peripheral blood smear
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Ga-Won Lee ◽  
Min-Hee Kang ◽  
Jin-Ha Jeon ◽  
Doo-Won Song ◽  
Woong-Bin Ro ◽  

A 7-year-old castrated male Poodle dog presented with chronic progressive lymphocytosis. Hematologic and peripheral blood smear findings included remarkable lymphocytosis with well-differentiated small lymphocytes. Cytology of bone marrow aspirate showed hypercellular integrity with infiltration of small mature lymphocytes, accounting for 45% of all nucleated cells. Flow cytometry of blood and marrow samples revealed neoplastic lymphocytes predominantly expressing the CD21 molecule. B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was diagnosed on an immunophenotypic analysis. Administrations of prednisolone and chlorambucil were initiated and the response was unremarkable. Therefore, additional treatment with imatinib was provided, which resolved the hematologic abnormalities associated with CLL. Flow cytometry after ~1 year of treatment showed normalization of the count of lymphocytes positive for CD21 and resolved hematologic lymphocytosis. The dog was followed-up for 2 years, and there were no severe adverse effects. This case indicates that imatinib may be a good option as an adjunctive therapy with prednisolone and chlorambucil treatment for CLL in dogs without treatment response.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Mustafa Ghaderzadeh ◽  
Azamossadat Hosseini ◽  
Farkhondeh Asadi ◽  
Hassan Abolghasemi ◽  
Davood Bashash ◽  

Introduction. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common type of leukemia, a deadly white blood cell disease that impacts the human bone marrow. ALL detection in its early stages has always been riddled with complexity and difficulty. Peripheral blood smear (PBS) examination, a common method applied at the outset of ALL diagnosis, is a time-consuming and tedious process that largely depends on the specialist’s experience. Materials and Methods. Herein, a fast, efficient, and comprehensive model based on deep learning (DL) was proposed by implementing eight well-known convolutional neural network (CNN) models for feature extraction on all images and classification of B-ALL lymphoblast and normal cells. After evaluating their performance, four best-performing CNN models were selected to compose an ensemble classifier by combining each classifier’s pretrained model capabilities. Results. Due to the close similarity of the nuclei of cancerous and normal cells, CNN models alone had low sensitivity and poor performance in diagnosing these two classes. The proposed model based on the majority voting technique was adopted to combine the CNN models. The resulting model achieved a sensitivity of 99.4, specificity of 96.7, AUC of 98.3, and accuracy of 98.5. Conclusion. In classifying cancerous blood cells from normal cells, the proposed method can achieve high accuracy without the operator’s intervention in cell feature determination. It can thus be recommended as an extraordinary tool for the analysis of blood samples in digital laboratory equipment to assist laboratory specialists.

Sneha Roy ◽  
Sourav Nath ◽  
Rashmi Rekha Goswami ◽  
S. A. Sheikh

Background: Leukemia, the malignant proliferation of hematopoietic cells, accounts for a major portion of cancer globally. Types of leukemia are necessary for effective therapy as prognosis, and survival rates are different for each type of leukemia. The objective of the study was to know the relative incidence of leukemia in Silchar Medical College and Hospital, Assam. This study also aims to know the clinical manifestations of leukemia and their hematological correlation.Methods: It was a retrospective study of 60 patients carried out in the Department of Pathology in SMCH, Assam, over a period of 2 years from April 2019 to March 2021. Diagnosis was based on peripheral blood count, peripheral blood smear and bone marrow examination for morphology, along with cytochemistry study whenever required.Results: In this study, acute leukemia was more prevalent than chronic leukemia. The most common form was CML followed by AML, ALL and then CLL. Male predominance was observed in this study with male: female ratio = 1.7:1. Conclusions: In our study, Acute leukemia was more prevalent than chronic leukemia. Leukemia affected male more than female. In this study, the frequency of AML is more than that of ALL but number of cases of CML exceeds that of AML.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 128
Monireh Golpour ◽  
Mina Alimohammadi ◽  
Alireza Mohseni ◽  
Ehsan Zaboli ◽  
Farshad Sohbatzadeh ◽  

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common blood malignancy with multiple therapeutic challenges. Cold physical plasma has been considered a promising approach in cancer therapy in recent years. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of cold plasma or plasma-treated solutions (PTS) on hematologic parameters in the whole blood of CLL patients. The mean red blood cell count, white blood cell (WBC) count, platelet and hemoglobin counts, and peripheral blood smear images did not significantly differ between treated and untreated samples in either CLL or healthy individuals. However, both direct plasma and indirect PTS treatment increased lipid peroxidation and RNS deposition in the whole blood of CLL patients and in healthy subjects. In addition, the metabolic activity of WBCs was decreased with 120 s of cold plasma or PTS treatment after 24 h and 48 h. However, cold plasma and PTS treatment did not affect the prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, nor hemolysis in either CLL patients or in healthy individuals. The present study identifies the components of cold plasma to reach the blood without disturbing the basic parameters important in hematology, confirming the idea that the effect of cold plasma may not be limited to solid tumors and possibly extends to hematological disorders. Further cellular and molecular studies are needed to determine which cells in CLL patients are targeted by cold plasma or PTS.

