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Published By Colegio De Postgraduados

2594-0252, 2448-7546

Cesar A. Rosales-Nieto ◽  
Venancio Cuevas-Reyes ◽  
Blanca I. Sanchez-Toledano ◽  
Mercedes Borja-Bravo

Objective: To identify the factors that determine the use of artificial insemination by cattle producers in northern Sinaloa. Design/methodology/approach: We used a discrete-choice logit model for 200 cattle producers from northern Sinaloa. Results: Four variables were significant (p£0.05): two of them reduce the probability that the farmer will adopt the artificial insemination technology (age and distance from the ranch to the municipality), while the other two increase the probability of adoption (income from the sale of calves and machinery and equipment index). Limitations/implications: The results only apply to the sample from three municipalities in northern Sinaloa, although they may be useful for other regions with similar characteristics. Findings/conclusions: Farmers with a higher rate of machinery and equipment have a 36.43% probability of adoption.

José Efraín Ramiírez-Benítez ◽  
Yulisa Yanilka Alcantara-Marte ◽  
Gerson Neftalí Arias Lara ◽  
Nelson Darling Velázquez Vizcaíno ◽  
Yanilka Yulisa Alcantara-Marte

Objective: To evaluate the effect of the pH and extraction temperature on the pectin yield from mango (Mangifera indica) peel, cultivar Banilejo, and its physicochemical properties. Design/methodology/approach: Pectin extraction was done by acid hydrolysis, using hydrochloric acid and ethyl alcohol to precipitate and purify. A randomized design with a factorial arrangement was used, evaluating the effect of pH (1.5, 2.0, and 2.5) and temperature (70, 80, and 90 ºC) on the yield and quality of pectin. Quality was determined by measuring pH, viscosity and moisture content, ash, methoxyls, and esterification degree. Their means were compared using Tukey's test at 95 % confidence. Results: The best results were obtained at pH 2.0 and 80 ºC, reporting an 18.159 % yield, 6.766 % moisture, 2.630 % ash, 0.085 Pa.s of viscosity, 26.307 % methoxyl, and 64.753 % esterification. Study limitations/implications: The different treatment combinations demonstrate that pH, ash, methoxyl content, and esterification degree vary as a function of the assessed pH and extraction temperatures; while viscosity, moisture and yield were not influenced by these variables. Findings/conclusions: It is concluded that mango peel is a viable source to obtain quality pectin.

Alfonso Chay-Canul ◽  
Julio Ramon-Ugalde ◽  
Darwin N. Arcos-Álvarez ◽  
Roberto Zamora-Bustillos ◽  
Ricardo A. Garcia-Herrera ◽  

Evaluation of ewe efficiency or productivity is a complex trait because of several factors that are related to produce heavy litters (lamb growth traits) per ewe. The objective of present study was to evaluate maternal intrinsic effects (body weight, body condition score, udder type, litter size, lamb sex) on litter growth traits (litter weight at lambing [LBW] and at weaning adjusted for 70 days [LWW70]) as a criteria of productivity and some indexes of efficiency in Pelibuey ewes. Data of body weight (BW), body condition scores (BCS), and udder types (UT) were taken at lambing, likewise at weaning BW (WBW), on 48 multiparous Pelibuey ewes. Additionally, litter size, sex, birth and weaning weight, were recorded for each offspring; this information was used to calculate LBW, LWW70, average daily gain (ADG), and the following indexes: Ewe efficiency (EEF) expressed as kg of lamb weaned per kg ewe BW at lambing, EEF0.75   expressed as kg of lamb weaned per kg ewe metabolic BW (BW0.75) at lambing, and EEF2 expressed as kg of lamb weaned ± ewe BW gained or lost at waning per kg ewe BW at lambing. For statistical analysis, ewes were classified according to BW (low, medium and high), BCS (low and high) and udder type (I, II, III and IV) at lambing. High BW ewes had greater (P? 0.01) LLW and LWW70 than low BW ewes. Ewe BW at lambing did not affect (P> 0.05) any productivity index. Also, BCS from lambed ewes did not alter (P> 0.05) the productivity parameters. The udder type affected only LWW70 and productivity indexes, being similar among ewes with type-I, II and III udders, but lower in ewes with type-IV udders. Likewise, double litters were heavier at birth and weaning than single litters, affecting EEF and EEF0.75, but not EEF. The Pelibuey ewe’s productivity in humid tropic depends on the maternal BW, udder type at lambing and prolificacy, being a better productivity when ewes have a high BW, double lambing and non-misshapen udders.

