scholarly journals Potential factors in determining cross-border price spillovers in the pork sector: Evidence from net pork-importing countries

Jin Guo ◽  
Tetsuji Tanaka

AbstractAlthough food self-sufficiency is regarded as a potent strategy to secure food supply in the policy circle, the efficacy of policy measures, especially in terms of their quantitative effects, is still not fully understood. We analysed the relationships between international and local prices of pork between January 2001 and December 2018 for 10 net pork-importing countries. The primary outcome obtained in our research is that high self-sufficiency and a small trade volume of pig meat commodities could impair price volatility transmission from the global market. This result does not suggest that a protectionist regime should be established to stabilise the national food supply. It presents useful information to balance the benefit from highly efficient resource allocation and the market steadiness gained from higher self-sufficiency in food, considering the maximisation of the expected utility of economic agents.

2020 ◽  
Vol 26 (8) ◽  
pp. 823-829
E. V. Malysh

A city’s potential for food self-sufficiency is expected to increase through the distribution of innovative, high-tech, green agricultural practices of producing food in an urban environment, which can improve the city’s food security due to increased food accessibility in terms of quantity and quality. Aim. Based on the systematization of theoretical approaches and analysis of institutional aspects, the study aims to propose ways to strengthen the city’s food security by improving food supply in urban areas, increasing the socio-economic and environmental sustainability of urban food systems, and changing the diet of urban residents.Tasks. The authors propose methods for the development of urban agricultural production in a large industrial city based on the principles of green economy and outline the range of strategic urban activities aimed at implementing green agricultural production technologies associated with the formation and development of the culture of modern urban agricultural production.Methods. This study uses general scientific methods of cognition to examine the specificity of objectives of strengthening a city’s food security by improving the quality of food supply to the population. Methods of comparison, systems analysis, systematization of information, and the monographic method are also applied.Results. A strategic project for the development of urban agricultural systems through the implementation and green development of advanced urban agricultural technologies is described. Green development mechanisms will create conditions for the city’s self-sufficiency in terms of organic and safe products, functioning of short supply chains, and green urban agriculture.Conclusions. Managing the growth of urban agriculture will promote the use of highly effective, easily controlled, resource-efficient, eco-friendly, weather- and season-independent, multi-format urban agricultural technologies. The study describes actions aimed at creating conditions for stabilizing a city’s high-quality food self-sufficiency with allowance for the growing differentiation of citizen needs.

2018 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 235-261
K. J. Joseph ◽  
Liyan Zhang ◽  
Kiran Kumar Kakarlapudi

This article tends to suggest that the strategy of embracing globalization has been helpful in raising GDP growth in China and India. The higher growth record also coincided with increasing income inequality, wealth inequality and regional inequality. While China seems to have made some success in making a turnaround in inequality, in India inequalities are on the rise. The present study attributes the observed trend to the nature of structural change and the resultant employment generation in terms of both its quantity and its quality. FDI and trade under globalization also worked towards increasing inequalities. The key issue is why globalization as implemented in India failed to generate employment unlike what happened in China. India seems to have been not adequately successful in globalizing at ‘our terms and at our own pace’, whereas China has been able to successfully manage its transition to the global market, which in turn, at least partly, explains the observed differences in the trend in growth and inequality in these two countries. At the same time, while there have been targeted and effective policy measures in China to address inequalities, in India, such policies are yet to show up their results.

2003 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 145-165 ◽  
Lewis Holloway

AbstractThis paper focuses on the positioning of animals other than human in the texts and practices of two versions of small-scale food "self-sufficiency" in Britain. The paper discusses the writings of Cobbett (1822/1926, 1830/1985) and Seymour (1960s/1970s) on self-sufficiency, suggesting that livestock animals are central, in a number of ways, to the constitution of these modes of self-sufficiency. First, animals are situated in both the texts and in the practicing of self-sufficiency regarded as essential parts of the economies and ecologies of small-scale food production. Second, animals' parts in these authors' criticisms of wider social, economic and political conditions supplement their role in small-scale domestic food supply. Animals become associated with a morality of human behavior and lifestyle and are part of the broader social critiques that the writing and practicing of these modes of self-sufficiency imply. These historically and geographically specific versions of self-sufficiency are valuable in defining and enacting possible alternative modes of human-animal relation in the context of food production.

