust controller. Furthermore, the proposed approach simultaneously computes the gains of the real observer and the controller from a linear matrix inequality (LMI), which is deduced from the estimation errors. Finally, the performance of the proposed approach is investigated by a simulation example of a quarter-vehicle model, and the simulation results under a sensor fault illustrate the robustness and performance of the proposed method.

Chen Zhongshan ◽  
Feng Xinning ◽  
Oscar Sanjuán Martínez ◽  
Rubén González Crespo

In human-computer interaction and virtual truth, hand pose estimation is essential. Public dataset experimental analysis Different biometric shows that a particular system creates low manual estimation errors and has a more significant opportunity for new hand pose estimation activity. Due to the fluctuations, self-occlusion, and specific modulations, the structure of hand photographs is quite tricky. Hence, this paper proposes a Hybrid approach based on machine learning (HABoML) to enhance the current competitiveness, performance experience, experimental hand shape, and key point estimation analysis. In terms of strengthening the ability to make better self-occlusion adjustments and special handshake and poses estimations, the machine learning algorithm is combined with a hybrid approach. The experiment results helped define a set of follow-up experiments for the proposed systems in this field, which had a high efficiency and performance level. The HABoML strategy decreased analysis precision by 9.33% and is a better solution.

Simon Taugourdeau ◽  
Antoine Diedhiou ◽  
Marina Bossoukpe ◽  
Cofélas Fassinou ◽  
Ousmane Diatta ◽  

1.Herbaceous aboveground biomass (HAB) is a key indicator of grassland vegetation and indirect estimation tools, such as remote sensing imagery, increase the potential for covering larger areas in a timely and cost-efficient way. Structure from motion (SfM) is an image analysis process that can create a 3D model from a set of images. 2: Computed from UAV and ground camera measurements, the SfM potential to estimate the herbaceous aboveground biomass in Sahelian rangelands was tested in this study. Both UAV and ground camera recordings were used at three different scales: temporal, landscape and national (across Senegal). All images were processed using PIX4D software and were used to extract vegetation indices and heights. 3: A random forest algorithm was used to estimate the HAB and the average estimation errors were around 150 g.m-² for fresh mass (20% relative error) and 60 g.m-² for dry mass (around 25% error). A comparison between different datasets revealed that the estimates based on camera data were slightly more accurate than those from UAV data. 4:It was also found that combining datasets across scales for the same type of tool (UAV or camera) could be a useful option for monitoring HAB in Sahelian rangelands or in other grassy ecosystem.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 330
Haifeng Shuai ◽  
Rui Liu ◽  
Shibing Zhu ◽  
Changqing Li ◽  
Yi Fang

With the rapid development of land mobile satellite (LMS) systems, large scale sensors and devices are willing to request wireless services, which is a challenge to the quality of service requirement and spectrum resources utilization on onboard LMS systems. Under this situation, the non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is regarded as a promising technology for improving spectrum efficiency of LMS systems. In this paper, we analyze the ergodic capacity (EC) of NOMA-based multi-antenna LMS systems in the presence of imperfect limitations, i.e., channel estimation errors, imperfect successive interference cancellation, and co-channel interference. By considering multiple antennas at the satellite and terrestrial sensor users, the closed-form expression for EC of the NOMA-based LMS systems with imperfect limitations is obtained. Monte Carlo simulations are provided to verify theoretical results and reveal the influence of key parameters on system performance.

Electronics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 66
Xiuqin Wang ◽  
Rui Zhang ◽  
Guoli Li ◽  
Qunjing Wang ◽  
Yan Wen

A multi-degree-of-freedom Permanent Magnet Spherical Actuator (PMSpA) has a special mechanical structure and electromagnetic fields, and is easily affected by nonlinear disturbances such as modeling errors and friction. Therefore, the quality of a PMSpA control system may be deteriorated. In order to keep the PMSpA with good trajectory tracking performance, this paper designs a time delay estimation controller based on gradient compensation. Firstly, the dynamic model of the PMSpA with nonlinear terms is derived. The nonlinear terms in the complex dynamic model can be simplified and estimated by the time delay estimation method. Secondly, for the estimation errors caused by time delay control, a gradient compensator is introduced to further correct and compensate for it. Furthermore, the stability of the designed controller is proved by the Lyapunov equation. Finally, the correctness and effectiveness of the controller are validated by comparison with other controllers through simulation. In addition, experimental results have also shown that the control accuracy of the spherical motor can be effectively improved using the proposed controller.