Leonel Santos-Barrios ◽  
Juan Felipe Núñez-Espinoza ◽  
Monica Elizama Ruiz-Torres ◽  
Tania Calva-Hernández ◽  
Carlos Galdino Martínez-García ◽  

Objective: To determine socioeconomic relationships in backyard pig farms. Design/methodology/approximation: The farms studied had 1 to 8 sows. We used semi-structured questionnaires and periodic monitoring to collect data. We determined the cost of production with the general cost formula and calculated the countable effect of family labor. Two groups were established: Group 1) Young married couples; and Group 2) Elderly couples who have been married for a long time and who do not have married children. Social Network Analysis was used to determine the strength of those relationships. Results: Five socio-productive relations were discovered: 1) input supplier-producer; 2) piglet breeder-swineherd-butcher; 3) religious festivities-pigs; 4) season of the year-pig; and 5) producer-boar keeper. Income differed when family work was not counted. Limitations/implications: Results showed that it was possible to combine qualitative data and statistical modelling in studies about social and economic behavior of backyard pig farms and small-scale farms.

Sergio Almirez Rojas ◽  
Alejandro Palacios-Talavera ◽  
Jorge M. P. Vázquez-Alvarado ◽  
Jesús O. Pérez-González ◽  
Juan C. Bartolo-Reyes

Objective: To evaluate and define a plant extract for the control of the yellow aphid in order to prevent environmental contamination and improve crop profitability. Design/Methodology/Approach: In a sorghum plot —located in the municipality of Jantetelco, Morelos— with a high incidence of yellow aphids, three doses —2-, 4-, and 6-mL L-1 of water of Quillaja saponaria extract, 0.2-mL L-1 of water of Imidacloprid, and 10-mL L-1 of water of calcium polysulfide—, as well as an absolute control, were evaluated. The applications were carried out using a 15-L manual spray backpack, which had been previously calibrated and had a fan nozzle. A randomized block experimental design—with six treatments and four repetitions— was used. The experimental unit was made up of five 5-m long rows with 0.70 m between rows, resulting in a 17.5 m2 total area per experimental unit. The three central furrows were the useful plot, leaving 0.5 m at each end of the furrow. The total size of the experimental plot was 420 m2. Results: The biological effectiveness during the samplings was as follows: both the Quillaja saponaria (6-, 4- and 2-mL L-1 water doses) and Imidacloprid treatments had a 100% effectiveness. Study limitations/implications: This study was carried out in sorghum crops. Findings/conclusions: Treatments based on Quillaja saponaria extracts on M. sacchari in sorghum crops showed 100% biological effectiveness from the first application and no phytotoxicity was observed in any treatment

R.A. Galicia-Gonzalez ◽  
M.E. Ortega-Cerrilla ◽  
C. Nava-Cuellar ◽  
L. Miranda-Jiménez ◽  
M. Ramírez-Mella ◽  

Objective: To review different nanoparticle sterilization methods for their use in biomedical applications in animals. Approach: Sterilization is used to obtain a microorganism-free product without altering its physicochemical characteristics during its preparation, storage, or administration route. This review explores different sterilization methods and their advantages and disadvantages on the nanoparticle level. Study limitations/implications: Nanoparticles are used in animal production, including their parenteral administration. Therefore, establishing the characteristics of different technologies applied to sterilize nanoparticles is essential to ensure the delivery of sterile products preventing health risks. Conclusions: The use of nanotechnology in livestock production offers several advantages for animal nutrition, reproduction, and health, among other things. When nanoparticles must be sterilized, choosing the most suitable method is essential. This depends on the amount of product and its compound type because each technique has specific requirements that must be taken into account to be ready for potential changes in the structure and availability of the final product.

Marco Polo Carballo Sanchez ◽  
Ronald Ferrera-Cerrato ◽  
Alejandro Alarcón ◽  
Juan José Almaraz-Suárez

Objective: To perform a brief introspective regarding the biotechnological management of microorganisms in the rhizosphere, its implementation in bioprocesses, and its practical application in field. Design/methodology/approach: Bibliographic review regarding the beneficial effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) and Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), which can be applied in bioformulations. Results: There are numerous documented applications of AMF and PGPR —both on laboratory and industrial scale for bioformulation production— aimed to improve crop yield and to provide resistance against abiotic stress and pests. Non-conventional uses are also shown in non-agricultural areas. Study limitations/implications: AMF and PGPR are widely recognized in agriculture due to their inherent ability to compete in harsh conditions within ecosystems, metabolism versatility, and production of secondary metabolites that enable beneficial interactions with plants and other microorganisms. However, industrial production of AMF presents challenges, as a result of their obligate biotrophs condition and a lack of compatibility with traditional bioprocesses. Findings/conclusions: The knowledge generated throughout rhizosphere research should be applied in the industry, in order to extend its use in agriculture.