2012 ◽  
Vol 6 (1-2) ◽  
pp. 27-33 ◽  
Harry Bremmers ◽  
Bernd Van der Meulen ◽  
Zorica Sredojevi ◽  
Jo Wijnands

Recent price movements have put food supply chains under pressure. On the one side, upward price tendencies on commodity markets result in higher costs to processing firms. On the other side, these firms are confronted with a strong retail sector that is able to prevent compensation to protect consumers’ and own economic interests. Regulatory impediments of European law, especially with respect to foodstuffs, can adversely be utilized as barriers to protect the interest downstream the supply chain. The problem is that legal-economic instruments which can serve to smooth price volatility in supply markets can also opportunistically be used at the expense of the middlesection in food supply chains (i.e., mainly small and medium sized producers). The aim of this article is to identify the legal-economic mechanisms that effect price transfers in food supply chains in the European Union and define policy adjustments to improve pricing mechanisms, while safeguarding the interests of the processing industry. Policy alternatives to improve the smooth functioning of notably intermediate markets in food supply chains are the restructuring of competition law, improved processor information management and creating transparency of value added in the supply chain by means of labelling devices.

Antonina BROYAKA

The article examines the essence of foreign economic activity of enterprises, the features and prospects of its implementation in the field of agrarian and industrial complex. Based on the conducted analysis, it is proved that agrarian export of Ukraine plays a significant role in the formation of the budget and GDP of the country, since its share in 2018 was 14.2% of GDP and 33.4% of the total national exports of goods. The dynamics of export-import operations of the agrarian sector is explored and it is found that it demonstrates a positive trend in contrast to the general foreign trade balance of Ukraine. The analysis of the agrarian exports structure in 2010-2019 confirms the growth of the share of the majority of agrarian products types sold abroad. However, Ukrainian exports are mainly oriented towards raw materials, which, among other reasons, is associated with technological backwardness and the limited ability of domestic agricultural producers to purchase modern equipment and technologies due to theirs low solvency. The commodity orientation of Ukrainian exports makes the competitive position of Ukraine in foreign markets vulnerable, since the demand for commodities is unstable and is characterized by significant price volatility. The geographical structure of foreign trade in agrarian products and the possibilities of its further diversification are investigated. The majority of Ukrainian products in Europe are purchased in Poland, Italy and Germany. Significant connoisseurs of Ukrainian products are also Turkey, China, India, Egypt. Ukrainian exports should be expanded to Asian and Eastern countries. The key problems that put the brakes on the development of the foreign economic activity of the enterprises of agrarian and industrial complex and hinder the competitiveness increase of domestic agrarian products in the international market are identified. A number of measures are proposed to promote the further development of the foreign economic activity of the enterprises of agrarian and industrial complex, including the development of appropriate strategies taking into account global market trends, harmonization and compliance with the quality and safety standards of agrarian products, improving the innovative component, strengthening state support (including financial) of the export-oriented agrarian enterprises, improving the investment climate, and more.

Christian Buschbeck ◽  
Larissa Bitterich ◽  
Christian Hauenstein ◽  
Stefan Pauliuk

Regional food supply, organic farming, and changing food consumption are three major strategies to reduce the environmental impacts of the agricultural sector. In the German Federal State of Baden-Württemberg (population: 11 million), multiple policy and economic incentives drive the uptake of these three strategies, but quantitative assessments of their overall impact abatement potential are lacking. Here, the question of how much food can be produced regionally while keeping environmental impacts within political targets is tackled by comparing a scenario of maximum productivity to an optimal solution obtained with a multi-objective optimization (MO) approach. The investigation covers almost the entirety of productive land in the state, two production practices (organic or conventional), four environmental impact categories, and three demand scenarios (base, vegetarian, and vegan). We present an area-based indicator to quantify the self-sufficiency of regional food supply, as well as the database required for its calculation. Environmental impacts are determined using life cycle assessment. Governmental goals for reducing environmental impacts from agriculture are used by the MO to determine and later rate the different Pareto-efficient solutions, resulting in an optimal solution for regional food supply under environmental constraints. In the scenario of maximal output, self-sufficiency of food supply ranged between 61% and 66% (depending on the diet), and most political targets could not be met. On the other hand, the optimal solution showed a higher share of organic production (ca. 40%–80% com¬pared to 0%) and lower self-sufficiency values (between 40% and 50%) but performs substantially better in meeting political targets for environmental impact reduction. At the county level, self-sufficiency varies between 2% for densely populated urban districts and 80% for rural counties. These results help policy-makers benchmark and refine their goalsetting regarding regional self-sufficiency and environmental impact reduction, thus ensuring effective policymaking for sustainable community development.

