Endocrine disruptor chlorpyrifos promotes migration, invasion, and stemness phenotype in 3D cultures of breast cancer cells and induces a wide range of pathways involved in cancer progression

2022 ◽  
Vol 204 ◽  
pp. 111989
M. Lasagna ◽  
C. Ventura ◽  
M.S. Hielpos ◽  
M.N. Mardirosian ◽  
G. Martín ◽  
Bone Research ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Francisco Conceição ◽  
Daniela M. Sousa ◽  
Joana Paredes ◽  
Meriem Lamghari

AbstractThe vast majority of patients with advanced breast cancer present skeletal complications that severely compromise their quality of life. Breast cancer cells are characterized by a strong tropism to the bone niche. After engraftment and colonization of bone, breast cancer cells interact with native bone cells to hinder the normal bone remodeling process and establish an osteolytic “metastatic vicious cycle”. The sympathetic nervous system has emerged in recent years as an important modulator of breast cancer progression and metastasis, potentiating and accelerating the onset of the vicious cycle and leading to extensive bone degradation. Furthermore, sympathetic neurotransmitters and their cognate receptors have been shown to promote several hallmarks of breast cancer, such as proliferation, angiogenesis, immune escape, and invasion of the extracellular matrix. In this review, we assembled the current knowledge concerning the complex interactions that take place in the tumor microenvironment, with a special emphasis on sympathetic modulation of breast cancer cells and stromal cells. Notably, the differential action of epinephrine and norepinephrine, through either α- or β-adrenergic receptors, on breast cancer progression prompts careful consideration when designing new therapeutic options. In addition, the contribution of sympathetic innervation to the formation of bone metastatic foci is highlighted. In particular, we address the remarkable ability of adrenergic signaling to condition the native bone remodeling process and modulate the bone vasculature, driving breast cancer cell engraftment in the bone niche. Finally, clinical perspectives and developments on the use of β-adrenergic receptor inhibitors for breast cancer management and treatment are discussed.

2020 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 89
Ha Thi Thu Do ◽  
Jungsook Cho

Chemokine–receptor interactions play multiple roles in cancer progression. It was reported that the overexpression of X-C motif chemokine receptor 1 (XCR1), a specific receptor for chemokine X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (XCL1), stimulates the migration of MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cells. However, the exact mechanisms of this process remain to be elucidated. Our study found that XCL1 treatment markedly enhanced MDA-MB-231 cell migration. Additionally, XCL1 treatment enhanced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of MDA-MB-231 cells via E-cadherin downregulation and upregulation of N-cadherin and vimentin as well as increases in β-catenin nucleus translocation. Furthermore, XCL1 enhanced the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. Notably, the effects of XCL1 on cell migration and intracellular signaling were negated by knockdown of XCR1 using siRNA, confirming XCR1-mediated actions. Treating MDA-MB-231 cells with U0126, a specific mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, blocked XCL1-induced HIF-1α accumulation and cell migration. The effect of XCL1 on cell migration was also evaluated in ER-/HER2+ SK-BR-3 cells. XCL1 also promoted cell migration, EMT induction, HIF-1α accumulation, and ERK phosphorylation in SK-BR-3 cells. While XCL1 did not exhibit any significant impact on the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9 expressions in MDA-MB-231 cells, it increased the expression of these enzymes in SK-BR-3 cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that activation of the ERK/HIF-1α/EMT pathway is involved in the XCL1-induced migration of both MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells. Based on our findings, the XCL1–XCR1 interaction and its associated signaling molecules may serve as specific targets for the prevention of breast cancer cell migration and metastasis.

2020 ◽  
Vol 11 (7) ◽  
Yifan Wang ◽  
Ruocen Liao ◽  
Xingyu Chen ◽  
Xuhua Ying ◽  
Guanping Chen ◽  

Abstract Breast cancer is considered to be the most prevalent cancer in women worldwide, and metastasis is the primary cause of death. Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is a GPCR family member involved in the invasive and metastatic processes of cancer cells. However, the functions and underlying mechanisms of PAR1 in breast cancer remain unclear. In this study, we found that PAR1 is highly expressed in high invasive breast cancer cells, and predicts poor prognosis in ER-negative and high-grade breast cancer patients. Mechanistically, Twist transcriptionally induces PAR1 expression, leading to inhibition of Hippo pathway and activation of YAP/TAZ; Inhibition of PAR1 suppresses YAP/TAZ-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), invasion, migration, cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties, tumor growth and metastasis of breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that PAR1 acts as a direct transcriptionally target of Twist, can promote EMT, tumorigenicity and metastasis by controlling the Hippo pathway; this may lead to a potential therapeutic target for treating invasive breast cancer.

2021 ◽  
Vol 118 (44) ◽  
pp. e2114258118
Takahiro Masaki ◽  
Makoto Habara ◽  
Yuki Sato ◽  
Takahiro Goshima ◽  
Keisuke Maeda ◽  

Estrogen receptor α (ER-α) mediates estrogen-dependent cancer progression and is expressed in most breast cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the cellular abundance and activity of ER-α remain unclear. We here show that the protein phosphatase calcineurin regulates both ER-α stability and activity in human breast cancer cells. Calcineurin depletion or inhibition down-regulated the abundance of ER-α by promoting its polyubiquitination and degradation. Calcineurin inhibition also promoted the binding of ER-α to the E3 ubiquitin ligase E6AP, and calcineurin mediated the dephosphorylation of ER-α at Ser294 in vitro. Moreover, the ER-α (S294A) mutant was more stable and activated the expression of ER-α target genes to a greater extent compared with the wild-type protein, whereas the extents of its interaction with E6AP and polyubiquitination were attenuated. These results suggest that the phosphorylation of ER-α at Ser294 promotes its binding to E6AP and consequent degradation. Calcineurin was also found to be required for the phosphorylation of ER-α at Ser118 by mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 and the consequent activation of ER-α in response to β-estradiol treatment. Our study thus indicates that calcineurin controls both the stability and activity of ER-α by regulating its phosphorylation at Ser294 and Ser118. Finally, the expression of the calcineurin A–α gene (PPP3CA) was associated with poor prognosis in ER-α–positive breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen or other endocrine therapeutic agents. Calcineurin is thus a promising target for the development of therapies for ER-α–positive breast cancer.