César J. Martínez-Castro ◽  
Ma. T. Kido-Cruz ◽  
Tania Zúñiga-Marroquín ◽  
Felipe Becerril-Morales ◽  
Flor D. Ureña-Castillo

Objective: To describe the personal features, as well as the management activities related to cattle welfare in Loma Bonita, Oaxaca, Mexico. Design/Methodology/Approach: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, and quantitative study. The sampling was non-probabilistic for convenience. Between December 2019 and March 2020, a questionnaire was applied to 27 farmers. Results: The average age of the ranchers is 44.6 years; 55.6% have more than 20 years of experience; 25.9% herd their cattle using a stick; 48.1% do not disinfect the udders; and 25.1% do not wash their hands during milking. Study Limitations/Implications: The results and conclusions are limited to the sample used in the present study. Therefore, extending them to all livestock farmers in the municipality would require a broader study that considers statistical techniques of probabilistic sampling. Findings/Conclusions: There are management activities outside the parameters established by the appropriate sanitary and welfare practices of cattle. However, the personal features indicate the existence of conditions related to the livestock activity in Mexico, that encourage participants to propose and carry out programs, plans, and strategies aimed at promoting and applying practices on animal welfare, thereby improving the productive, reproductive and profitability parameters.

Arturo Hernández-García ◽  
J. Zavala-Ruiz ◽  
David Jaén-Contreras ◽  
O. Baltazar-Bernal

Objective: To determine the best phorophyte species for the adaptation of the Laelia anceps Lindl orchid. (Orchidaceae) in an anthropized landscape. Design/methodology/approach: A completely randomized experimental design with four treatments (phorophytes) was used: Swietenia macrophylla King., Fraxinus sp., Persea schiedeana Nees. and Tecoma stans. (L.) Juss. ex Kunth), with five repetitions per phorophyte and with three L. anceps orchid plants in each phorophyte. The following variables were measured: day to emergence, root length and thickness, and survival at 28 weeks after tying them in phorophytes. Results: Root emergence of L. anceps occurred in less time in S. macrophylla and in Fraxinus sp. at 52 and 54 days respectively; the longest root length (19.11 cm) and number of roots (32.45) were observed in S. macrophylla. However, the root thickness was greater in Fraxinus sp. (0.28 cm). After 28 weeks of establishing the L. anceps plants; 100% survival was obtained in the phorophytes S. macrophylla and Fraxinus sp., 77% in P. schiedeana and 33% in T. stans. Study limitations/implications: The amount of light received by L. anceps in each phorophyte was not measured. Findings/Conclusions: The best phorophytes for the establishment of L. anceps were S. macrophylla and Fraxinus sp. observed, the best development and strength of the roots and 100% survival at 28 weeks.

E. Salinas-Cruz ◽  
O. Ruíz-Álvarez ◽  
J. Martínez-Sánchez ◽  
R. Reynoso-Santos ◽  
Pedro Cadena- Íñiguez ◽  

Objective: To determine the economically adequate fertilization dose for a castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) crop that improves the producer's benefits using the partial budgeting technique. Design / methodology / approach: The experiment was established at a site located 500 m from the Centro de Chiapas experimental field, with an altitude of 800 m. Two production factors were studied: nitrogen (40, 60, and 80) and phosphorus (20, 40, and 60) with three levels each. The treatments had nine combinations in a randomized complete block experimental design and four replications. Phenological and morphological variables, seed yield, and variable costs economic components were evaluated as a response. Results: With the average yields the obtained net benefits were determined; an adjustment of the benefits was made, and its dominance was determined. Four experiments were dominated, and five showed favorable profits for the producer. The 80-60-00 formulation had a return rate (RR) of 23 %. Conclusions: The 40-20-00, 40-40-00, 40-60-00, 80-40-00 and 80-60-00 formulations were dominant. The 80-60-00 formulation reported the highest RR, an increase in variable cost of US$9.64, like other doses of lower costs and benefits. For this dose, the net benefits increase was us$ 222.61.

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