Natacha Dewarrat ◽  
Fabian Bovey ◽  
Julie Kaiser ◽  
Sabine Blum

Nelly Zuroidah ◽  
Arifoel Hajat ◽  
Paulus Budiono Notopuro

The determination of myeloid and lymphoid lineage is essential for the diagnosis and therapy of acute leukemia. Immunophenotyping is the gold standard to determine the lineage of acute leukemia, but it is still constrained and relatively expensive. Mie Map RBC in the ADVIA 2120i is a parameter that can give additional information about myeloid and lymphoid lineage but has never been studied before. It is expected that Mie Map RBC can be used to differentiate the lineage of acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemia if immunophenotyping is not present. This study aimed to analyze the diagnostic value of Mie Map RBC with ADVIA 2120i towards immunophenotyping in determining myeloid and lymphoid lineage in acute leukemia. Child and adult patients diagnosed with acute leukemia (n=30) that had peripheral blood smear and bone marrow aspiration with blasts > 20% were examined using ADVIA 2120i. The Mie Map RBC lineage results were compared to the lineage of immunophenotyping. The sensitivity and specificity of the Mie Map RBC myeloid series are respectively 60.00%, 93.33%. The sensitivity and specificity of the Mie Map RBC lymphoid series are respectively 93.33% and 60.00%. The diagnostic accuracy value of Mie Map RBC is 76.67%. The determination of acute leukemia myeloid series lineage has high specificity. If there is no population outside the matrix of Mie Map RBC, it highly suggests myeloid series. On the other hand, the determination of acute leukemia lymphoid series lineage has a relatively low specificity meaning that the population outside the matrix of Mie Map RBC does not always suggest a lymphoid lineage

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 302-304
Kafil Akhtar ◽  
Fauzia Talat ◽  
Sumbul Warsi ◽  
Shafaque Zabin

Filariasis is a major health problem in many tropical countries including India. Most commonly affected organs are lymphatics of lower limbs, retroperitoneal tissue, spermatic cord, epididymis and breast. Despite high incidence, it is infrequent to find microfilariae in fine needle aspiration cytology smears and body fluids. Microfilaremia is usually detected in blood or skin specimens. Cytological examination with FNAC is an investigation of choice especially in patients with evident swelling with difficult clinical diagnosis. We present a case of spermatic cord microfilariasis in a 32 years male presented with right scrotal swelling with dancing filarial sign on ultrasonograpghy, while the peripheral blood smear was negative for the organism.

Hematology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (1) ◽  
pp. 492-503
James A. Connelly ◽  
Kelly Walkovich

Abstract Determining the cause of a low neutrophil count in a pediatric or adult patient is essential for the hematologist's clinical decision-making. Fundamental to this diagnostic process is establishing the presence or lack of a mature neutrophil storage pool, as absence places the patient at higher risk for infection and the need for supportive care measures. Many diagnostic tests, eg, a peripheral blood smear and bone marrow biopsy, remain important tools, but greater understanding of the diversity of neutropenic disorders has added new emphasis on evaluating for immune disorders and genetic testing. In this article, a structure is provided to assess patients based on the mechanism of neutropenia and to prioritize testing based on patient age and hypothesized pathophysiology. Common medical quandaries including fever management, need for growth factor support, risk of malignant transformation, and curative options in congenital neutropenia are reviewed to guide medical decision-making in neutropenic patients.

2021 ◽  
pp. 72-74
Sarat Das ◽  
Prasanta Kr. Baruah ◽  
Sandeep Khakhlari ◽  
Gautam Boro

Introduction: Leukemias are neoplastic proliferations of haematopoietic stem cells and form a major proportion of haematopoietic neoplasms that are diagnosed worldwide. Typing of leukemia is essential for effective therapy because prognosis and survival rate are different for each type and sub-type Aims: this study was carried out to determine the frequency of acute and chronic leukemias and to evaluate their clinicopathological features. Methods: It was a hospital based cross sectional study of 60 patients carried out in the department of Pathology, JMCH, Assam over a period of one year between February 2018 and January 2019. Diagnosis was based on peripheral blood count, peripheral blood smear and bone marrow examination (as on when available marrow sample) for morphology along with cytochemical study whenever possible. Results: In the present study, commonest leukemia was Acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 50%) followed by Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL 26.6%), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, 16.7%) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, 6.7%). Out of total 60 cases, 36 were male and 24 were female with Male:Female ratio of 1.5:1. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia was the most common type of leukemia in the children and adolescents. Acute Myeloid leukemia was more prevalent in adults. Peripheral blood smear and bone Conclusion: marrow aspiration study still remains the important tool along with cytochemistry, immunophenotyping and cytogenetic study in the diagnosis and management of leukemia.

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