Emily Tsutsumi ◽  
Jeremiah Stricklin ◽  
Emily A. Peterson ◽  
Joyce A. Schroeder ◽  
Suwon Kim

The chemokine Cxcl10 has been associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer, but the mechanism is not well understood. Our previous study have shown that CXCL10 was repressed by the ING4 tumor suppressor, suggesting a potential inverse functional relationship. We thus investigated a role for Cxcl10 in the context of ING4 deficiencies in breast cancer. We first analyzed public gene expression datasets and found that patients with CXCL10 -high/ ING4 -low expressing tumors had significantly reduced disease-free survival in breast cancer. In vitro , Cxcl10 induced migration of ING4 -deleted breast cancer cells, but not of ING4 -intact cells. Using inhibitors, we found that Cxcl10-induced migration of ING4 -deleted cells required Cxcr3, Egfr, and the Gβγ subunits downstream of Cxcr3, but not Gαi. Immunofluorescent imaging showed that Cxcl10 induced early transient colocalization between Cxcr3 and Egfr in both ING4 -intact and ING4 -deleted cells, which recurred only in ING4 -deleted cells. A peptide agent that binds to the internal juxtamembrane domain of Egfr inhibited Cxcr3/Egfr colocalization and cell migration. Taken together, these results presented a novel mechanism of Cxcl10 that elicits migration of ING4 -deleted cells, in part by inducing a physical or proximal association between Cxcr3 and Egfr and signaling downstream via Gβγ. These results further indicated that ING4 plays a critical role in the regulation of Cxcl10 signaling that enables breast cancer progression.

2019 ◽  
Eliza E. Bitter ◽  
Michelle H. Townsend ◽  
Kary Y.F. Tsai ◽  
Carolyn I. Allen ◽  
Rachel I. Erickson ◽  

Abstract 1. Background: The salvage pathway enzyme thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is elevated in the serum of several different cancer types and higher expression is associated with more aggressive tumor grade. As a result, it has potential as a biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis. Recent studies indicate that TK1 may be involved in cancer pathogenesis; however, its direct involvement has not been identified. We propose to evaluate the effects of TK1 on cancer progression in vitro through measuring cellular invasion and survival of breast cancer cells.2.Methods: Breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231, HCC 1806, and MCF7 were cultured according to standard techniques. We employed the use of TK1 target siRNA and a CRISPR-Cas9 TK1 knockout plasmid to compare transfected cell lines to wild type cell lines. Protein factors in survival and invasive pathways were also tested for correlations to TK1 in BRCA RNA-seq patient data (n=1095) using the TIMER program. Cellular invasion was quantified in cell index (factor of impedance) over a 24-hour period. Cell survival was measured by apoptosis under metabolic and DNA stress using flow cytometry. All results were statistically assessed using an ANOVA or t-test in GraphPad PRISM®.3.Results: Cellular invasion assays assessing wild type and TK1 knockdown/knockout (TK1-/-) cell types showed TK1-/- cell lines had increased invasion potential (p= 0.0001). Bioinformatically, we saw a strong overall negative correlation between apoptotic factors and TK1 (p ≤ 0.05). When testing TK1 effects on cell survival we saw a protective affect under DNA stress (p ≤ 0.05), but not under metabolic stress (p= 0.0001).4.Conclusion From cell cycle analysis, we observed a shift towards S phase in TK1-/- cells. This shift to S phase would promote growth and account for the increased cellular invasion and decrease in metabolic induced stress in TK1-/- cells. We propose that cancer cells still may elicit a cancer progressive phenotype based on effects of TK1, but that a system which isolates TK1 is not effective to understand the effects. Instead, identifying protein networks inclusive of TK1 will help to elucidate its effects on cancer progression.

Nano LIFE ◽  
2012 ◽  
Vol 02 (03) ◽  
pp. 1241009 ◽  

This article demonstrates that the surface micro-topography regulates the biology of breast cancer cells, including the expression of HER-2 gene and protein. The breast tumor microenvironment is made up of heterogenous mixture of pores, ridges and collagen fibers with well defined topographical features. Although, significant progress has been achieved towards elucidating the biochemical and molecular mechanisms that underlie breast cancer progression, quantitative characterization of the associated mechanical/topographical properties and their role in breast tumor progression remains largely unexplored. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of topography on the adhesion and biology of breast cancer cells in in vitro cultures. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces containing different topographies were coated with polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) to improve cell adhesion and maintain cell culture. HER-2 expressing breast cancer cells, BT-474 and SKBr3, were cultured on these PDMS surfaces. We demonstrate that micro-topography affects the cell adhesion and distribution depending on the topography on the PDMS surfaces. We also report for the first time that surface topography down-regulates the HER-2 gene transcription and protein expression in breast cancer cells when cultured on PDMS surfaces with micro-topographies compared to the tissue culture polystyrene surface (TCPS) control. Results from this study indicate that micro-topography modulates morphology of cells, their distribution and expression of HER-2 gene and protein in breast cancer cells. This study provides a novel platform for studying the role of native topography in the progression of breast cancer and has immense potential for understanding the breast cancer biology.

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