Jia-Jun He ◽  
Yong-Ping Zhao

Machinery prognostics play a crucial role in upgrading machinery service and optimizing machinery operation and maintenance schedule by forecasting the remaining useful life (RUL) of the monitored equipment, which has become more and more popular in recent years. The safety of aviation is one of the issues that people are most concerned about in the field of transportation, since it might cause disastrous loss of life and property once accident happened. The turbofan engine is an important part of the aircraft that provides thrust for plane. With aging, the turbofan engine becomes prone to failures. As a result, it would be worth studying prognostics in turbofan engine to improve the reliability of machinery and reduce unnecessary maintenance cost. Recently, a data-driven prognostics modeling strategy called the classification of predictions strategy (CPS) was proposed, in which the continuous signal and the discrete modes of an actual system come together to achieve RUL estimation. However, machine health states measured from classification rarely have just one potential situation, and this strategy cannot determine whether the fault occurs or not by a certain probability which comes closer to reality. Moreover, since there is no information and prior knowledge of prognostics application, it is hard to obtain the probability of various situations from raw measured data. Hence, based on previous work, this paper proposes an improved prognostics modeling method named the classification of predictions strategy with decision probability (CPS-DP), whose key innovations mainly include three parts: (1) decision probability process (DPP) where each step of multi-step prediction obeys geometric distribution and can judge whether the failure state occurs using the decision probability; (2) decision probability calculation (DPC) algorithm, which is first proposed by this paper and can calculate the values of decision probability without prior knowledge of prognostics application; and (3) withdrawal mechanism optimizer (WMO), which is specially designed to compensate for the shortcomings of DPP and further enhance the performance of the prognostics model. In brief, first, CPS is used to build a basic prognostics model to acquire RUL estimation results, in which the information applied to find the probability has been contained. Later, the mean of RUL estimation errors is figured from the results, which is further employed to calculate the probability using DPC algorithm. Then, CPS-DP can be achieved by means of integrating two parts: DPP and CPS. Furthermore, to further improve the performance, WMO is utilized to optimize CPS-DP with rolling back predictions. Ultimately, an enhanced prognostic model based on CPS-DP is set up through uniting CPS, DPP, and WMO. To validate the proposed method, experimental results on the turbofan engine in 2008 prognostics and health management competition are investigated.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Hao Du ◽  
Ziyuan Pan ◽  
Kee Yuan Ngiam ◽  
Fei Wang ◽  
Ping Shum ◽  

Background. In critical care, intensivists are required to continuously monitor high-dimensional vital signs and lab measurements to detect and diagnose acute patient conditions, which has always been a challenging task. Recently, deep learning models such as recurrent neural networks (RNNs) have demonstrated their strong potential on predicting such events. However, in real deployment, the patient data are continuously coming and there is no effective adaptation mechanism for RNN to incorporate those new data and become more accurate. Methods. In this study, we propose a novel self-correcting mechanism for RNN to fill in this gap. Our mechanism feeds prediction errors from the predictions of previous timestamps into the prediction of the current timestamp, so that the model can “learn” from previous predictions. We also proposed a regularization method that takes into account not only the model’s prediction errors on the labels but also its estimation errors on the input data. Results. We compared the performance of our proposed method with the conventional deep learning models on two real-world clinical datasets for the task of acute kidney injury (AKI) prediction and demonstrated that the proposed model achieved an area under ROC curve at 0.893 on the MIMIC-III dataset and 0.871 on the Philips eICU dataset. Conclusions. The proposed self-correcting RNNs demonstrated effectiveness in AKI prediction and have the potential to be applied to clinical applications.

2021 ◽  
Dirk E. Black ◽  
Spencer R. Pierce ◽  
Wayne B. Thomas

The purpose of our study is to further understand managerial incentives that affect the volatility of reported earnings. Prior research suggests that the volatility of fourth-quarter earnings may be affected by the integral approach to accounting (i.e., “settling up” of accrual estimation errors in the first three quarters of the fiscal year) or earnings management to meet certain reporting objectives (e.g., analyst forecasts). We suggest that another factor affecting fourth-quarter earnings is managers’ intentional smoothing of fiscal-year earnings. For each firm, we create pseudo-year earnings using four consecutive quarters other than the four quarters of the reported fiscal year. We then compare the earnings volatility of pseudo years to the earnings volatility of the firm’s own reported fiscal year. We find evidence consistent with fourth-quarter accruals reflecting managerial incentives to smooth fiscal-year earnings. This conclusion is validated by several cross-sectional tests, the pattern in quarterly cash flows and accruals, and several robustness tests. Overall, we contribute to the literature exploring alternative explanations for the differential volatility of fiscal-year and fourth-quarter earnings. This paper was accepted by Brian Bushee, accounting.

Minerals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1431
Justyna Auguścik-Górajek ◽  
Jacek Mucha ◽  
Monika Wasilewska-Błaszczyk ◽  
Wojciech Kaczmarek

As a result of the exploitation of ore deposits, in addition to the main elements, the accompanying elements are also partially recovered. Some of them increase the profitability of exploitation, while others reduce it because they hinder the recovery of the main elements and thus increase the costs of the recovery process. A comprehensive economic calculation to assess the profitability of ore mining depends on an appropriately accurate estimation of the resources of both the main and associated elements. This issue was analyzed with the example of the Cu-Ag Rudna ore deposit (LGCD, Poland). The subject of the assessment was the resources prediction accuracy of the main element (Cu) and four (4) accompanying elements (Co, Ni, Pb, and V) using geostatistical estimation method, in particular the ordinary kriging after the estimation of the relative variograms for describing the spatial variability structures of elements abundance. It was found that the standard kriging errors (deviations) in accompanying elements resources that are scheduled for exploitation within a one-year period in some parts of deposits are drastically greater (2 to 5 times) than the estimation errors of the main element resources. This is due to the sparse sampling pattern for their determinations and/or the high variability (among others nugget effect) of their abundance. In this situation, without additional sampling and a denser sampling pattern, the possibilities of a reliable assessment of the influence of accompanying elements on the economic consequences of exploitation are very limited.

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