Vasilii Erokhin

China is one of the world's biggest importers of agricultural products. Until quite recently, China's agricultural policy focused on food self-sufficiency. Globalizing trade in agricultural commodities, however, has brought new challenges to establishing secure supply and achieving security rather than self-sufficiency. In the face of emerging trade tensions with the USA, one of China's responses to the emerging volatility of the global market is to expand production facilities abroad and thus diversify deliveries. This chapter discusses how China's Belt and Road Initiative may serve improving food security of the country by establishing of a predictable system of agricultural production and trade across Eurasia, particularly, with the involvement of land-abundant Russia and the countries of Central Asia. The author explores possible responses to emerging threats to China's domestic food market by elaborating an approach to theoretical definitions and practical issues of ensurance of food security and adaptation of China's policy to contemporary global challenges.

Youwang Zhang ◽  
Chongguang Li ◽  
Yuanyuan Xu ◽  
Jian Li

This study examines the impact of international soybean price and energy price on Chinese soybean price. Applied to monthly data over the period of 2007-2017, results show that both international soybean price and energy price have significant impacts on Chinese soybean price, while the impact from global soybean market tends to be more profound. First, we find that in the long run the cumulative pass-through elasticity of Chinese soybean price to international soybean price is greater than the elasticity to international energy price. Second, in the short run, international soybean price shocks transmit more quickly to Chinese soybean price. Our results shed new light on the determinants of soybean price volatility in China, and provide meaningful implications on the price risk management for market participants and policy makers.

1952 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 105-114 ◽  
Curtis P. Nettels

Mercantilism is defined for this discussion as a policy of government that expressed in the economic sphere the spirit of nationalism that animated the growth of the national state in early modern times. The policy aimed to gain for the nation a high degree of security or self-sufficiency, especially as regards food supply, raw materials needed for essential industries, and the sinews of war. This end was to be achieved in large measure by means of an effective control over the external activities and resources upon which the nation was dependent. In turn, that urge impelled the mercantilists to prefer colonial dependencies to independent foreign countries in seeking sources of supply. If the state could not free itself completely from trade with foreign nations, it sought to control that trade in its own interest as much as possible. To realize such objectives, mercantilism embraced three subordinate and related policies. The Corn Laws fostered the nation's agriculture and aimed to realize the ideal of self-sufficiency as regards food supply. State aids to manufacturing industries, such as the protective tariff, sought to provide essential finished goods, including the sinews of war. The Navigation Acts were intended to assure that foreign trade would be carried on in such a way as to yield the maximum advantage to the state concerned.

K. Bezugla ◽  
N. Kostyuchenko

The paper is devoted to the peculiarities and perspectives of the global petroleum market development. The peculiarities of supply and demand formation at the global market of petroleum products are investigated in the article. The balance of supply and demand at the petroleum market is determined. The paper outlines the peculiarities of pricing for petroleum products. The dynamics of price changes on the global petroleum market in the period of 2010-2020 is studied. The conclusion was made that there is a price volatility on the global petroleum market. An analysis of the dynamics and structure of the world petroleum production by regions revealed that the total output of oil has increased due to the development of new technologies and due to the increased efficiency of petroleum production. The performed forecasting made it possible to conclude that petroleum price is expected to increase in the coming two periods. That will allow to establish a balance between supply and demand at the petroleum products’ market. Accordingly, the equalization of supply and demand for petroleum products is forecasted (even despite the crisis in the world). The econometric method of economic analysis was applied in the paper. The authors constructed an additive model for time series data to predict the dynamics of prices on the global market of petroleum products. The model was designed based on 16 observations in the period of October 2016 – July 2020.

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